See also: Dupin
She wrote Romance S, Nouvelle S, Conte S, plays, a Autobiographie, critical arts persons, political texts…
BiographyAmantine Dawn Lucile Dupin, woman of letters romantic, was born in Paris in 1804. She was however better known under the pseudonym of George Sand . She was the girl of Maurice Dupin and Sophie Victoire Delaborde, the grand-daughter of Charles Louis Dupin de Francueil. From her father, it is the back-small-girl of the general marshal of France Maurice of Saxony (1696 - 1750), bastard legitimated Auguste II of Poland, prince voter of Saxony and king de Pologne. In 1831, George Sand began her career while working for Le Figaro . With its love, Jules Sandeau, it writes, under the pseudonym J. Sand, of many articles. It is only later that it adopted, for the texts which it only wrote, the name of George (without “S”) Sand. It started to speak about itself in the male form; it was rained to wear men's clothes, to smoke of the cigars and to have many lovers; it also tried to enter the reserved places to the men, like the restricted libraries, the museums and the pit of the theater, which it managed to make while getting dressed like a man. Many supposed that George tried to become a man; in fact, it fought against the stereotype of the women, so that they have same freedoms as the men.
George Sand was not the first female writer; she was however often regarded as the first professional female author of fiction. By using a male pseudonym, she wished to be done equalizes it men. She wanted to be judged not as a woman, but on the basis of her talent.
George Sand was read by the men and the women. In its writings, it described the women like individuals with whole share, made its readers more trustful in themselves, and it became the idol of all the women.
Just a year after having started to work with its new employment, it published its first book Rose and Blanche , in collaboration with Jules Sandeau. Thereafter, she worked much with the creation of a second book, Indiana , which, this time was her personal work. Six months later, it revealed a draft of its following novel, Valentine . Even if its first two novels were successes, only its third novel, Lélia , brought glory to him. Shortly after its publication, George Sand entered the circle of the French great authors, and consequently formed part of the writers best remunerated.
It had many open relationship with the famous men whom it knew in Paris, of which Jules Sandeau, Alfred de Musset, Honore de Balzac (to which it devotes some spiritual and friendly pages in Histoire of my life) and Frederic Chopin.
After Jules Sandeau, his following connection was with Alfred de Musset, a young author. But just a year later, Musset falls ill and George éprend of Doctor Pietro Pagello, which looked after it.
In 1834, George returns to Paris with Pagello, where it is reconciled with Musset. But they continued to have many arguments which led to repeated separations; they finally decided to put an end to their relation.
George had other reports/ratios after Musset, but any more interesting than Frederic Chopin. They met in 1836. They had a complicated report/ratio. They became friendly, then lovers to behave finally like mother and wire. It is said that his relationship with Chopin is one of most attractive and improbable in the history since they had two completely different personalities.
Its lifeIt is born in Paris in 1804, but passes most of its childhood to Nohant in the Indre. Orphan of father, at 4 years, Aurore Dupin knew a rather free childhood in his/her paternal grandmother.
This stay in the countryside will mark it and it will take again the topic of the life in the countryside in several of its works (as in the Pond with the Devil ). In 1822, it marries the baron Casimir Dudevant with whom it will have two children: Maurice (born in 1823) and Solange (born in 1828). Very quickly it leaves her husband and then knows a rather agitated love life.
She less and less dissimulates her leaning for the wearing of men's wears, although she continues to get dressed as a woman for the occasions. This “disguise” makes it possible Sand to more freely circulate in Paris (smoking the pipe), and the access to the places facilitates to him where a woman of its row can see herself refusing the access. It is an exceptional practice at the 19th century, where the social codes, in particular among the easy classes, have the greattest importance. Consequently, Sand loses a good part of its privileges of baroness. Paradoxically, the use of the time allows to the women classes easy to live separate their husbands without losing the face, if they do not make an obvious “irregularity openly”.
In its first novels, autobiographies transposed, it compares the search of personal happiness to a social regeneration. Thus, Indiana (which it signs for the first time of the pseudonym of George Sand, 1832) and Lélia (1833) is novels and lyric where the love runs up against fashionable conventions and the social prejudices, as George Sand at the time of her successive passions with Musset and Chopin ran up against it.
In 1833, 1834 and 1835, it knows a connection animated with Alfred de Musset from which it will draw It and Him . It leaves it for Doctor Pagello. Later, she knows Franz Liszt and especially Frederic Chopin with which she will live nearly 10 years (of 1838 with 1847). With Majorque, one can visit today chartreuse Valldemossa where it spent the winter 1838-39 with Frederic Chopin and his children.
George Sand binds to democrats like Arago, Barbès or Bakounine and is delighted in 1848 by the fall by the king Louis-Philippe and the end by the Monarchie by July posting its social and communist political commitment. After the days of June, it is withdrawn in 1851 with Nohant, constraint to write for the theater because of financial embarrassments. But it is not confined in Nohant, travelling as well to France and in particular in its large friend Charles Robin Duvernet with the castle of Small Coudray or abroad.
It continues to carry out a life out-standard and agitated. It has other love affairs, fights for the defense of the women's rights and for its political ideas, binds friendship in particular with Flaubert and Théophile Gautier, attends the brothers Jules and Edmond Goncourt.
In 1868, Lina, his/her daughter-in-law, gives rise to small Gabrielle, which will be the last grand-daughter of George Sand, and who will be known under the name of Gabrielle Sand.
Among the very many biographies devoted to Sand, that of Michel Souvais: George Sand and her Pantheon . In 2007, Celine Dion in her album Of them , paid homage to George Sand, by singing a letter of George Sand written for Alfred de Musset
- the Commission agent (With Jules Sandeau) (1830).
- Rose and Blanche (with Jules Sandeau, Romance, 1831)
- the Girl of Albano (1831)
- Valentine (novel, 1831)
- Indiana (Romance, 1832)
- Lélia (Romance, 1833)
- Aldo the Rhymester (1833)
- a conspiracy in 1537 (1833)
- Diary (1834)
- Jacques (Romance, 1834)
- the intimate Secretary (novel, 1834)
- the Marchioness (novel, 1834)
- Garnier (tale, Urbain Canel/Adolphe Guyot 1834)
- Lavinia (1834)
- Métella (1834)
- Andre (Romance, 1835)
- Mattéa (1835)
- Leone Leoni (Romance, 1835)
- Simon (Romance, 1836)
- Mauprat (1837)
- " Dodecation" , or delivers it of the twelve. Unknown God (1837) * the Masters mozaïstes (Romance, 1838)
- the Aldini last (Romance, 1838)
- the orco (1838)
- Uscoque (Romance, 1838)
- Spiridion (Romance, 1839)
- seven cords of the quadrant (theater, 1840)
- Cosima, or hatred in the love (theater, 1840)
- Pauline. Mississipiens (Romance, 1840)
- Gabriel (1840)
- the companion of the turn of France (Romance, 1841)
- Mouny Roubin (1842)
- Georges of Guerin (1842)
- Horace (1842)
- One winter with Majorque (account, 1842)
- the countess of Rudolstadt (Romance, 1843)
- the Younger sister (1843)
- Kouroglou (1843)
- Carl (1843)
- Jean Zizka (historical novel on the life of Jan Žižka, hussite war leader, 1843)
- Consuelo (Romance, 1842 - 1843)
- Jeanne (novel, 1844)
- the Miller of Angibault (Romance, 1845)
- the Pond with the Devil (Romance, 1846)
- Isidora (Romance, 1846)
- Teverino (Romance, 1846)
- Weddings of countryside (novel, 1846)
- Evenor and Leucippe. Loves of the Golden age (1846)
- the sin of Mr Antoine (1847)
- Lucrézia Floriani (Romance, 1847)
- Piccinino (Romance, 1847)
- small Fadette (Romance, 1849)
- François Champi (Romance, 1850)
- the Castle of Deserted (novel, 1851) the
- History of true Grigouille (1851)
- the marriage of Victorine (theater, 1851)
- the Warbler of the doctor (1853)
- Mount Revèche (1853)
- the Goddaughter (1853)
- the Masters bell ringers (1853)
- Adriani (1854)
- Flaminio (theater, 1854)
- History of my life (Autobiography, 1855)
- Daniella (1857)
- devil with the fields (1857)
- Walks around a village (1857)
- These beautiful Sirs of Wood-Gilded (1858)
- It and Him (account autobiographical on its relations with Musset, 1859)
- Jean of the Rock (1859)
- the Man of snow (1859)
- Narcisse (1859)
- Green Ladies (1859)
- Constancy Glassmaker (1860)
- the Black City (1861)
- Valvèdre (1861)
- the Family of Germandre (1861)
- the marquis de Villemer (1861)
- Tamaris (1862)
- Miss Quintinie (1863)
- green Ladies (1863)
- Antonia (1863)
- the Confession of an young girl (1865)
- Laura (1865)
- Mr Sylvestre (1866)
- the Gift juan of village (theater, 1866)
- Flavie (1866)
- the Last Love (1867)
- Cadio (theater, 1868)
- Miss Merquem (1868)
- Pierre which rolls (1870)
- the Beautiful Laurence (1870)
- Despite everything (1870)
- Césarine Dietrich (1871)
- Journal of one traveller during the war (1871)
- Francia. A favor is never lost (1872)
- Nanon (1872)
- Tales of a grand' mother 1 (1873)
- My sister Jeanne (1874)
- Flamarande (1875)
- the Two brothers (1875)
- the Tower of Percemont (1876)
- Tales of a grand' mother 2 (1876)
- Marianne (1876)
- rustic Legends (the Mab Queen. The Fairy which runs. Fanchette) (1877)
- organ of Titan (1873)
Aurore Dupin (1804-1876) known as George Sand is back-small-girl of the marshal of Saxony (1696-1750):
Maurice of Saxony (1696-1750) X (natural filiation) Marie Genevieve Rinteau (1730-1775) known as “Miss de Verrières” │ └──> Marie-Dawn of Saxony (1748-1821) X 1777 (initially in London, then rehabilitation of marriage) │ Charles Louis Dupin de Francueil (1716-1780) │ └──> Maurice Dupin (1778-1808) X 1804 Victoire Delaborde (1773-1837) │ └──> Dawn Dupin (1804-1876) known as George Sand
Source: Joseph Valynseele and Denis Grando, With discovered their roots, volume II, 1994, the Intermediary of the Researchers and Curious, chapter “George Sand”.
By this ascent, George Sand was cousin with the 7th civil degree of the kings de France Louis XVI (death before its birth), Louis XVIII and Charles X, which was great nephews, in the legitimate branch, of Maurice of Saxony, and cousins resulting from Germain of her father Maurice Dupin.
If one goes up this ascent further, one will see that George Sand was “related” with the near total of the families reigning or having reigned on Europe, meeting among his ancestors of the names such as, for example, Capétiens, Habsbourg, Hohenzollern, Jagellon, Nassau, Oldenbourg, Welfs, Wittelsbach, Wurtemberg (small selection) and that, in a more remote way, it would be even downward, via Isabelle the Catholic and the kings Moors of Spain, Mahomet and the antiques kings d' Arménie…
Quotations and opinion
- “the life is a long wound which seldom falls asleep and”
- “ It had to be known as I knew to know all that there was the female one in the heart of this great man . ”, Gustave Flaubert
“ it forever be artist. She has the famous style running, expensive with the middle-class men. She is stupid, she is heavy, she is talkative. She has, in the ideas morals, the same depth of judgment and the same delicacy of feeling as the maintained caretakers and girls ”, Charles Baudelaire ( My heart exposed , XXII, 1861)
Quotation: History of my life
Listen; my life, it is yours; because you who read me, you are not launched in the crash of the interests of this world, otherwise you would push back me with trouble. You are dreamers like me. Consequently all that stops me in my way you stopped too. You sought, like me, to return reason of your existence to you, and you posed some conclusions. Compare mine with yours. Weigh and pronounce. The truth leaves only the examination. (George Sand, Works autobiographical, Volume I, the Pleiad, Gallimard Editions, Paris, 1970, p. 27-28).
- Correspondence , 1812-1876, edition of Georges Lubin, 25 volumes, Paris, Garnier brothers, 1964-1991.
- George Sand - Marie Dorval, new Correspondence , edition of Simone-Andre Maurois, foreword of Andre Maurois, Paris, Gallimard, 1953.
- Correspondence Gustave Flaubert, George Sand , edition of Alphonse Jacobs, Paris, Flammarion, 1981.
- Marie d' Agoult, George Sand: correspondence , Bartillat, 1995.
- George Sand and Eugene Delacroix, Correspondence: the appointment missed (edition of Francoise Alexandre). - Paris: editions of the Amateur, coll “Glance on art”, 2005. - 303 p. - p. of pl., 22 cm. - ISBN 2-85917-381-1.
- Joseph Barry, George Sand or the scandal of freedom (1982), Paris, Threshold Collection Points tests, 2004.
- Huguette Bouchardeau, George Sand, the moon and the shoes , Paris, R. Laffont, 1991.
- Jacques-Louis Bouchin, George Sand, in love the , Paris, ED. Ramsay J. - J. Pauvert, 1992.
- Anne-Marie de Brem, George Sand, a devil of woman , Gallimard Collection Discovered/Paris-Museums, 1997.
- Auguste Devaux, George Sand,… , Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1895.
- Hortense Dufour, George Sand the sleepwalker , Monaco, the Rock, 2004.
- Georges Lubin, Album Sand , Gallimard Collection Library of the Pleiad, 1973.
- Charles Maurras, Lovers of Venice, George Sand and Musset , Paris, Boccard, 1914.
- Beatrice Didier and Jacques Neefs (to dir.), George Sand, writings of romanticism II , Saint-Denis, Univ Presses. of Vincennes, 1990.
- Beatrice Didier, George Sand writer: " a large river of Amérique" , university Presses of France, Paris, 1998.
- George Sand, the novel monster , Re-examined of the two worlds , 2004.
- George Sand, soil and history , Rennes, university Presses of Rennes, 2006.
- Brigitte Diaz and Isabelle Hoog Naginski (to dir.), George Sand, practices and imaginary of the writing: the writing sandienne , Caen, university Presses of Caen, 2006.
- Henry James, George Sand , Mercure de France, 2004.
- Georges Lubin Georges Sand in Berry , Hatchet, 1967
- Sophie Martin-Dehaye, George Sand and painting , Royer, 2006.
- Planted, Christine (ED.), critical George Sand, 1833-1876 , Tusson, of Lérot, 2007.
- Martine Reid, To sign Sand: work and the name , Belin, 2003.
- Its property, with Nohant (Indre), in the romantic black valley of the province of the Berry.
- Its house of Gargilesse in the Valley of Hollow (Indre) where, with its Manceau love, it will pass in holiday of many years.
- Its house-museum with Gargilesse.
- the castle and the village of Culan, with 30 kilometers of Nohant.
- the film Impromptu (1991) of James Lapine with Judy Davis, Hugh Grant
- the film Children of the century (1999) of Diane Kurys with Juliette Binoche.
- Site of the ministry for the Culture and the Communication
- Site of the Country of George Sand in Berry
- Site of association friends of George Sand
- Project Gutenberg
- Site of Cecile Pichot, one of the sources of the article
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