In 1905, the parents of Malraux separate, creating a shock in its life. It thus passes its childhood with his mother, her grandmother and an aunt épicière with Bondy of which it will not have good memories ( Antimémoires , 1967). At 14 years, it enters to the university of the street Turbigo (the future Turgot college), period during which it attends the secondhand booksellers already assiduously, the cinemas, of theater, exposures, concerts, etc Ainsi begins its passion for the contemporary literature.
In 1918, it is not allowed with the Lycée Condorcet and gives up its secondary studies, it will never obtain its baccalaureat what will not move away it from the literature, quite to the contrary. He attends the artistic mediums of the capital and publishes his first works in 1920; literary test of theory, critical reports and the first proses. Works of this time belong to the eccentric kind (it is Malraux which ressuscite the term), poetic proses influenced by the German expressionnism and the poetry of Apollinaire or max Jacob. The character of Clappique, in the Human condition , is directly resulting from this first manner malrucian. It is also the time when he plays Ubu Father and reads Alfred Jarry. He will remember it after 1948, while adhering to the Collège of Pataphysique.
In 1921 it Marie with Clara Goldschmidt; it then directs a collection to the editions of Sagittarius. After many voyages through Europe, it leaves with Clara to Indo-China there to fly of the statues and to resell them. This adventure will inspire to him the Royal roads . It is stopped, then, after a diplomatic arrangement, it can go back to Paris. Impressed by the colonial life, it sets out again for Indo-China and founds a newspaper of ideas anticolonialists there: connected Indo-China .
The December 23rd 1923, Malraux is stopped with Phnom Penh like his/her friend, Louis Chevasson. Bad stock exchange placements wasted the fortune of his wife Clara and André made the decision to cut out a low-relief of the temple of Banteay Srei with Angkor to sell it with a collector. He is condemned, in July 1924, with three years of prison firm and his friend Louis at one year and half. Clara is discharged. It sets out again for Paris and mobilizes in favor of her husband the intellectuals of the time like Marcel Arland, Louis Aragon, André Breton, François Mauriac, André Gide and max Jacob. In call, the sorrow of Malraux is reduced to one year with deferment and it returns in France in November 1924.
In 1930, it publishes the Royal roads , a Roman of adventures largely inspired by these events.
As of 1933, it militates against the Fascisme and the Nazisme, then joined the Spanish republicans starting from 1936. It assembles of all parts the flotilla España with a score of Potez and takes of it the command like coronel (Colonel), until in 1937. After being itself inspired of its combat to write the novel the Hope , published in December 1937, it makes the film Espoir, sierra of Teruel in 1938, then begins in 1939, with the declaration of war.
Escaped from a prison camp, with the assistance of his half-brother Roland, it adopts a wait and see attitude before entering tardily in resistance, in March 1944, after the arrest to the Dordogne of his two brothers. He then says to be the chief of the military region FFI of the area which extends from the the Limousin to the Lot-et-Garonne, a part played indisputably at that time by another. He organizes many meetings with some local leaders, but those never recognize it like their chief. The colonel Berger , like it is made call, appeared thus extremely alone when it is stopped by the Germans with Gramat, with an English officer of the SOE (Special Operations Executive). It is transferred from prison in prison until Toulouse for interrogations at the end which it is the object of a show of execution. It is found free when the Germans leave the city. It orders then the brigade “Alsace-Lorraine” during the release of the French soil.
As of 1945, it sticks to the person of the Général de Gaulle, in the government of which it is Ministre for propaganda and Minister for Information, follows it in the adventure of RPF, where it deals with propaganda between 1947 and 1954, and will be under the Ve République Minister for the Culture of 1959 with 1969.
Minister, it interferes political prestige and social work. Without being a Gaulliste of left declared, he disavows his past of left by no means: its speech against François Mitterrand in December 1965 proves it marvelously (“ you were not even in Spain ”). Joining again with the spirit of the Popular front, it makes Culture a business managed by the State. Raymond Aron pays however in its Mémoires that Malraux had changed in a way amazing in 1944 on the question of the Communisme to which it dedicates from now on a hostility, almost a hatred. If he is not the initiator of the Youth club and arts centres (resulting from " the Republic of Jeunes" , created with the Release), it is well, on the other hand, the creator of the " Houses of Culture" , large machines managed by the ministry for the same name.
All this cultural movement is carried out for the benefit of the Art S (alive arts, Musée S, Cinéma, Musique…) who have the most effects on the masses, other aspects of the cultural activity like the Littérature developing the mass culture parallel to. But the culture of Malraux as regards art and its fraternity with regard to several Artiste S of foreground (Matisse, Directs, Picasso, Giacometti) more particularly distinguish still work from the minister: orders of the ceiling of the Odéon to Andre Masson, of the ceiling of the Opera of Paris to Marc Chagall, sending of the Mona Lisa of Vinci in the United States, restoration of the Castle of Versailles, or rough-casting campaign of the large monuments of Paris… Malraux does not have of cease to make radiate the French Culture in the world. One owes him in particular the system " in advance on recettes" , set up by a decree of June 1959, which nowadays remains an important engine of cinematographic creation in France.
This official administration of art, this will to produce the cultural one by putting the budgetary means at it, was judged, by the historian Marc Fumaroli, like the great nihilist burial of the French Culture. According to him, if one compares the extraordinary abundance of talents at the time of the IIIe République with the era malrucian and current, one realizes that the Après-guerre is for France an artistic desert, that one endeavors to dissimulate with blow of cultural events . IIIe République however did not have a cultural policy. However, the thesis of Marc Fumaroli is strongly disputed by certain historians of the cultural policy (Philippe Poirrier and Philippe Urfalino), who rather underline the modesty of the cultural policy of the Malraux period, while pointing its singularities: initiating role of the State, will to democratize the devoted culture, widening of the Welfare state to the cultural questions. The Ministry for the cultural Affairs, created to preserve Malraux at the government, will be perennialized after its departure in 1969.
By fidelity with the de Gaulle general, it leaves the capacity then at the same time as him. No moment, it will have missed with this fidelity, even during the events of May 68, qualified by him of simple " repetition générale" , but also of " true crisis of civilization". Thus has it T one seen at the head demonstration of those which claimed the restoration of the order to the Triumphal arch on May 30th. This order, Malraux did not cease identifying it with the person and the work of the de Gaulle general. It will be one of the rare people besides that this last will agree to receive until its death in 1970.
Joining again with engagements of its youth, it will take party for the independence of the Bangladesh as of 1971, and will thus testify, in October 1973, in favor of Jean Kay with his lawsuit brought for the diversion of Flight 711.
Married with the widow of its half-brother Roland Malraux in 1948, it separates some in 1966. André Malraux also lived near Louise de Vilmorin until the death of this one, and then near the niece of this one, Sophie de Vilmorin, who dealt with the writer until her death the November 23rd 1976, of a congestion of the lungs to the hospital Henri-Mondor (Creteil).
During a life marked by personal tests (it lost during the War his second wife, Josette Clotis, under dramatic conditions, then the two wire that she had given him; it was the target of an attack of the OAS on February 7th 1962, in its residence of Boulogne-Billancourt, which disfigured the small Delphine Renard, 4 years), it will have met the great personalities of the political world (Mao Zedong, John F. Kennedy and Jawaharlal Nehru for example) and will have continued a constant dialog with the large artists: Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, Georges Directs, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Fernand Leger, Jean Cocteau, André Gide, max Jacob, Pierre Reverdy.
Man of freedoms, Malraux never believed himself bound by a dogma and, through its changes, there remained faithful to its need for going beyond, with this hard heroism which excludes any recourse to the Utopias consolatrices. Agnostic, it put in art, and in particular in the idea of a imaginary museum which would tear off the works of art to their traditional functions to reconsider them in their relations and their metamorphoses, the only size with the range of the man and his only chances of eternity. This is why fraternity and humanism are in the middle of its life and its work:
“Humanism, it is not to say: “What I did, no animal would have done it”, it is to say: “We refused what wanted in us the animal, and we want to find the man everywhere where we found what crushes it. ” ( Voices of silence , 1951).
Detail of the governmental functions
- Minister for the Information of the Government Charles de Gaulle (2) (of November 21st 1945 at January 26th 1946)
- Minister without portfolio of the Government Charles de Gaulle (3) (of 1st at June 3rd, 1958)
- Deputy secretary with the Presidency of the council of the Government Charles de Gaulle (3) (from June 3rd, 1958 to January 8th 1959)
- Minister in charge for the Radio, the Television and the Press of the Government Charles de Gaulle (3) (from June 12th to July 7th 1958)
- Minister of state for the Government Michel Debré (of January 8th at July 22nd, 1959)
- Minister of state, in charge of the cultural Affairs of the Gouvernement Michel Debré (from July 22nd, 1959 to April 14th 1962)
- Minister of state, in charge of the cultural Affairs of the Gouvernement Georges Pompidou (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (of April 14th 1962 at July 12th 1968)
- Minister of state, in charge of the cultural Affairs of the Gouvernement Maurice Broods of Murville (of July 12th 1968 at June 20th 1969)
- Transfer of ashes of Jean Moulin to the Pantheon (December 19th 1964), included in Funeral orations .
- Inauguration of the Monument of Resistance (September 2nd, 1973), included in Funeral orations .
the Moons out of paper , 1921
- Writes for an idol with horn , eccentric texts given in reviews between 1921 and 1927 and included in the Complete Œuvres , vol. 1, Paris, Gallimard, Bibliothèque of the Pleiad
- the Temptation of the Occident , 1926
- the Conquerors , 1928
- Kingdom-Eccentric , 1928
- the Royal roads , 1930, Interallied Prix.
- the Human condition , 1933, Price Goncourt.
- the Time of the contempt , 1935
- the Hope , 1937
- Hope, sierra of Teruel , 1938 (put in scene of film)
- the Fight with the angel , then retitré Walnut trees of Altenburg , 1943 Swiss - 1948 France
- the Demon of the Absolute , 1946
- Draft of a psychology of the cinema , 1946
- Psychology of Art: The imaginary Museum - Artistic creation - the Currency of the absolute , 1947 - 1948 - 1950
- Saturn, the destiny, Art and Goya , Various titles > 1947 - 1950 - 1978
- Voices of silence , 1951
- the Imaginary Museum of the world sculpture: The Statuary - Low-reliefs with the crowned caves - Le Monde Christian , 1952 - 1954
- the Metamorphosis of the gods , 1957, will become the first volume ( Supernatural the ) of the trilogy which takes again this title (see low).
- "Between here… " , 1964, during the transfer of ashes of Jean Moulin to the Pantheon (included in Funeral orations ).
- Antimémoires , 1967 (First part of the Miroir of the Limbs )
- the Oaks which one cuts down… , 1971 (included in the Cord and the mice )
- Funeral orations , 1971 (8 speeches included in the Cord and the mice , 1976)
- the obsidian Head , 1974 (included in the Cord and the mice )
- Lazare , 1974 (included in the Cord and mice )
- Hosts of passage , 1975 (included in the Cord and the mice )
- the Cord and the mice , 1976 (second part of the Mirror of the Limbs )
- the Mirror of the Limbs , 1976 (I. Antimémoires + II. the Cord and the mice + Funeral orations )
- Supernatural the , (appeared in 1957) under the title the Metamorphosis of the Gods
- Unreal the , the Metamorphosis of the Gods . II, 1975
- Timeless the , the Metamorphosis of the Gods . III, 1976
- the precarious Man and the literature , Gallimard, 1977 (posthumous)
- Notebook of the Popular front (1935-1936) , Gallimard, 2006 (posthumous)
- Notebook of the USSR (1934) , Gallimard, 2007 (posthumous)
The complete Œuvres of Andre Malraux are available in 5 volumes (6 volumes envisaged), in the collection of the Library of the Pleiad (Gallimard, Paris): the first two volumes are devoted to works of fiction; volume III with the Mirror of the limbs ; volumes IV and V gather the Écrits on art ; volume VI literary tests and other texts with political character (to be appeared). This unit comprises a critical apparatus, indices, many news, like, for volumes IV and V, the illustrations of the original editions. In the same collection a Album Malraux (iconography selected and with accompanying notes by Jean Lescure, 517 illustrations) was published in 1986.
General bibliography of works of Andre Malraux
- Jacques Chanussot - Claude Travi, Said and Writings of Andre Malraux. Bibliography with accompanying notes . University editions of Dijon, 2003
- “I think that the task of the next century, opposite the most terrible threat than knew humanity, will be to reinstate the gods in it. ”
- very beautiful and celebrates quotation of Malraux, about the Second world war, of the Nazism and of the death camps, is the following one: " The perfect camp had been the death camp of the children. For lack of development, one killed them with their parents. There is something of enigmatic and of terrifying in the will to dehumanize the human one, as in the octopuses, as the monsters. The ideal of the torturers was that the victims are hung by horror of themselves. … for the first time, the man gave lessons to the enfer" ( Funeral orations ). Square of the cathedral of Chartres, May 10th, 1975. (Included in the Mirror of the limbs ).
- “There are right wars. There is no army right. ” ( the Hope )
- “Any adventurer was born from a mythomaniac. ” ( the Royal roads )
- “It takes sixty years to make a man, and after it is good to only die. ” ( the Human condition )
- “With the control, the child substitutes the miracle. ” ( Voices of silence )
- “the insane one copies the artist, and the artist resembles the insane one. ” ( the Hope )
- “the tragedy of death is in this which it transforms the life into destiny. ” ( the Hope )
- “One does not make a policy with morals, but one does not make any more without. ” ( the Hope ) (Hernandez with Garcia).
- “the worst suffering is in the loneliness which accompanies it. ” ( the Human condition )
- “the capacity must be defined by the possibility of misusing it. ” ( the Royal roads )
- “a life is not worth anything, but nothing is worth a life. ” ( the Conquerors )
- “the slave says always yes. ” ( Discours of Andre Malraux of September 2nd, 1973 at the time of the inauguration of the Monument of Resistance )
- “Those which do not know their past are intended to revive it” (reference?)
- “the culture is not inherited, it is conquered” (Homage to Greece, speech of May 28th, 1959 in Athens)
Quotations of Andre Malraux registered on the statue with the effigy of Felix Swept with Cayenne:
- Foreign, will say to Lacémone that those which died here fell under its law. Passer by, will say to the Children of our Country: Of what was the desperate face of France, the eyes of the man who rests here, never reflected but the features of courage and freedom.
The quotation that one lends to himThe quotation “the 21e century will be spiritual or will not be. ” (or one of its alternatives with the " terms; religieux" or " mystique") is allotted to André Malraux, although he never wrote it nor officially pronounced.
This quotation is similar to a famous sentence of the cardinal Pie “France will be Christian or it will not be”.
For this reason you can refer to the article “21e century” of the book of Odon Vallet, professor in Paris VII, ( Petit lexicon of the false ideas on the religions ).
One does not find a trace in his work of such a prophetic vision. End of the sentence (" … or will not be pas") hardly resemble to him moreover.
During a Pierre interview Desgraupes ( the Point , November 10th, 1975), Malraux itself never stated to have pronounced it:
“You know. One made me say: " The 21e century will be religieux". I never said that, of course, because I do not know anything of it. What I say is more dubious: I do not exclude not the possibility of a spiritual event to the planetary scales. ”
Two very interesting quotations rather precisely inform the spirit of Malraux on this subject, the first in an exchange with its translator and friendly Japanese Tadao Takemoto, the second in notes for the edition of the Miroir of the Limbs in the Pleiad:
“As for the next century, which I had said, it is that it was extremely possible that, in this field which one calls psi, still mixed for the moment with the serious things and others not. If the next century were to know a spiritual revolution, which I regard as perfectly possible (probable or not does not have interest, they are predictions of witch, but possible), I believe that this spirituality would come under the field of what we have a presentiment of today without knowing it, as the XVIII° century had a presentiment of the electricity thanks to the Paratonnerre. Then what could give a new spiritual fact (say if you want: monk, but do I like best the spiritual word), really considerable? It would occur obviously what occurred with science. ” (extracted from “In connection with the reincarnation” in Andre Malraux, Books of Herne, p 396-399).
“One made me say: The XXI° century will be monk or will not be. Prophecy is ridiculous; on the other hand I think that if the humanity of the next century nowhere does not find a type exemplary of the man, that will be badly… And the demonstrations [[May 68]] and other ectoplasms will not be enough to bring it. ” Cf Contemporary literatures, n°1, devoted to André Malraux, Klincksieck, 1996.
Brian Thompson of the University of Massachusetts Boston (the USA) leant by twice on this famous sentence (which he affirms to have heard of his own ears at the time of one of his interviews with Malraux) in communications, initially in Brest in June 2001, then at the university Harvard in December of this same year centenary of the birth of Malraux.
The first text left in France: ““The 21e century will be monk or will not be”: the direction of this pronounced sentence, contradicted, discussed”. In Order and disorder : Fundamental design in the vision and the writing of Andre Malraux. Texts joined together and presented by Yves Moraud in French language. (Crozon: The Buissonnières Editions, 2005), 228-237. It is accessible on the Toile, on the site of the international Friendships André Malraux: http://www.andremalraux.com/malraux/articles/21emesiecle.pdf.
The second, in English, bringing some new data, was published in the United States: " “The 21st Century will Be religious gold will not Be”: Malraux' S Controversial Dictum" , Metamorphoses: Andre Malraux and the 21st Century, Harvard Colloquium, in the Review Andre Malraux Review, volume 30, numbers 1/2 (2001), 110
- Officer of the Legion of Honor
- Companion of the Release - decree of November 17th, 1945
- Military decoration
- Military Cross 1939-1945
- Medal of Resistance with rivet washer
- Distinguished Service Order (GB)
- Medal of Czechoslovakian Resistance
- Large Cross about the Royal Crown (Belgium)
- Commander of the Spanish Republic
- Large Cross of the National order of the Republic of Chad
- Large Officer of the Large National order of Ivory Coast
- Cross about the Sun (Peru)
- Large Cross about the Crown of Oak (Luxembourg)
- Large Officer of the Large National order of Madagascar
- Cross about Cedar (Lebanon)
- Large Cross about the Lion (Finland)
- Large Officer about the Cross of the South (Brazil)
- Large Cross about the White elephant (Thailand)
- Large Officer of the National order of Niger
- Large Officer about the Large Merit of Central Africa
- Cross about the Republic (Egypt)
- Large Cross of the Royal Order of Sahametrei (Kampuchea)
- Large Officer about the Merit of the Republic (Italy)
- Large Officer about Equatorial Star (Gabon)
- Large Cross of the Order Nichan I Homayoun (Iran)
- Large Cross of the National order Honor and Deserves Republic of Haiti
- Grand Officer about the Merit (Congo)
- Grand Cross of Order Al Kawrah Al Urdini (Jordan)
- Grand Officer about the Merit (Senegal)
- Grand Cross about El Quetzal (Guatemala)
- Grand Officer about the Merit (Mauritania)
- Grand Cross about Dannebrog (Denmark)
- Grand Cross about the Merit of the Republic (Austria)
- Grand Officer of the National order of the Republic (the Upper Volta)
- Grand Cross about Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco)
- Grand Cross about Saint Olaf (Norway)
- Grand Cross about Georges 1st (Greece)
- Large Cross about Polar Star (Sweden)
- Large Cross about Saint-Jacob of the Sword (Portugal)
- Large Cross of the National order of the Aztec Eagle (Mexico)
- Large Cord about the Rising sun (Japan)
- Large Cross about Libertador (Venezuela)
- Large Cross about the Merit of May (Argentina)
- Large Cross about the Federal Merit (FRG)
- Large Officer of the National order of the Merit (Togo)
- Large Officer of the National order of the Republic of Dahomey
- Marc Fumaroli, the cultural State , Paris, De Fallois, 1991.
- Remi Kauffer, Andre Malraux: the novel of a flambor . Hatchet, 2001.
- Jean Lacouture, M alraux, a life in the century . Threshold, 1973
- Jean-Louis Loubet del Bayle, the political illusion at the XXe century, Of the pilot writers of their time , Economica, 1999.
- Denis Marion, Andre Malraux , Seghers, 1970 *
- Guy Penaud, Andre Malraux and Resistance , Fanlac, 1986
- Gaetan Picon, Malraux by itself , Threshold, 1958
- Philippe Poirrier, the State and culture in France at the XXe century , Paris, the Book of Pocket, 2006.
- Philippe Poirrier, Art and capacity of 1848 to our days, Cndp, 2006.
- Olivier Todd, Andre Malraux, a life . Gallimard, 2001
- Philippe Urfalino, the invention of the cultural policy , Paris, Hatchet, 2004.
- Rauch Marie-Angel, " the conqueror of the street of Valois" , in Review of the two Worlds, special issue: thousand and one faces of Malraux, Paris November 1996.
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