German Eastern Africa
The German Eastern Africa was the name of a German colony which extended on the current territories from the Burundi, of the Rwanda and the continental part of the Tanzania. Created in the Years 1880, it was conquered by the British armies and Belgian during the First World War and split up at the conclusion of this one to give rise to the Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian colonial Empire) and to the Tanganyika (British Empire).
The history of the colony begins with Karl Peters, founder of the Société of German colonization. The March 3rd 1885, the German government announced that it had delivered an imperial authorization with Peters in the intention to establish a Protectorat in East Africa. In front of the protests of the Sultan of Zanzibar, which was considered also sovereign on the continent, Bismarck sent five warships which attacked the palate of the sultan the August 7th. Germany and the Great Britain then divided the territory of current continental Tanzania.
Germany took quickly possession of Bagamoyo, Dar Es Salaam and Kilwa. The Révolte Abushiri, which burst in 1888, was controlled with the assistance of Great Britain the following year. In 1890, London and Berlin signed the treaty of Heligoland-Zanzibar, which gave Heligoland to Germany and defined the limits of German Eastern Africa - the exact borders were traced only in 1910.
The Hehe, taken along by their Mkwawa chief, resisted the German expansion until in 1894 but were overcome after several tribes joined in Germany. After having tried to maintain the guerilla, Mkwawa committed suicide in 1898.
The German occupying forces were very few and were pressed on some officers to maintain the order, to collect the taxes and to manage the commercial cultures such as the Coton, the Café and the Sésame. It resulted from it a system strongly centralized and authoritative. Contrary to other colonial powers such as Great Britain, the France or the Portugal, Germany was inexperienced in Africa, which was made feel on its manner of managing its colonies.
The Rébellion of Maji-Maji which burst in 1905 was quickly controlled by the governor of then, the Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen. However, the methods of the colonial administration were highly criticized, which pushed the Chancelier Bülow to order a reform of the colonial administration in 1907. The traditional organization of the local companies was more taken into account; one was also inspired by the French and Portuguese methods. But compared to these two last power, the German colonies remained largely centralized.
First World War
The history of German Eastern Africa during the First World War is primarily related to a personality, that of the General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck. With the head of a tiny force of 3000 Europeans and 11 ' 000 Askari S, he endeavoured to hold head with the 300 ' 000 men of the British army. He reached that point initially, gaining the Bataille of Tanga against troops eight times more than them his. Adopting a tactic of guerilla, it caused by his fatal raids the loss of 60 ' 000 British. However, profiting from a numerical advantage even more Net since the arrival in reinforcement of troops stationed with the Belgian Congo, Great Britain forced Lettow-Vorbeck to be withdrawn towards the Mozambique, then in Rhodesia of North. It accepted a cease-fire, three days after the armistice, by learning the German defeat.
The Traité of Versailles divided the colony between the Belgium, which accepted the Rwanda-Urundi, Portugal, which obtained the triangle Kionga in the south of the Rovuma, is the territory of current the Mozambique, and Great Britain, which inherited the remainder, is the territory of current Tanzania except for the archipelago of Zanzibar and which she baptized Tanganyika.
- Assa Okoth, has off History Africa, vol. 1 (1800 - 1914), pp. 213-223 and 328-329.
- South-western African
|Random links:||Laponia (provincia histÃ³rica) | Myomimus | UFR of Right in France | Microsoft Windows Mobile | School of the night | Rocket (artillery) | Havelock,_Ontario|