The genetic pollution says introduction of a modified or foreign gene to the species into an animal or vegetable wild population.
It is of a relatively recent concept which appeared with the development of the technology of GMO, and about the controversy which it caused. It relates to also the crossings of a wild population with exotic or domesticated lines.
The modification of the domestic species (by crossing in the animal and hybridization at the plant) is old as well as the gene introduction modified or coming from exotic subspecies into the wild population of an area.
One quotes the cases of the Canard mallard, the Sanglier, the Pigeon biset, the wild cock (Gallus gallus), of the ruail Coturnix coturnix, which are hybrident respectively with the Canard domesticates, the Porc, the domestic pigeon or maroon pigeon , the hen and the Caille of Japan but also the carp and more recently the Saumon.
The consequences of genetic pollution are rather badly known and irregular.
- Disappearance of the original stock " pure"
- Reduction in the adaptation to the medium, in setting in danger by this skew
Nevertheless, it seems that there can be according to the species and the nature of genetic pollution a return to the characters of the species, by natural selection, or a balance, in the event of constant contributions.
In the case of the duck mallard, for example, the phenomenon is old: it is considered that there is no more representative of the species which does not have any domestic ancestor. This species is however not put in danger by this contamination.
The recent industrialization of the process, its generalization and the character more " marchandise" genes implemented (resistance to weedkillers for example) largely changed gives it: from now on the opponents with these techniques speak about genetic pollution to evoke the diffusion of the characters modified of the Lignée S of laboratory towards the wild lines.
The not controlled diffusion of modified genes is however not the objective of the producers of GMO, certain vegetable organizations on the contrary being conceived not to produce fertile seeds, in order to make sure a captive market of seeds. This diffusion is thus by accidental nature. Sometimes without consequences, it endangers in certain cases of the wild species, or represents a risk whose importance is badly known.
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