The German grammar is the study of the morphology and the syntax of the German Langue.
OrthographyThe German orthography has the following characteristics:
- common nouns as the proper names start with a capital letter, whereas only the proper names have this French characteristic.
the subordinate clauses are obligatorily preceded by a comma. One writes for example: " Ich habe meinem Sohn zehn Euro gegeben' , weil er sehr brav gewesen ist" (" I gave 10 euro to my son because it was very sage") with a comma before the relative clause which commemce by the Subordinating conjunction " weil" (" because ").
Parts of speech
By part of speech one understands the whole of the classes of word which compose a language.
The nameto see the variation of the name
The pronounto see the variation of the pronouns
The verbto see Conjugation of German
The adjectiveto see the variation of the adjective
The adverbIn German the majority of the adjectives can be used like adverbs, they are then invariable.
The articleto see the variation of the article
The definite article
The indefinite article
Subordinating conjunctionsdass Dass and ob: completive subordinate clause
• dass (that):
Arnold sagt, dass er zu viel Arbeit hat. Arnold says that it has too much work.
Dass perhaps implied after the verbs of opinion to the affirmative form: sagen, denken, meinen, glauben, erzählen, hoffen, etc
Arnold sagt, er hat zu viel Arbeit.
• Ob (if):
Er möchte wissen, ob Astrid in die Disco music geht. He would like to know if Astrid goes to the discotheque. Ob introduces an indirect question.
Weil and da: subordinated of cause
• weil (because):
Er kauft keinen Walkman, weil er kein Geld hat. It does not buy a walkman because it does not have money. • da (since, like): Da sy Ferien hat, kann sy lange schlafen. Since/As it is on vacation, it can make the sleep in. • Wenn (if): subordinated condition
wenn + indicative = realizable condition
Wenn of the willst, kann ich dich begleiten. If you want, I can accompany you.
wenn + subjunctive II = unrealizable condition
Wenn ich Zeit hätte, könnte ich dich begleiten. If I had time, I could accompany you.
• Wenn (when, when): fact present, future or repeated in the past
Wenn er in die Stadt geht, isst er in DER Pizzeria. When it goes downtown, it eats with the pizzeria.
• So… dass (so that, so that): subordinated consequence Er STI so krank, dass er nicht aufstehen kann. It is so sick, that it cannot rise.
• Obwohl, obgleich, obschon (although, though): subordinated concession
Mutti geht ins Büro, obwohl sy krank STI. Mom will work although she is sick. Obwohl is followed code. Obgleich and obschon have the same direction.
Damit (so that): subordinated of goal
Sprich lauter, damit tender offer dich hört. Speak more extremely so that grandfather hears you.
Damit is always followed code.
Als (when, when): single fact in the past
Als to wir in Frankfurt ankamen, regnete be. When we arrived at Frankfurt, it rained.
Bevor, ehe (before):
Bevor er weggeht, schliesst er die Tür. Before leaving, it closes the door.
Bevor is always followed of a subject + conjugated verb.
Nachdem sy gefrühstückt hat, geht if weg. After having taken its lunch, it from goes away.
the verb of subordinate must mark anteriority compared to the verb of principal. principal subordinate clause
Während Katrin arbeiter, sieht ihr Vater fern. While Katrin works, his/her father looks at television.
Seit, seitdem (since):
Seitdem er in Deutschland wohnt, spricht er sehr gut Deutsch. Since he lives in Germany, he speaks German very well.
Bleib yesterday, (a) to wir zurück sind. Remain here until we are of return.
Sobald (as soon as):
Ich rufe dich year, sobald ich ankomme. I call you as soon as I arrive.
Solange (as long as, as a long time as):
Sy arbeitet nicht, Solange ihr Sohn krank STI. She does not work as much as his/her son is sick.
Syntax of the independent clause and principal
According to the German grammar , the words can be generally placed in any place in the sentence, often according to insistence that one puts at it, however some rules are to be respected:
the conjugated verb must be placed in second position : " Peter und Martina gehen ins Kino." Pierre and Martine goes to the cinema.
- the subject must always be stuck to the verb but one can say:
- is " Peter und Martina gehen ins Kino." One insists on the identity of those which go to the cinema.
- is " Ins Kino gehen Peter und Martina. " One insists then on the place where they go.
- Any verb which is not conjugated (thus with infinitive or the last participle) places in last position: " Peter und Martina wollen ins Kino gehen . " Pierre and Martine want to go to the cinema. " Peter und Martina sind ins Kino gegangen . " Pierre and Martine went to the cinema. One will still say, this time with the verb müssen, " Olivers Vater geht nach Berlin, the Seine Familie muss umziehen."
Syntax of the subordinate clause
The conjugated verb is in last position: " Ich glaube, dass ich krank bin . " I believe that I am sick.
When the verb is conjugated at a compound tense, the auxiliary complies with the rules above, but the last participle is placed in the last but one when the last place is already taken by a verb respecting one of the rules above.
" Ich glaube, dass Peter und Martina ins Kino gehen wollen" : I believe that Pierre and Martine want to go to the cinema.
" Ich glaube, dass Peter und Martina ins Kino gegangen sind" : I believe that Pierre and Martine went to the cinema.
An exception to this rule, in the event of double infinitive one writes: " Ich glaube, dass er nicht hat kommen können" : I believe that it could not come. This form is however rather rare.
Syntax of the interrogative proposal
the verb is generally in first position: " Hast of the deine Hausaufgaben gemacht? " did you make your duties?
- But if the question is introduced by an interrogative pronoun (which, that, where…), the verb combined guard its second place: " Wer STI DER beste Spieler? " Which is the best player?
See also: German Variations
The words being able to be placed at any place in the sentence, it is not the position in the proposal which makes it possible to distinguish the functions occupied by each word in the sentence. To determine this function, the German language uses a system of the Déclinaison S. One says that the German language (like the Greek and Latin) is a inflected Language Thus, it is not the place of the words which defines the direction of the sentence, but well the terminations that certain words carry.
A case is the name given to the function which a word in a sentence occupies. Thus, contrary to Latin who includes/understands 7 of them, German includes/understands 4 cases generally presented in the following order:
- the Personal , case of the subject and/or its attribute
- the Accusative , case of the COD (Direct object), of the adverbial phrase of time, and after certain prepositions
- the Dative , case of the COI (Complement of indirect object), after certain prepositions and certain verbs
- the Genitive , case of the CDN (Complement of the name), after certain prepositions and some rare verbs
Morphology of the article
The variation of the definite article
The variation of the indefinite article
Morphology of the pronoun
Morphology of the verb
- project Babel
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