George W. Bush
See also: George Bush
Member of the Republican party, elected twice governor of the State of the Texas (between 1994 and 1998 then between 1998 and 2000), date on which it gives up his post of governor following his victory with the presidential election. He is elected president for a second mandate the November 2nd 2004. Its presidencies are marked by the terrorist attacks of the September 11th, 2001 and by the Guerre in Iraq.
George W. Bush: its family, her studies, her careerElder from a family of six children, George W. Bush is born the first year from the Baby-boom in New Haven, in the State of Connecticut.
It has two sisters, including one deceased at the three years age following an operation to treat its Leucémie having turned out badly and three brothers, of which John Ellis Bush (“Jeb”) which is born seven years after him.
To adolescence, George W. Bush is sent to the boarding school for boys of the Philips Academy with Andover, with the Massachusetts, is regarded at the time as the “harder private school of America” by the Time Magazine . It is then allowed with Yale, whose his/her grandfather was administrator, to continue higher learning. It will obtain a Bachelor off Arts in History (license of history). It is at the time member of a brotherhood become secret coed celebrates thereafter: the Skull and Bones , like his/her father George H.W. Bush (1948), her grandfather Prescott Bush (1917) and John Kerry, her future rival with the presidential election of 2004.
This engagement in the national guard enables him to avoid taking part in the Guerre of Vietnam. During its incorporation, it benefits from its vacation to take part in electoral campaigns near his father or from friends. When its military service finishes, after being however refused with the Faculty of Law of the Université of Texas, the Bush young person is allowed with prestigious the Harvard Business School. He obtains there his MBA in 1975.
It then begins its career in the industry of the Pétrole with the creation of Arbusto Energy ( arbusto means bush in Spanish), company of search for oil and gas. This company must face the crisis in 1979 and, after to have re-elected it Bush Exploration , George W. Bush resells it in 1984 with Spectrum 7 , one of her competitors texans of which it takes the head. The following crisis (1985 - 1987) causes the same scenario which places George W. Bush at the head of Harken Energy . Some show then his/her father (president of the United States) to have made pressure so that certain disconcerting elements at the time of this sale are not at the origin of an in-depth survey. Others answer that the arrival of Bill Clinton did not change anything with the business, proving the independence of the investigations. Of 1983 with 1992, it belongs to the directory of the production company cinematographic Silver Screen Partners, held by Roland W. Betts, a friend and former fellow-member of university.
After having worked on the victorious countryside of his/her father, in 1988, it gathers friendly close relations and buys the Texas Rangers, a team of Base-ball, in 1989. One shows it thereafter to have profited from political pressures within the framework of this purchase.
It domiciled with Crawford, where it has a ranch in which it spends its holidays.
Its personalityGeorge W. Bush confessed in front of cameras one long period of vice, which it left towards forty. It had sunk in the Alcoolisme. Its family and the friends of her father did everything to give him an acceptable social appearance by assisting it narrowly and financially in its economic enterprises. He affirms that it is the faith and his wife which helped it. His/her father did not believe in the possibility of his first election.
George W. Bush is a born again Christian , i.e. a Christian which “was born again”, according to the word of Jesus to Nicodème (Gospel of Jean 3.3): “In truth, truth, I you say it, if a man is not born again, it cannot see the kingdom of God”.
He affirms to request several times per day and often refers more or less openly to passages of the Bible in his speeches. He thus gained his electoral campaigns by gaining the support on the one hand evangelic Christian . He in the same way conquered a big part of the electorate Catholique in 2004 while gaining more than 50% of his votes against a candidate however resulting from this community.
He printed this faith in the middle of governmental work. The meetings of the government to the White House would start with a prayer and the reading of a passage of the Bible.
This fundamental aspect of the personality of George W. Bush lets foresee a mystical dimension which impregnates the American government action. Christians make the point that the Arme S and the Foi are not compatible for a “born-again Christian”.
Events such as those of the September 11th and the catastrophe of La Nouvelle-Orléans appear from this mystical point of view like facts being able to be analyzed on the religious level. The expression “to fight the axis of the evil”, watchword of international policy against terrorism after the events of the September 11th, underlines it.
The governor of Texas (1994-2000)Bush resells the team of the Texas Rangers in 1994, at the time of her election at the post of Governor of the Texas. To reach this station, it beats the very popular democrat and outgoing governor, Ann Richards.
Its policy is very noticed in Europe for the marked use of the Capital punishment: he signs the order of execution of the legal sentence for 152 prisoners found guilty of crimes and condemned to death. Moreover he pardoned only one condemned at the time of his mandate and refuses to grant deferments to others in spite of, in certain cases, their requests to be able to resort to tests DNA to prove their possible innocence.
He operates skilfully with the democratic, majority elected officials with the local Congress, so that a share of them will join with him at the time of its presidential campaign of 2000, whereas he was already posed like unfavourable candidate.
The election of 2000
The presidential election of 2000 met face to face George W. Bush with Al Gore, vice-president of the United States and candidate of the democratic party.
After being itself imposed with difficulty at the time of the primary educations against John McCain, the senator of the Arizona, George W. Bush centers his countryside on the interior matters of the country, in particular substantially to lower the level of engagement external of the United States, in accordance with the isolationist tradition of the Republican party.
During this program, Bush surrounds himself by experts policy like Karl Rove (a family friend and strategist confirmed in electoral campaign), Karen Hughes, an adviser of Texas or Dick Cheney, former secretary with the defense, which it chooses like candidate with the vice-presidency.
At the evening of the elections, Gore precedes Bush of almost 550 000 votes at the national level but the two candidates are with the neck and neck on the level of the States and the Great Electors which elect the President. The results are so tight in certain States, like the New Mexico and the Florida, which it is sometimes necessary to set up a second calculation. Defects and ambiguities in certain forms of vote cause arguments in polling stations, in particular in Florida where the variation is only of one voice hundred, and where several thousands of bulletins are declared invalid.
In New Mexico, after being declared victorious with ten thousand votes in advance, a new recount sees the advance Al Gore to melt with three hundred votes. In Florida, certain polling stations are officially closed for irregularities. The calculation of the voices is long because a methodical recount is ordered in particular in three litigious counties but at the end of this one George Bush is still gaining with 1 500 votes approximately in advance.
The lawyers of Al Gore however obtain supreme court of Florida (whose six judges out of seven are democratic) a new manual recount in three counties, those of Miami-Dade, Palm Beach and Broward. By doing this, the court of Florida exceeds its jurisdictions and rewrites the electoral code what will be immediately disputed in front of the Supreme court of the United States by lawyers of George W. Bush, more especially as the three litigious counties are mainly dominated by the democrats and are ready to bring to Al Gore a reserve of sufficient voice to make it elect. After a first warning at the Supreme court of Florida on the going beyond of its prerogatives and its encroachment on the legislative field, the Supreme court of the United States (of which seven judges out of nine were named by republican presidents) ends up cancelling the ultimate manual recount of the voices in Florida, considered to be illegal by five votes against four whereas only the county of Miami-Dade did not finish proceeding to the manual recount and that Al Gore is always preceded of more than one hundred of voice and thus George W. Bush is finally designated president of the United States of America by the supreme court, of accuracy thanks to the voices of Florida which enable him to obtain voices of 271 Great Electors against 266 in Al Gore. The final official result is thus of 50 459 211 votes for Bush (47,9 %), 51 003 894 for Gore (48,4 %), Ralph Nader (ecologist) obtains 2  from it; 834 410 (2,7 %) and Patrick Buchanan (Reform Party) 446 743 (0,4 %). It there still have voices for 12 other candidates (in all 0,6 %).
At any Al Gore time did not succeed in preceding George Bush at the time of the recounts of Florida. In March 2001, a consortium of several American newspapers make carry out with their expenses a recount of the bulletins in the three key counties but also in all Florida. According to the various hypotheses adopted, their conclusions were that if the Court had not stopped the manual recount, George Bush would nevertheless have gained the election or would have lost it of three votes on only one assumption vis-a-vis Al Gore.
It is not the first time in the history of the country which a president is invested with less voice than his adversary with the national plan. With the 19th century, Rutherford B. Beams and Benjamin Harrison were as elected with less voice as their adversary. John F. Kennedy gained against Richard Nixon in 1960 with 120 000 votes in advance.
The re-election of 2004
At the time of the presidential election of 2004, George W. Bush is opposed to the Democratic senator John Kerry. First of all the drag in the surveys, it benefits from the lack of dynamism of its adversary to take an important lead, with an argumentation based on the political lack of constancy of the senator. This last however surprises the public at the time of the first televised debate, frontally attacking the president on the “colossal error” of the war in Iraq: the countryside is started again. At the time of the two following debates, the candidates clash without one of both taking really the advantage.
The poll arises once more as being very tight and it is George W. Bush who is re-elected at the time of the vote of the November 2nd 2004 with a historical score of more than 62 million voters compared with 59 million with John Kerry which admits her defeat as of the shortly after the poll. The republican camp also gains a historical victory in the elections for the renewal of the Senate and the Room of the representatives.
Cleavage between the “red States” republican and the “blue States” democratic is as distinct as in 2000 between Bush and Gore.
The intellectual cities of the North-East and north like Boston, New York and Chicago, the cities of the west coast like San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle, which represents the States having the strongest concentrations of population, are anchored in the democratic camp. In fact, 32 cities of more than 500 000 inhabitants whom the United States counts almost voted all democratic whereas the majority of them are however in republican States (Atlanta, Miami, Las Vegas, La Nouvelle-Orléans, etc).
It is in term of counties that the advantage rocks clearly and largely towards the republicans. The three quarters of the American counties voted for Bush and only those of the States of the New England and Hawaii voted mainly for John Kerry. Thus, 54 of the 67 counties of Pennsylvania voted for George W. Bush but the State was gained of accuracy by Kerry thanks to its scores in the two big cities of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. The democrats could also have lost the States of the Illinois, of the Michigan, Washington and the Wisconsin if they had not profited from their enormous majority with Chicago, Detroit, Seattle or Milwaukee. Contrary, the voters of San Diego in California choose George W. Bush in a State “pro-Kerry”.
This geopolitical opposition is explained in particular by the sociological profile of the inhabitants of the majority of the big cities which correspond thus to that of the traditional democratic voter (preponderance of the single people, the women, and the ethnic minorities) whereas the sociology of the suburbs (the borough of Staten Island in New York or the county of Orange close to Los Angeles for example) and of the rural cities (Charleston in South Carolina) corresponds to that of the republican voter (white men, married couples with children).
The final result of the election is the following: George W. Bush obtains 62 041 268 votes (50,7 %) against 59 028 548 in John Kerry (48,3 %), 463 635 in Ralph Nader (0,4 %) and 397 157 in Michal Badnarik (libertarien, 0,3 %). The other candidates collect 365  together; 170 votes (0,3 %). The Great Electors are distributed as follows: 286 for George W. Bush, 251 for John Kerry and 1 for John Edwards, the fellow candidate of John Kerry.
Because of the strongest voter turnout, George W. Bush and John Kerry have one and the other bench of the records with regard to the number of voices collected. George Bush passed from 50,4 to 62 million (profit of 11,6 million), John Kerry compared to Al Gore gained 8 million voice (from 51 to 59 million). Ralph Nader crumbled, passing from 2,9 to 0,46 million.
Composition of the cabinet
See also: Administration Bush
First (2001-2005) and second mandate (2005-2009)
George W. Bush is related to the fringes more preserving of the Republican party.
In June 2005, the American televiewers placed George W. Bush in sixth position in their list of largest American, behind the presidents Ronald Reagan or Abraham Lincoln but in front of her predecessor Bill Clinton.
It however counts convinced opponents as Norman Mailer for which “Bush is the worst president than I saw”.
JusticeGeorge W. Bush is in favor of the Capital punishment like 66% of her compatriots and 80% of Texans. He considers this sorrow dissuasive.
The July 19th 2005, George W. Bush carries out her first nomination of judge to the Supreme court of the United States in order to replace the judge Sandra Day O'Connor. Its choice is made on John Roberts, a judge of the federal Court of Appeal of Washington and moderated republican, old of hardly 50 years.
The October 3rd 2005, it is in the second time Harriet Miers, its chief of the legal departments of the White House, which it indicates to replace Sandra Day O'Connor with the Supreme court of the United States but the October 27th, it must announce the withdrawal of this nomination following very many criticisms of the wing on the right of the Republican party.
Ecology and environment
One of its first decisions in this field is the withdrawal of the United States of the Protocole of Kyoto. Bill Clinton had failed to make ratify this protocol by the Senate and its final withdrawal by Bush takes part in her unpopularity in Europe. The July 30th 2005, the United States sign a less constraining agreement said group the Asia-Pacific with China, Australia, India, Japan and South Korea on the climate to which Canada joined on September 24th, 2007 in what became in 2006 the Partenariat the Asia-Pacific on the clean development and the climate ( Asia-Pacific Partnership one Clean Development and Climate ). based on voluntary targets and long-term reduction objectives.
In 2002 and 2003, George W. Bush makes vote laws allowing the exploitation of the underground natural resources of the forests of the natural parks. At the time of the fires related to the planetary dryness of the summer 2003, it proposes the need to deforest more for safety reasons. In November 2005, the Room of the representatives gives up voting the project of oil exploitation in a territory protected from the Alaska and makes withdraw budget of the projects of oil exploitation in sectors protected by a moratorium.
It modifies the Clean air act , text on the control of air pollution, in order to make it less strict.
In June 2006, it is after having viewed film of Jean-Michel Cousteau ( Voyage to Kure ) that president Bush makes classify the islands of the North-West of Hawaii like national monument. These islands will then constitute the greatest marine zone protected from the world safe from commercial fishing. Of a surface of more than 350 000 km ², this new monument national is stretched on nearly 2300 km, includes/understands ten uninhabited islands as well as a hundred Atoll S and also shelters many species in danger. By doing this, it has enjoint the Congress to pass from the laws on the control of the fisheries and the development of the Aquaculture qualifying surpêche of " vermin with our country and vermin with the monde".
The government Bush, first like second mandate, the most is opened with the ethnic minorities that forever be until there an US government:
Colin Powell is the first Afro-américain (New Yorkean of origin jamaïcaine) to occupy the post of Secretary of State.
- Condoleezza Rice is the first woman Afro-American to occupy this station in 2005, after having been the first woman Afro-American adviser with the national security.
- Elaine Chao is the first Asian woman (born with Taiwan) member of the US government.
- Mel Martinez is in 2001 the first Hispanic one (born with Cuba) to enter to the US government and Alberto Gonzales, in 2005 the first Hispanic one (texan of Mexican origin ) at the station as high as that of Attorney General .
- In addition to these personalities, it is necessary to recall the presence to the government of Norman Mineta, Asian (California N of origin Japan ease and democrat (already posts some under Clinton), like Rod Paige, Afro-American and secretary with Education.
- In 2003, Bush personally makes pressure on the Trent Lott, the republican leader with the senate so that he resigns following nostalgic declarations of the racial segregation at the time of a homage to the former candidate with the presidential election of 1948, the senator centenary ex-democrat Strom Thurmond.
ImmigrationIn 2006, he comes to a conclusion all at the same time for the regularization of the clandestine present about the American territory (11 million people according to certain estimates) and the sending of 6.000 national guards to counter illegal immigration at the Mexican border. It is a question for him of rejoining with its reform project the right wing of its party (very divided) by hardening repression. In its speech televised of the May 15th 2006, it specifies that it is not a question “to amnesty” the clandestine ones but to found a temporary work program for the foreigners, insistent on the control of English to be able to claim with the citizenship. This attempt at massive regularization to fail in July 2007 in front of the refusal to bring back the question of immigration to the day order to the Congress following the dissensions of the two great parties which wanted to amend this project according to their divergent points of view
See also: Economy of the United States
The first presidential mandate of George W. Bush starts with a difficult economic situation, because of the bursting of the Bulle Internet; the United States is under the threat of a Economic recession. It then makes countryside for a great fall of taxes, to start again the Consommation and “to return to the American taxpayers” the budgetary surplus; he manages to obtain a majority vote with the Senate for a fall of taxes of 1,35 billion dollars. The rate of mposition on the income weakest master key from 15 to 10 pourcents, the highest rate from 39,6 to 35%.
The beginning of recession of the beginning of its mandate makes place with a spectacular rectification with the end of the year 2003. The Growth rate is high between the end of 2003 and 2007, but, in real terms, there remains lower than the growth rate of the Clinton mandates.
In October 2005, George W. Bush chooses Ben Bernanke, president of the Economic council of the White House, to succeed starting from February 1st, 2006 Alan Greenspan with the head of the Federal fund of the United States.
The federal budget, in surplus of 236 billion dollars in 2000, was degraded progessivement with a low point in 2004 (deficit of 413 billion dollars), then improved during the second mandate under the effect of a strong increase of the receipts of the taxes on the companies. The budget deficit is established to 248 billion dollars in 2006, that is to say less than 2% of GDP.
For the Financial year 2007, the estimated budget deficit is of 163 billion dollars is 1,2% of GDP. The improvement is explained by a big rise of the receipts, which increased by 6,7% to 2 568 billion dollars in 2007. In same time, the expenditure increased only by 2,8% with 2 731 billion dollars, is the weakest rate/rhythm of progression in ten years.
The Crise of the subprimes which began during the summer 2007 and the weakness from the American dollar vis-a-vis the foreign currencies make weigh the risk of an economic crisis at the end of 2007.
Impact of the hurricanes Katrina and RitaIn September 2005, the Hurricane Katrina devastation south of the Louisiana, the the Mississippi and the Alabama. The federal administration is committal for trial not to have reacted sufficiently early and not to have organized the evacuation of the inhabitants, even if this task were initially of the responsibility for the government of Louisiana and the municipality of La Nouvelle-Orléans just like that to plan the needs, to organize the evacuations and the helps. In a video of Videoconference between experts of the FEMA and George W. Bush, the specialists alert the president of the expected problems (major damage, ruptures of the dams…), this last does not try to know some of advantage and answers that all is ready to face the danger.
Thereafter, drops some in the surveys, George W. Bush recognizes in a speech the errors made at the federal level and takes the responsability for it. “Four years after the horrible experiment of the September 11th, the Americans have all the rights to await a more effective answer in the event of urgency. When the federal government does not manage to face this obligation, I am as a president responsible for the problem, and of the solution”, T he declares.
In the middle of New-Orleans deserted from her inhabitants, George W. Bush then announces a greater federal engagement, which will deal with the “large majority” of the cost of the rebuilding, “of the roads to the bridges, while passing by the schools and the system of water”, as well as an increased role of the armed forces. He also announces a vast plan of rebuilding in order to stop the poverty (resulting from “racial discrimination, which cut generations of the opportunity offered by America”) and based on creation in the area of a zone with reduced taxation, of a help of 5 000 dollars with the refugees seeking to find work and the free distribution (by drawing lot) of the most stripped grounds to, so that they can build their house there.
Consequently occasion, George W. Bush orders with the Département of the Internal security of launching a re-examination of the emergency plans in all the big cities of America.
A few days later, the Hurricane Rita devastation the coasts of Texas but this time, neither federal management nor that of the State of Texas are taken in defect or questionings. The journalists speak even about Rita effect to explain the sensitive increase of George W. Bush in the surveys (71 % of the questioned people state to approve her action at the time of the passage of the Rita cyclone against 40 % as for Katrina).
Starts again nuclear power and call to new technologies
In its annual speech on the state of the Union the January 31st 2006, George W. Bush fixed like objective to reduce 75 % dependence of the country to the oil of the the Middle East from here 2025. With this intention, it evokes the development of a whole series of alternative energies - wind Solaire, , clean coal, Nucléaire, Hydrogène or ethanol - going until encouraging the use of car Hybride. The speech is received with skepticism because it comes from a president related to the industry oil and the leader-writers speak about “promises without a future”. The financing of those relating to new technologies in particular is also questioned.
The February 20th 2006, in the name of the national security, it announces that the country must start again to build nuclear plants by the end of the decade in order to break with an energy dependence pathological who returns them hostages of foreign nations which can not like them . This advertisement intervenes whereas the United States did not build nuclear plants any more since the years 1970, which provide a little more 20 % of the electricity consumed by the Americans.
On this occasion, once in a while does no harm, it quotes the France in example (which produces 78  thus; % of its electricity).
The religionIt is for religious reasons that George W. Bush opposes the Euthanasie, with research on the Original cells starting from human embryos and is formally against the Homosexual marriage. It supports hostile positions with the Avortement but most preserving doubt its will to call into question the stop Roe v. Wade of 1973 which had legalized the recourse to IVG. It is under its mandate in 2003 that the law " Partial Birth Abortion Act" prohibiting the technique of the abortion by partial birth is voted by the Congress then validated in April 2007 by the Supreme court of the United States.
On the other hand, he is not opposed to the Capital punishment: according to George W. Bush, this one “saves lives” under the terms of its “effect of dissuasion”.
The April 9th 2005, following the death of Jean-Paul II, George W. Bush was the first US president in exercise to be personally attended the burial of a Pape. It was accompanied by its predecessors Bill Clinton and George Bush father.
The October 16th 2007, while being the first US president to be posted in public with the Dalaï Lama, by gratifiant it of " universal symbol of peace and tolérance" and while giving the to him Gold medal of the Congress, George Bush causes the indignaton government of Beijing which sees in the person of Dalaï Lama a separatist in exile which threatens the unit of the country, also showing the United States to intervene in the internal businesses of the country.
- As of its election in 2001, it names John Ashcroft, known for its positions anti-abortion, as Attorney General (secretary with justice). He removes the federal assistances with foreign associations favorable to IVG and the Contraception. To face the consecutive raised shields, he entrusts to his wife Laura Bush the responsibility to specify that IVG in the United States will not be called in question.
Of the funds of humanitarian aid granted foreign associations encouraging the use of the Preventive or coming to assistance with prostitutes is removed in favor of others preaching the abstinence within the framework of the fight against the Sida, including the Stratégie ABC.
homosexual association republican, Log Cabin Republicans disunites its candidature at the time of the presidential election of 2004 because in particular of its hostility for the gay marriage more especially as Bush supports constitutional prohibition of it. At the time of the 11 local referendums on the subject in November 2004, the voters refused any possibility of homosexual marriage.
George W. Bush is relatively unpopular apart from her country, in particular in certain countries of Europe and in the Arab Pays since the Guerre in Iraq (2003-2006). This war also involves a level growing of dispute of the policy of the president in the Middle East and the Middle East.
The “war with terrorism” and “the expansion of the democracy”
Following the terrorist attacks of the September 11th, 2001 to New York and Washington D.C, George W. Bush joins together the country behind him (with 90 % of favorable opinions). He declares the “war with terrorism” and uses a vocabulary disputed by his detractors (“death or sharp”, “crusade” and “States hooligans”), but perceived well in traumatized America.
Parallel to the preparations of the war against the Taliban S in Afghanistan, which refused to extradite Usama Bin Laden and the members of Al-Qaida, Bush founds a Security policy unanimously incarnated by the Patriot Act, voted by the Congress in November 2001, but considered to be dangerous for the human rights by the International federation of the Human rights.
Central theme of the thought of the Néo-conservatives, the “expansion of the democracy” becomes the creed and the official objective of the American policy starting from the speech of George W. Bush in front of the Congress in January 2002, during which it points finger the countries known as of the Axe of the Evil by aiming the Iraq by name, the Iran and the North Korea, in the opposition of which the néo-conservatives reinforce the American policy of sanctions.
In February 2005, George W. Bush names John Negroponte with the head of the any news Direction of the American information (DNI), new function created within the framework of the reform of the American intelligence services following the recommendations of the Commission of September 11th, whose conclusions had been published during the summer 2004.
In October 2005, it gives its downstream to the creation of new a Intelligence service, the National Clandestine Service (NCS) sponsored by the CIA, to deal with the operations of espionage abroad. This service of the clandestine operations will coordinate the operations of espionage of the CIA, FBI and the Department of Defense, but without having the capacity to order or to direct them.
It is in such a context that in February 2006, the company émiratie " Dubai World" Ports; the resumption of the harbor operator British P&O announces, who manages harbor terminals in six large port S American of the east coast. This transfer of management started a political crisis between the favorable White House and the American members of Parliament, supported by the public opinion, who see there a threat for the safety of the country (the company is Arab).
Hillary Clinton then proposed the adoption of a law prohibiting at any company controlled by a foreign State to repurchase port activities in the United States. Other democratic elected officials worked on a prohibiting amendment very takeover of harbor operations by " a company had or controlled by a government which had recognized the government of the talibans" in Afghanistan while the republican elected officials of the Room of the representatives promised to vote a law blocking the redemption plan, defying the president in the name of the national security, whereas this one was ready to put its Veto if the Congress legislated to torpedo the transaction.
At the end of the day, the company émiratie will announce the transfer of the management of the six large ports to " an entity américaine" , in the name of the friendship enters the United States and the United Arab Emirates.
The October 17th 2006, George W. Bush signed and promulgated a Loi on the military commissions discussed authorizing the hard methods of interrogation against the terrorist suspects (in particular the programme of interrogations of the CIA), their detention in secret prisons abroad and their judgment by military tribunals. This law was highly criticized by Amnesty International or the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
The war in Iraq
See also: War in Iraq
In 2002, influenced by the theories of the Néo-conservatives, George W. Bush evokes the need for a regime change in Iraq, indicating that the United States has reasons to believe that the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein has bonds with groups terrorist and continuous to develop a program of weapons of massive destruction (WMD).
The November 8th 2002, the resolution 1441 of the Safety advice of the the United Nations requires Iraqi mode a “active, total and immediate co-operation” with the teams of inspections dispatched on the spot.
Estimating that the conditions of co-operation are not met, George W. Bush gives the signal the March 20th 2003 of a military invasion of Iraq in order to reverse the mode in place. The military victory is acquired quickly as of the April 10th and at the beginning of May, president Bush proclaims the suspension of the hostilities unilaterally.
George W. Bush makes pass decree 13303 giving total immunity to the oil companies in Iraq, any lawsuit in their opposition being immediately regarded as no one and nonwhich occurred in the United States. That reinforces the charges of infeodation of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney to the lobbies of the industry of the Pétrole.
From June 2003, terrorist attacks are made against the American military forces then against the Iraqi civilians without distinction as well as taking of hostages.
Since the beginning of the invasion in March 2003, one estimates that several tens of thousands of Iraqis were killed by the American army or terrorist attacks, like more 2 000 American soldiers. The weapons of massive destruction (a “bureaucratic pretext” according to Paul Wolfowitz) which had actually been used under the mode as Saddam Hussein against the Kurds or the Shiites, were not found and would finally indeed have been destroyed in the years which had followed the war of the Gulf of 1991. As for the bonds of the mode with the terrorist organizations, they had ceased for a long time (Abou Nidal, Carlos) or remained weak limiting itself to the financing of the families of the Palestinian Kamikaze S and to the presence on the Iraqi ground members of terrorist organizations (Moudjahidines Iranian). However, for the partisans of the American intervention, the update of mass graves containing of the hundreds of thousands of victims of the mode of Saddam Hussein, justified the inversion by the force of the Iraqi dictator. Lastly, the American intervention has made it possible the country to know the January 31st 2005 its first democratic elections for fifty years then in October 2005, the adoption of a democratic Constitution approved by referendum.
The opinion polls a long time very favorable to George W. Bush concerning her management of the war of Iraq started to rock in June 2005 and became negative as from the month of September 2005. If a majority of Americans consider henceforth that engagement in Iraq was an error, they wish a withdrawal of their troops (but not however still under any condition). .
This war was at the origin of serious diplomatic tensions within UNO, of NATO and with certain countries like the France and the Germany. The American motivations in this business are still discussed.
The October 6th 2005, in front of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), Bush was caught some to the opponents with the war in the United States, which prefers, according to him, the facility. “There is always temptation in the middle of a long fight to seek a quiet life, to escape from its duties and the problems from the world and to hope that the enemy wearies fanaticism and murders. We will preserve our coolness and will gain this victory. ” Evoking at least ten attacks thwarted in the world since September 11th, 2001, he in addition denounces the “islamo-Fascism” of the Al-Qaida terrorists supported by “elements in the Arab media which encourage with hatred and the anti-semitism” and “sheltered by authoritarian regimes, combined circumstances, like Syria and Iran, which share the objective to make evil in America and the moderate Moslem modes and uses terrorist propaganda to reproach their own failures the Occident, America and with the Jews. ”
It is necessary to await the December 14th 2005 during an interview on Fox News so that George W. Bush admits having made “tactical errors” in Iraq in particular of the decisions unsuited in the drive of the Iraqi forces, to have made the initial choice of great projects of rebuilding instead of building sites to the “immediate effects on the life of people”. He as regretted earlier not to have engaged the transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqis after the war but however reaffirmed as the decision to attack Saddam Hussein was right.
The May 25th 2006, George W. Bush and Tony Blair recognize their errors in Iraq. The US president in particular stated that its remarks had envoy of bad signals , that the things were not held as had hoped for we and that the largest error, at least with regard to the implication of our country, it is Abou Ghraïb .
The January 10th 2007, at the time of a short televised speech, the president announces that 21 500 additional servicemen will be sent in Iraq to allow a return to faster peace. This decision runs up against a congress and a hostile public opinion and mainly skeptic by this step.
The fight against the massive weapons of destruction
The threat that weapons of massive destruction to the hands of States or organizations hostile in the United States can be used makes that the American administration tries to disarm and/or to control stocks of these products throughout the world.
An initiative launched by the United States and Germany in the month of April 2002 within the G8 relates to a world Partenariat of fight against the proliferation of the weapons of massive destruction and the related matters where the US government committed itself pouring half of the 20 billion dollars mobilized over 10 years for this action.
Successes took place in this field like the dismantling of the programs of WMD Libya N by the diplomacy and the neutralization of various stocks of weapons and chemicals and radioactive dating from the period of the Cold war in the territories of old the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
Thus, in July 2007, a clandestine stock of 16 tons chemical weapons discovered in Albania was destroyed.
The israélo-Palestinian conflictGeorge W. Bush, criticized by the Arab countries for her exclusive support for Israel, was however the first US president to officially evoke the creation of a Palestinian State.
The “roadmap”, for the payment of the israélo-Palestinian Conflict, written by the United States, Russia, European Union and UNO, prévoyer the creation of a Palestinian State in 2005.
The support of Bush for Ariel Sharon and her refusal to converse with a Palestinian direction directed by Yasser Arafat led the Palestinians to turn to a chief moderated, Mahmoud Abbas, with died of the Ray to the autumn 2004.
In January 2005, the negotiations include then in a new context between Palestinians and Israelis, supported by the Americans.
During the israélo-Lebanese Conflict of 2006, its administration was criticized to be opposite during the first phases of the conflict to a cease-fire.
At one year of the end of her mandate, George W. Bush, shown to have neglected the question of the israélo-Palestinian conflict to the profit of Iraq, implies himself again on the subject. 26 at November 28th, 2007, it organizes in the Maryland the Conférence of Annapolis joining together about fifty country and organizations to try to advance on the way of a payment of the israélo-Palestinian conflict and to manage an peace agreement before the end 2008. It obtains Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and of the president of the Palestinian Authority Mahmoud Abbas an engagement written for new discussions on key questions of the conflict like the statute of Jerusalem, the fate of more than four million Réfugié S Palestinian S, the fate of the Jewish Colonie S, the division of the water resources and the delimitation of the borders. It is also set up a steering committee whereas two International Conferences of follow-up should then proceed with Paris then with Moscow. It is during this conference that the Syria invites some to take again the peace negotiations with Israel, suspended since 2000.
Relations with Europe
The relations between the United States and part of the European countries worsened starting from the speech on the “axis of the evil” and reached a serious level of dissension (at the national levels, but not overall, at the governmental levels) at the time of the Guerre in Iraq. It is at that time that Donald Rumsfeld, the secretary with defense, makes a distinction between “old Europe”, represented by the Germany, the France and the Belgium, and new Europe américanophile represented by the old and some country Eastern European countries of the West like the Great Britain, Italy, the Denmark or the Spain (letter of the ten of support for the American strategy in Iraq in January 2003).
In 2004, the United States adds Spain to their list of the hostile countries to the American preponderance, after the victory of the Socialist Jose Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, which wishes publicly and imprudently the victory of John Kerry to presidential of November 2004, stating with high voice the wish of European countries like France or Germany.
In February 2005, Bush carries out the first travels abroad of its second mandate in Europe to reconquer the public opinion and to mend themselves with the European leaders. He is the first Head of American State to go to the seat European commission to Brussels where he notes many points of persistent disagreement with some European countries, and more particularly France and Germany:
- George W. Bush is thus opposed to the lifting embargo on the sales of weapons to the China, in particular in order to protect Taiwan, whereas the French make pressure near Europeans to raise this prohibition;
- George W. Bush wishes that Europe also registers the Shiite movement pro-Iranian Hezbollah like terrorist organization, it to what France is opposed;
- George W. Bush wished to apply a new economic embargo against the Syria so that this one withdraws Lebanon and ceases being a base camp for the active terrorist groups in particular in Iraq or against Israel, but there still it encounters a refusal of France, doubting the effectiveness of this measurement. However following the attack which cost the life Rafic Hariri, the common pressure of the two countries and the support for the “Lebanese street” via in particular ONG American ends up leading to the forced evacuation of the Syriennes forces of this country in 2005.
- George W. Bush, first of all favorable to a hardening of the international community towards the Iran to force it to give up its nuclear program, ends up approaching the position of Europeans who are in favor of a constructive dialog with the mode of the Mollah S;
- Europeans wish the participation of the United States in the implementation of the Protocole of Kyoto what the American administration refuses categorically;
- Lastly, Europeans let only George W. Bush worry about the evolution of Russia and request pledges of democracy from Vladimir Poutine.
The presidential visit, if it restored the contact, thus made it possible the public opinion to appreciate the extent of the divergences between Européens of the West and Americans.
On the other hand, Europeans of the East are definitely less hostile with the US president, in particular in Poland, in the Baltic States, in Ukraine, Georgia or Slovakia. The May 7th 2005, George W. Bush goes in Latvia where it is cordially accommodated like a defender of freedoms. In its speech, in full historical controversy between the Baltic States and the Russia on the Soviet occupation of 1945, Bush does not hesitate to give its support for the Baltic States by recalling that the latter were released only in 1991, after the end of the Soviet occupation, with the risk to contract its relations with Russia. After having admitted that “slavery and the racial segregation had been a shame” for the United States, he regretted the division of Europe, consequence of the Accords of Yalta and that “the Americans sacrificed the freedom of weakest to an illusion of international stability”. The continuation of its voyage leads it in particular in the old republic of the USSR in Georgia, recently émancipée of the Russian supervision thanks to the financial support of the Americans via their ONG. First US president to press the ground géorgien, it is still cordially received there there by an enthusiastic crowd of 150 000 people in spite of an attack to the grenade missed.
The June 23rd 2005, the official representatives of the European Union and the president of the United States make, in the absence of Jacques Chirac, a Joint Declaration on the future of the Paix and the Démocratie to the Middle-East.
This Joint Declaration puts an end to the tense atmosphere between Europe and the United States initiated by the position of Paris and Berlin concerning the Iraq.
Relations with Asia
In China, its discussions with the president Hu Jintao and the Prime Minister Wen Jiabao, did not lead to any political decision of scale. All the subjects of discord or shared interest between the two countries were evoked, including the religious liberty, the human rights and the democracy. The concrete result of these discussions was a Chinese order of 70 Boeing 737 and a contract of 4 billion dollars. At the time when the United States knows a bilateral deficit with China of almost 200 billion dollars, this gesture a priori commercial of Beijing was described as policy.
Bush finished by a visit in Mongolia, the first of an US president in this country, in order to thank an ally in the war in Iraq (132 soldiers is the third foreign quota relating to the number of inhabitants).
Relations with Africa
Since the arrival of George W. Bush, the growing interest for this continent is palpable on all the levels. At the humane level, the assistance has triplet between 2001 and 2007; at the diplomatic level, in 2006, Cindy Courville is the very first ambassador of a nonAfrican country to being accredited near the African Union. At the military level, the constitution of the United States Africa Command operational in 2008 shows the increasing importance of the Africa in the Géopolitique of the United States;
In August 2005, it names John R. Bolton as new American ambassador with UNO whereas he is an tireless detractor.
However, after the devastations of the Hurricane Katrina in the south of the United States and the humanitarian aid brought by many countries (whose poorest), Bush modifies her control at the time of her speech to UNO at the time of the 60e birthday of this organization. The September 14th 2005, it holds within the general meeting an atypical speech compared to her traditional policy, bearing on the subjects of the development assistance and poverty. He thus announced his support for the installation of an international partnership on the Avian flu which would oblige the nations to return accounts to the the World Health Organization (WHO). Affirming its will to respect the objectives of the millenium, he pleads for the removal of the subsidies and the tariff barriers on the agricultural produce. He is pleased finally with the installation of a " Funds for the démocratie" , he is the principal instigator, made up only of democratic countries and which France promised to join.
- In June 2005, Vietnamese the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, goes to the United States, thus symbolizing the standardization of the relations between Washington and Hanoï, thirty years after the end of the Guerre of Vietnam. The visit of Phan Van Khai is the first of official Vietnamese of this row since 1975. The visit of president Bush in Vietnam took place the November 18th and 19th 2006, within the framework of the top of the Economic cooperation for the Asia-Pacific (before, Bill Clinton had gone to Vietnam in 2000).
- In September 2005, Tbilissi in Georgia is the first European capital to baptize one of its streets in the name of George W. Bush.
Bonds of family
Prescott Bush, her grandfather;
- George H.W. Bush, her father;
- Jeb Bush, her brother, governor of Florida;
- Lauren Bush, her niece, mannequin;
- George Prescott Bush, her nephew, lawyer.
Anecdotes and quotations
- George W. Bush is one of the eight direct downward presidents of the passengers of the Mayflower
- George W. Bush declared gross incomes taxable of: 735180 dollars in 2005, on which he discharged: 187678 federal dollars of tax S, according to the documents made public on April 14th, 2006 by the White House. On their sheet of taxes, Mr. and Mrs. Bush declare a presidential Salaire of approximately: 400000 dollars as well as receipts coming from funds of investments. They poured: 75560 dollars with churches and charity works.
- Whereas he was still governor and candidate with the presidential election of 2000, George W. Bush would have acknowledged to have smoked of the Marijuana, following the example its predecessor Bill Clinton and of his Al Gore adversary. However, he always refused to publicly acknowledge it under the pretext which the president of the United States was to be an example and not a reference as regards drug taking: “I wouldn' T answer the marijuana questions, said George W. Bush. You know why? Because I gift' T want nap little kid doing what I tried. ” .
- “Some think that the United States is ready to attack Iran. It is ridiculous… However, all the options remain open. ” Press conference of George W. Bush the February 22nd 2005 with Brussels.
- “Bin Laden declares that its mission is to say to the Musulmans what is good for them and what is not it. This man born in the richness and the privileges considers good for the poor Moslems to become killers and kamikazes. He promises to them that it is the way of the paradise, but it forever proposed to take it.” - Speech of George W. Bush the October 6th 2005, in front of the National Endowment for Democracy (national Foundation for the democracy),
- “cowardice is to seek to kill out of the children and the elderly with car bombs, to cut the throat of an attached prisoner and to aim at the believers to the exit of a mosque. But courage is to release more than 50 million people. ” - Response of George W. Bush to the remarks of Abou Moussab Zarqaoui qualifying the Americans to be “looser creatures of God”, the October 6th 2005 at the time of a speech in front of the National Endowment for Democracy
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