Give rhythm (jazz)
See also: Rate
In the Western music, a gives rhythm - Italian cadenza , which means falls - is a succession of agreements giving a form and a framework to the piece which takes part in the effect produced by this one.
the structure of rate determines a certain number of effects related to the reports/ratios which the agreements between them maintain - some Note S and certain agreements tend to be attracted by others, or at least, bring to others, for reasons of Consonance S and of Dissonance S. In addition, the result of a rate can also be given by the origins Culture lles, i.e., by the standard of music to which the ear of the listeners is accustomed. The harmonic relationship between the notes - dissonances and consonances - and the origins cultural are one cannot more dependant.
to include/understand rates, it is useful to have at the head one or more modal tables.
Rates and structures
There exist several “types” of rates according to their characteristics.
V - I: it is a rate known as “perfect”, because its consonance is known as perfect , or open - the harmonic relationship between the tonic Fondamentale, or , and the Quinte, is an “ideal” consonance, that is due to the order of the Harmonique S during the emission of a sound.
- I - V: Half-cadence;
- V - VI: broken Rate;
- VI - II - V - I: famous “the Anatole”;
- II - V - I: very famous “both, five, one”;
- I - IV - V: give rhythm used in the Blues or the Rock mainly.
This list of rates is not exhaustive, it exists about it much of different which bear names, or not (example: Anatole , the Christophe …).
It exite of rates which are not diatonic, i.e. which comprises foreign agreements with the Tonalité.
It happens that certain grids comprise foreign agreements with the Tonalité. There are at least two reasons with that:
is there is during the piece a change of tonality - modulation;
is one keeps the same tonality, but one introduces agreements of another tonality - “borrowed” agreements.
Example: F7 cannot belong to the tonality of major Eb, because its II-m7 is Fm7 and the agreement of 7 in a major range is present only on the V of the range. (cf modal Table).
It is possible to locate the changes of tonality, as well as the loans.
Rates and substitutions
Diatonic substitutionThere it is a question of replacing an agreement by another, while preserving the function of the substituted agreement, within the framework of a harmonic continuation and a tonality. The goal is in particular to play on the " couleurs" of a harmonic continuation without changing neither its total tonal structure nor its reports/ratios of tensions/relaxations. The principles of substitutions (diatonic or not) are closely dependant with those of enrichments. Substitutions and enrichments are two systems which allow to describe and use the same thing but the point of view changes, what can bring to open different tree structures. I thus propose to describe these two systems in parallel, within the framework diatonic.
It is first of all advisable to specify that a range, which goes from the tonic until the higher or lower octave, comprises eight degrees (or notes) and is spread out over 6 tons (constant sound intervals), in the following way (here for a range of Major C):
degrees: Do D Semi F Ground If C let us tons (variations): 1 1 1/2 1 1 1 1/2
Note: one will speak about this major range as being structured in " 1 | 1 | 1/2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1/2" , feature common to all the ranges built with the same differences between their degrees.
Let us come now to tritonic substitution; as its name indicates it, it consists in substituting an agreement, typically that of fifth, with an agreement of which it tonic is shifted of 3 tons. It should be noted that, the ranges being built on a total of 6 let us tons, there thus exists only one tritonic substitution per agreement considered (i.e one can count the 3 tons while going up or while descending the range).
in the range of Major C, one will substitute in the majority of the cases the agreement of fifth, i.e. Ground 7, often noted G7, and whose arpeggio is Ground-If-D-F (or G-B-D-F). its tritonic substitution is Db7 (or D flat 7), arpeggio Réb-F-Lab-If (or dB-F-AB-B).
This agreement of Db7 is not in the range of C, and one could thus think that it is necessary to change range to use this agreement in a piece, more especially as the two modulating notes are it tonic and the fifth, traditional pillars of an agreement.
But it of it is nothing in Jazz, since this music regards the third and the seventh as being the most important notes of an agreement, because the jazz is focused on the harmony. A tritonic substitution thus causes to replace an agreement by another which has the same thirds and seventh, but reversed:
here If is the third of G7 and the seventh of Db7, conversely for Fa.
It is this interest for the harmony which makes it possible to substitute G7 with Db7, because Réb and Lab bring " couleur" with the piece; when one improvises, one will take care to integrate the modulating notes Réb and/or Lab into the chorus, so as to underline the passage on this agreement.
In addition, tritonic substitutions are very much used in the structures (or rates) in II-V-I, which returns in II-IIb-I; that produced an effect of progressive descent of II towards I, there or the traditional II-V-I passes by V to start again the harmonic tension which is solved with I.
- Rate (music)
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