Georges Enesco (in), born the August 19th 1881 in Liveni (Romania) and dead the May 4th 1955 with Paris, is most famous Rumanian Compositeur . He was also Violoniste virtuoso, Leader, Pianiste and pedagog.
The father of Georges Enesco, farmer Moldavian owner of his grounds with Dorohoi, directs sometimes Chorale S; he is accompanied occasionally with the guitar by his wife. Very quickly the small Georges, eighth child but only survivor among his brothers and sisters, expresses extraordinary gifts for the Musique. He learns how to play of the Violon, that one offers to him for his four years, near a virtuoso gypsy. His/her father presents it to the type-setter Edouard Caudella, who makes it enter to the academy Iaşi, then sends it to Vienna (1888 - 1894) to study with professors of reputation, Joseph Hellmesberger (violin) and Robert Fuchs (composition). He forms part of the musical life quickly; its concerts fill with enthusiasm the press and the public, the Child prodigy does not have whereas 12 years.
Decorated with the money medal of the Conservatory of Vienna, it is with Paris that the Enesco young person in 1895 is established to continue its musical studies with the Conservatoire, the courses of violin of Martin-Pierre Marsick, the counterpoint with André Gedalge, the composition with Jules Massenet and Gabriel Fauré. It binds to it in particular friendship with Alfred Cortot, Pablo Casals, Jacques Thibaud, Maurice Ravel, Jean Roger-Ducasse, Florent Schmitt and Paul Dukas.
Student, Georges has already many compositions with his credit, as well for piano as of chamber music, of the melodies, four symphonies of school, and his symphonic continuation Rumanian Poème (1898) created by Edouard Colonne with the Théâtre of Châtelet. Soon, the Rumanian Rhapsodies follow (1901 - 1902), its first Suite for orchestra (1903) and its First Symphony (1905), as well as a cycle of Seven songs of Clement Marot (1907-8) created in the presence of Debussy.
He attends the Parisian living rooms, in particular those of the Princesse Bibesco, and travels through the Europe until in Russia (1909). In New York, Gustav Mahler makes known its First Continuation . In his native Romania, where it is accommodated in residence of summer to the palate Peleş by the queen Carmen Sylva, the young musician directs in 1913 of the compositions of Richard Wagner, the opening to the Maîtres Singers and the Voyage of Siegfried on the Rhine .
The First World War sees it to settle in Romania, where it will give the Ninth symphony of Beethoven which had never yet been played in its entirety with Bucharest. Beside multiple concerts of benevolence for the the Red Cross, and of his efforts to forge the philharmonic orchestra of Iaşi, Georges Enesco will create his compositions, his Second continuation for orchestra (1915) and his Second symphony (1918). He composes at this same time a Trio with piano and seven '' Pièces impromptues '' for piano, of which the final one ( night Carillon ) shown a powerful originality.
At the end of the conflict, it shares its life between the France, where it acquires a villa with Meudon and which will do it corresponding member of the Académie of the Art schools then knight of the Légion of honor, and the Romania where it met the princess Marie Cantacuzène whom it will end up marrying, and soon the Nouveau World. It continues to compose - famous the '' Sonate for violin and piano " in the popular character roumain" '' (1926), its main work the opera Oedipus (1923 - 1930), the '' Sonates '' for piano (1924 - 1934), the '' Village Suite '' (1938) ordered by the philharmonic society of New York (which it is regularly invited to direct) - and gives very many recitals and concerts: in France, where it is accompanied by Gabriel Fauré or Richard Strauss; with the the United States, where he plays with Leopold Stokowski, in Poland, Romania where he binds with Béla Bartók, etc He is equipped with an extraordinary musical memory and ensures French or Rumanian creations of compositions, inter alia, of Gabriel Fauré, Guy Ropartz and Maurice Ravel.
Its activity of pedagog takes also an increasing importance. Yehudi Menuhin owes without any doubt the humanistic blooming of its genius of violonist with his determining meeting with Georges Enesco. Christian Ferras, Ivry Gitlis, Arthur Grumiaux also counted among its pupils. And while the Quartet Amadeus forever hidden its debt in its connection, its godson the pianist Dinu Lipatti regarded it as his/her spiritual father. In Paris, its “masterclasses” leads it to the instrumental Institute of Yvonne Astruc, the international Academy of Fontainebleau and the Teacher training school of music.
The Second world war sees the return of Enesco in its native land, with Bucharest, or in the villa brood in the middle of the Carpates which it had been made build in the middle of the Années 1920, with Sinaïa. It is immersed in the musical life of the Rumanian capital, burning defender of the modern music of the country: beside the traditional ones and the romantic ones, he interprets compositions of Constantin Silvestri, Mihail Jora, Marţian Negrea, Sabin Drăgoi, etc He then composes an incandescent triptych of chamber music: the '' Impressions of childhood '' for violin and piano (1940), a Quintet for piano and cords (1940) and its second Quartet with piano (1944).
Returned peace, Enesco occurs with Moscow with David Oïstrakh, Emil Guilels, in Bucharest with Yehudi Menuhin or with the piano at the side of Ernst Wallfisch. The introduction of the Communist regime leads it to be exiled definitively. Taken refuge with Paris and although in hillock with difficulties as well financial as of health, there remains always very active without being separated neither of humor, neither of eloquence, nor of humility. It appears with the violin in company of Alfred Cortot for the bicentenary of died of Bach as to the rod with Monique Haas. While he teaches a little everywhere in Europe (His, Brighton, Bryanstone…) and directs inter alia the orchestra of BBC, it completes the symphonic poem Vox Maris , his second '' Quatuor '' with cords (1951) with the purified atmosphere and, with the assistance its compatriot Marcel Mihalovici, in 1954, its testamentary '' Symphonie of room '' for twelve instruments soloists. Enesco dies out in the middle of Paris, taken care in particular by the queen of Belgium, in the night from May 3rd to 4th 1955.
The musical language of Enesco is inspired above all by the sometimes nostalgic reinvented Folklore (“doïnas”), sometimes dancing, of its native land, but the French and Germanic traditions level there too. Free, with the full lyric gesture, of one at the same time discrete and demanding modernity, it constitutes a musical hyphen between the Orient and the Occident of Europe.
Although the type-setter left officially only thirty-three numbers of opus, there exist several hundreds of entries to its complete catalog including its drafts. Enesco touched with all the kinds: Piano only, Chamber music (a field of predilection), Symphonies, melodies (in particular in its youth) and opera with its Oedipus entire marked by deep a Humanism and greeted like a masterpiece as of its creation in 1936 with the palate Garnier.
It is thus necessary to add to the catalog below multiple compositions without opus, completed or not (as well as transcriptions and arrangements); the manuscripts are preserved, for the majority, with the National museum Georges Enesco.
Enesco composed of the parts " of concours" for the Conservatoire of Paris which emphasizes each instrumentalist (in particular viola, Flûte, Harpe, Trompette). Among his posthumous works, one raises a Rumanian Caprice for violin and orchestra supplemented by Cornel Ţăranu, and especially, in addition to the symphonic poem Isis (1923), his ultimate '' Fourth Symphony '' (1934) and '' Fifth Symphony '' (1941) on worms of the Rumanian poet Mihai Eminescu with the completed orchestration of hand of Master (starting from complete original drafts) by the type-setter Pascal Bentoiu.
An increasingly abundant discography makes it possible from now on to reach, except for certain posthumous works, with the essence of the musical work, which is available to the Enoch editions and Salabert (Paris) like with the Music publishings (Bucharest).
- Continuation n° 1 “in the old style” in minor ground COp 3
- Variations for 2 pianos on an original topic in major A flat COp 5
- Continuation n°2, COp 10 in major D
- “Parts impromptues” COp 18
- Sonata in minor F sharp COp 24 n°1
- Sonate in major D COp 24 n° 3
- Sonata for piano and violin n° 1 in major D COp 2
- Sonata for violin and piano n° 2 in minor F COp 6
- Sonata for piano and violoncello n° 1 in minor F COp 26 n° 1
- Octuor for cords with 4 violins, 2 violas and 2 violoncellos COp 7
- Dixtuor with winds in major D, for 2 flutes, oboe, cor anglais, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and 2 horns in major D COp 14
- Quatuor for cords and piano n° 1 in major D COp 16
- String quartet in major E flat COp 22 n° 1
- Sonate " in the popular character roumain" , for violin and piano n° 3, in minor COp 25
- Sonata for violoncello and piano n° 2 in major C COp 26 n° 2
- " Impressions of enfance" , for violin and piano in major D COp 28
- Quintet for cords and piano in minor COp 29
- Quartet for cords and piano n° 2 in minor D COp 30
- String quartet in G major COp 22 n° 2
- Symphonie of room for twelve instruments soloists COp 33
- Rumanian Poem , symphonic continuation with chorus in major C COp 1
- Symphonia concertante for violoncello and orchestra in so minor COp 8
- Continuation of orchestra n° 1 in major C COp 9
- Rumanian Rhapsody in the major COp 11 n° 1
- Rumanian Rhapsody in major D COp 11 n° 2
- Interlude for string instruments, in major D COp 12 n°1
- Interlude for string instruments, in G major COp 12 n°2
- Symphony n° 1 in major E flat COp 13
- Symphony n° 2 in major COp 17
- Continuation of orchestra n° 2 in major C COp 20
- Symphony n° 3 in major C COp 21
- village Continuation for orchestra n°3 in major D COp 27
- Opening in concert on topics in the Rumanian popular character , in the major COp 32
- Three melodies on poems of Jules Lemaître and Sully Prudhomme for voice and piano opus 4
- Seven songs of Clement Marot for voice and piano opus 15
- Three melodies on poems of Fernand Gregh for voice and piano opus 19
- Oedipus, lyric tragedy in four acts and six tables, on a booklet of Edmond Fleg, opus 23
- Vox husbands, symphonic poem for tenor, chorus with three votes and orchestra in G major opus 31
Alain Cophignon, Georges Enesco , Bookstore Arthème Beech (“Library of the large type-setters”), Paris, 2006 of [[the Academy of the Art schools of the Institute of France|Academy of the Art schools], 2006; Price of the Muses, 2007]
- Mihai Cosma, George Enescu: the destiny off has genius , Editura muzicală, Bucharest, a 2005 compact disc
- Bernard Gavoty, the Memories of Georges Enesco , Editions Flammarion, 1955: Nagard, Milan, 1981; Kryos (“Rumanian Field”), [[Paris], 2006]
- No5el Malcolm, George Enescu. His life and music, préf. Y. Menuhin, Toccata Close, London, 1990
- Anne Penesco, Georges Enesco and the Rumanian heart , préf. Y. Menuhin, University Presses of Lyon (“Books of the Research center musicologic”), Lyon, 1999
- Cornel Ţăranu, Georges Enesco in the conscience of the present, Editura ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică, Bucharest, 1981
- Andrei Tudor, Enesco , Editions in foreign languages, Bucharest, 1957
- Voicana, Mircea, Mircea Voicana, Clemansa Firca, Alfred Hoffman, Elena Zottoviceanu, in collaboration with Myriam Marbe, Stefan Niculescu and Adrian Ratiu, George Enescu: Monografie . 2 volumes, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialist România, Bucharest, 1971
National museum Georges Enesco of Bucharest
- International festival Georges Enesco
- French musical Company Georges Enesco
- International George Enescu Society
- House mémoriale " Georges Enesco" in Liveni
- House mémoriale " Georges Enesco" in Dorohoi
- House mémoriale " Georges Enesco" in Sinaïa
- House mémoriale " Georges Enesco" in Tescani
- Villa of Georges Enesco in Meudon-Bellevue
- Catalog discographic of Georges Enesco
- Catalog of the editions Salabert
- Catalog of the editions Enoch
- Catalog of the Music publishings
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