Gengis Khan (pronunciation: χaːŋ}}; Mongolian: ЧингисХаан qan; Mongolian traditional: ), born towards 1155 and died in 1227 in the County of Qingshui, was the first leading ( Khan ) Mongolian and emperor ( Khagan ) of the Mongolian Empire.
Born Temüdjin or Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүжин) in the clan Bordjigin, it used its political and military genius to unify the Turkish and Mongolian tribes of the Central Asia and thus to found its empire, the vastest contiguous empire of all times.
Gengis Khan is a figure legendary and strongly respected in Mongolia, where he is seen like the father of the Mongolian nation. However, him and its successors are responsible for many wars and conquests resulting in the death of tens of million people. Consequently, in much of areas of the Asia and the the Middle East, he is seen like a pitiless and sanguinary conqueror.
Before becoming Khan then Khagan, Temüdjin links several of the wandering tribes of the East Asia and the Central Asia under a new social identity as “Mongolian”. Beginning with the invasion of the Dynasty of Xia Western and the Second dynasty Jin in China of North and the consolidation by many conquests including/understanding the Persian Empire of the Khwârazm-Shahs in , the Mongols reigned through the Eurasia radically changing the demography and the geopolitics of these zones. It thus reigned on a major part of the Asia, including the China, the Russia, the Perse, the the Middle East and the Europe of the East.
Gengis Khan died in 1227 of the continuations of a horse fall at the time of a shooting party. Its sons and grandsons directed the empire after its death, developing it during even more than 150 years.
Its grandson, Kubilai Khan, was the first emperor of the Dynastie Yuan in China.
BirthThere is very little verifiable information on Gengis Khan before it begins its conquests. The few sources over this period are not always of agreement. Based on legends transmitted by its biographers, the youths of the future conqueror are difficult. Initially fore-mentioned Temüdjin (or Temüdjin) (of turco-Mongolian temür , tömör : iron, “finer steel”), it was born towards 1155 or later (1162 or 1165) in a Mongolian tribe close to the province of Hentiy, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun, not far from the current capital of the Mongolia, Ulan-Bator.
The secret Histoire of the Mongols indicates that Temüdjin was born by holding a blood clot in its fist, which, in the traditional Mongolian folklore, is an indication which the child is intended to become a big boss. Temüdjin is the oldest son of Yesügei, the chief of the clan of the Qiyat of the tribe Bordjigin.
At nineteen years, Temüdjin, that the historians depict like large, dry and muscular, is a savage warrior but also a skilful politician, which will be useful to him in its attempt of Mongolian unification of the tribes S. Its fame grows and of many young people avid people of adventures join it. Among them, Bortchou, Djelmé, Djebé the Arrow , Subötai will remain always its four dogs wild .
Union of the tribesAt this period, the wandering people of Central Asia are divided and easily handled by the sedentary people directed by powerful monarchs, such those of the Dynastie Jin in the north of China.
Forging solids friendships among the chiefs of the Mongolian clans, Temüdjin succeeds, after a series of wars and moving alliances, to be made name Khan towards 1195 or 1197 by the qüriltaï (assembled plenary).}} Khagan successor could not have real legitimacy that if it were same blood as Gengis Khan, thus limiting the potential successors to only the family of the Khagan last. Tolui ensured the regency of dead of Gengis in 1227 the nomination of Ögödei in 1229 after another plenary assembly.
The four wire of Gengis Khan had taken part in the campaigns of their father and thus occupied of the roles of first importance in the empire. If Ögödei became Khagan, his/her three brothers became Khan different Khanat S
Starting from 1260, the Mongolian Empire was divided into four ulus (Mongolian ulus , uls : country, area):
- in the North-West, Russian steppes, territory of the Horde of Gold where the descendants of Djötchi
- in south-west reigned, the field of the downward Ilkhans of Perse of Hülegü, wire of Tolui
- in the center, the Khanat de Djaghataï, stronghold of the descendants of Djaghataï
- in the east, including the Mongolia, the China of the Yuan, dynasty founded by Kubilai Khan
Study on the descendants
See also: Descent of Gengis Khan
Tatiana Zerjal and other researchers declare in 2003, to have identified a line of Chromosome Y on approximately 8% of the men of most of Asia (either approximately 0,5% of the world total of the men). The study suggests that the genetic form of the variations finds its origin there is: 1000 years in Mongolia. Such a fast expansion could not be made by simple genetic Dérive but by Natural selection. The authors propose that this line is carried by descendants of Gengis Khan and that it was spread by social selection.
In addition to the Khanat S and other descendants, the mother of the emperor moghol Bâbur was downward of Gengis Khan. Tamerlan, military chief of XIVe century, also claimed to go down from Gengis Khan.
Religious beliefAugust 1st
Influence on the military History
See also: Mongolian Army
Gengis Khan recovers and puts forward the assets of the Mongols, it will be the base of the Mongolian conquests. But Gengis Khan takes part in many points in the development of the strategies and tactics of engagements.
The army undoubtedly rests on a decimal system origin Achéménides, the “Tümen”, the armies being divided into groups of 10,100: 1000 and: 10000 men. The close links of the Mongolian clans are adapted to the units of combat, stressing the collective with the recruits at the center and the veterans on the wings.
As of 1217, Gengis is interested in the problem of the attacks of strengthened places. Helped by Chinese artillerists that it forms in Army corps, they gradually build the techniques which will make them of frightening leaders of seats, in particular thanks to the use of Gunpowder. A descendant of Gengis, Hulagu Khan, will destroy most of the north of Iran. It is one of the conquerors more hate Iranians, with Alexandre Large the and Tamerlan.
It is the same in Afghanistan, with the Pakistan like in other countries Moslem not-Turkish , although in certain countries it is necessary to moderate the table. It is told that the ethnos group Hazara of Afghanistan goes down from a large Mongolian garrison which stationed formerly on their ground of origin. The bags of Baghdad and Samarkand caused massacres and the south of the Khuzestan was completely destroyed. In Russia, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary, Gengis Khan, its descendants and the Mongols and/or Tatars are generally described like large destructors.
Today, Gengis, its descendants, its generals and the Mongols in general remain known for their wild military forces, their destructive endurance, their cruelty and their conquests in the books of history of the whole world.
Positive perception of Gengis KhanThe negative perception of Gengis Khan is thus very current, much of historians often quoting the cruelty of its reign and the destruction caused by the Mongolian troops, but some stress the positive aspects of the conquests of Gengis Khan. It is sometimes credited to have put the Silk route under a coherent political system. This system would have thus theoretically increased the communication and the trade between the western world, the Middle East and Asia by extending the horizons of each one. More recently, of the historians notice that Gengis Khan founded certain levels of Méritocratie, and that it seemed rather tolerant towards the Religion S. Aujourd'hui, in Turkey, one sees in Gengis Khan a large military chief and much of boys are named in his honor.
Gengis Khan like symbol of MongoliaGengis Khan was enormously respected a long time by its people for his military victories and its association with the culture and the systems Mongolian policy and soldier. During the Popular republic of Mongolia, it will become a cumbersome symbol. Gengis Khan and the Mongols were subjects severely repressed by a government which probably feared a nationalist renewal of enthusiasm . For example, in 1962 the construction of a monument on its conference and birthplace in its honor led to criticisms on behalf of the the USSR and the dismissal of Tömör-Ochir, a secretary of the Central committee of the revolutionary Parti the Mongolian people.
When the Démocratie is founded in Mongolia after the democratic revolution of the beginning of the year 1990, the memory of Gengis Khan and the Mongolian national identity transfer a revival; Gengis Khan itself will become the central figure of this identity. It is not rare to intend the Mongols to call Mongolia Mongolia de Gengis Khan , themselves children of Gengis Khan and Gengis Khan the father of the Mongols , especially young people.
Many things are named in its honor: products, streets, buildings, parks… One can see his portrait on alcoholic drink bottles like on the tickets of 500: 1000: 5000 and: 10000 tögrög . The principal airport of the country, close to the capital, Ulan-Bator, was renamed international airport Chinggis Khaan , of large statues of him were set up before the Parliament and close to Ulan-Bator.
There is a continual debate on the overuse of its image and fear to see it standardized. Mongolia sees it like a central figure of the foundation of the Mongolian nation and like the base of the idea of Mongolia like country.
Today Gengis Khan is largely recognized like one of the Mongolian leaders largest, most legendary and most liked. It is believed responsible for the emergence of the Mongols as an ethnic and political identity, like at the origin of the Mongolian writing and the Yassa, first Mongolian legal code.
There is an incomprehension on the perception of its brutality, the Mongols often believing that the historical documents, written for the majority by not-Mongols, are wrongfully too severe towards Gengis Khan, exaggerating its cruelty and its massacres and minimizing its positive role. It reinforced many Mongolian traditions and offered stability and the unit to the Mongols at one very dubious time due to internal and external factors.
In ChinaThe Popular republic of China regards Gengis Khan as a Chinese national hero. To justify this point of view, one generally affirms whom there is living more Mongols China than everywhere else, including in Mongolia. It is also affirmed that its grandson, Kubilai Khan, founded the Dynastie Yuan which reunified China. However, the historians (in particular Westerners), draw up a contrasted image of Gengis Khan in China. Because if its descendants succeeded in conquering China militarily, there were also many literature and works of art renting it like a large military leader and a political genius. In any case, the Mongols left important and durable traces, though debatable, on the social and political structures Chinese.
In various publicationsOne speaks in a positive way of Gengis Khan in several publications:
- It is classified n°29 on the “list of the most important people of the History”, compiled by Michael H. Hart;
- It is elected Man of the millenium by the newspaper The Washington Post on December 31st, 1995;
- It is elected one of 10 greater cultural legends of the millenium in 1998 per G. Ab Arwel and five judges (D. Owain, G. Parry, C. Campbell, S. Evans and B. Parry).
- It is also one of the 50 most important political leaders according to the magazine National Geographic .
- Genealogy of Gengis Khan
Catalog of films
- the black Rose , American film of Henry Hathaway with Orson Welles, 1950.
- the Conqueror , American film of Dick Powell with John Wayne, 1955.
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