General confederation of Work
The General confederation of work (or CGT) is a French Wage earners association created the September 23rd 1895 with Limoges. She belongs to the five confederations of trade union S of French employees regarded as representative by the State and is that which obtained the most votes (32 %) with the last professional elections. Its current general secretary is Bernard Thibault of the Fédération of the railwaymen. CGT is member of the international Trade-union confederation (CSI) and of the European Confédération of the trade unions (THESE).
Origins at 1919
- 1864 : The May 25th, suppression of the offense of coalition and strike (law L. Olivier). This law puts to a term at the Loi the Hatter. Creation of the International association of the workers to London.
- 1871 : The Common of Paris: The Parisian ones revolt against the capacity and elect an assembly which takes the name of Commune. The repression of the government makes nearly thirty thousand dead. Social work of the Commune of Paris: abolition of the night-work in bakeries, democratic management of the companies closed by employers or working for the Commune. Appearance of the first femininist movement of mass.
- 1871 - 1883: In spite of the militant hecatomb of 1871, the decade sees bursting of many strikes. A police report counts 182 trade unions gathering 31.700 members in 1876. Four years later, the figures are respectively of 478 and 64.000.
- 1884: The March 21st, vote of the law legalizing the working and employers' trade unions on the initiative of Waldeck-Rousseau.
- 1886 : Creation of the National federation of the trade unions (FNS), inspiration guesdist. Jules Guesde, one of the most known Socialists and most active, contribute to the diffusion of the ideas of Karl Marx in France.
- 1887 : Creation of the Labor market of Paris.
- 1892 : Creation of the Federation of the Labor markets, marked by the revolutionary trade unionism of Fernand Pelloutier.
- 1895 : Congress constitutive of the general confederation of CGT work to Limoges of the 23 with the September 28th. The principal pillars of it are the federation of the book and that of the railwaymen, but of many trades remain out of CGT. Until 1902, the confederal level remains badly organized and its general secretaries not with the height.
- 1900 : Creation of the newspaper “the voice of the people”, body of CGT.
- 1901 : Death of Fernand Pelloutier.
- 1902 : The year marks the opening of a new period in the life of CGT. With the congress of Montpellier it completes its unit. The Fédération of the Labor markets is erased as a power station and its organizations are integrated in CGT. This unit carried out constitutes a center of attraction for much of organizations remained up to that point in the expectancy. The trade union structure with the action of men like Victor Griffuelhes and Emile Pouget. CGT counts 100.000 members then.
- 1904 : The Congrès of Bourges adopts the claim of the day 8 hours.
- 1906 :
- Charter of Amiens: this charter adopted in congress, gives to the confederal trade unionism some its specific features: the Class struggle, the daily fight for immediate improvements but also the fight for disappearance of the Wage-earning and employers, like its independence with respect to the political organizations. This Charter is taken again today like reference by the majority of the trade unions. At the time of the congress, the guesdists are put in minority by the revolutionists and the reformists. The congress also breaks with the international Trade union federation.
- the first day of action for the day 8 hours on May 1st is prolonged by strikes throughout the month; the claim is not satisfaisaite, but this first joint action at the national level with a great echo.
- 1907 : Adhesion of the National federation of the Trade unions of Teachers.
- 1908 : The federation of the minors rejoins CGT.
- 1909 : Victor Griffuelhes resigns. During its short interim, Louis Niel joins again the bonds with the international Trade union federation, but it must resign under the pressure of the revolutionists. This orientation will not be called into question by its successor, Leon Jouhaux, near to the known as revolutionists, but who will be able to trace his own way gradually.
- the October 5th, appears the first number of the working Vie , which is defined as “Révolutionnaire trade unionist, unparliamentary”. The review is directed by Pierre Monatte. It is the ancestor of the New Working Life (NVO) which is always the review of CGT.
- 1910 : Although required of the congress of 1895, CGT is opposed to the law on the working retirements and country-women with her congress of 1910 by 1049 votes against 251. The revolutionists want to cut down the State, not that it is social. The retirement age being fixed at 65 years when the life expectancy is 50 years, CGT speaks about the " reprocess morts". One also criticizes his management by Capitalisation.
- 1912 : CGT is the only existing trade-union confederation in France, it counts 700 000 members on a total of 7 million employees. The November 24th, it holds an extraordinary congress on the topic of the preventive action against the war.
- 1913 : Constitution of the international trade-union Secretariat in which CGT takes part. February 25th, CGT publishes a proclamation antimilitarist.
- 1914 : CGT counts approximately 300.000 members. CGT organizes trade-union demonstrations against the war the July 27th. The July 31st, Jean Jaurès is assassinated. The August 1st it is the general mobilization and the beginning of war 14/18. The August 3rd, it is the declaration of war of Germany in France. The August 4th, CGT rejoins the Sacred union. At the time of the CCN of CGT, held of the November 26th with the December 5th, only a minority decides against the war. During the 4 years of war, some militants CGT such Felix Baudy were to shoot for the example after being indicated for reason for membership of CGT.
- 1915 : Resignation of Pierre Monatte the January 3rd in protest against the rallying of CGT to the Sacred union. The war makes fall manpower with 50.000 members.
- 1917 : In the year, one counts 696 Grève S and 293 810 strikers in France. In parallel, manpower go back to 300 000. On November 6th and 7th it is the rupture of the Sacred union. At the same time takes place the Révolution of October in Russia.
- 1918 : In the year one counts 499 strikes and 176.187 strikers in France and CGT passes to 600 000 members.
- 1919 : March 25th: law on the collective agreements. March 28th: law removing the night-work in bakeries. April 23rd: laws over the 8 hours day. May 1st general strike 24 hours marked by 500.000 demonstrators in Paris (1 dead). CGT passes to a manpower of 1 million and half of members. In the year, one counts 2.206 strikes and 1 160 000 strikers in France. Creation of the French Confederation of the Christian workers (CFTC) with the benevolence of employers. April 30th: Pierre Monatte creates the revolutionary Comités trade unionists.
First scission at 1940
1920: The January 8th, inauguration of the Economic and Social Council (initiative of CGT). From the 25 with the February 29th, the Socialist party holds congress in Strasbourg and withdraws the 2nd international one. March 12th, vote of the relative law to the trade union rights. May 1st: CGT decides the general strike. In 15 days one counts 1,5 million strikers. The May 22nd, resumption of work. The strike of the railwaymen for the Nationalization of the railroads will be a failure. Following this movement, the 11th room of the magistrates' court will order even the January 13rd 1921 the dissolution of CGT, sanction which will never be applied. By-effect of the failures (and certain social skills?), manpower pass by again with 700 000. In May, CGT receives the adhesion of the Federation of the Employees of the State.
- 1921 : To the Congress of Turns of SFIO (1920), scission enters the reformists and the revolutionists. The congress of Lille in July avoids the scission in the trade union, where majority and minority are with the neck and neck, but division is consumed in December. Following the exclusion of the federation of the railwaymen, the revolutionists leave CGT, and create CGTU (General confederation of Unit Work), near to the PCF. Birth of the newspaper “the People”, official body of CGT.
- 1922 : At the time of its first congress, June 25th at July 1st with Saint-Etienne, the CGTU decides to rejoin International Trade-union the red. It fights the Taylorisme, then in full rise. The CGTU counts approximately 250  then; 000 members, definitely less than other CGT.
- 1924 : The very minority trade unionist-revolutionists , who directed in particular the departmental union of the Rhone, leaves the CGTU and founds CGT-SR.
- 1925 : The CGTU asserts two weeks of Paid vacations to its congress of 1925. Pierre Monatte founds the proletarian Revolution , where it calls with the reunification of CGT.
- 1927 : Departure of the Federation of the Employees of the State, which had adhered in May 1920.
- 1930 : Final vote of the law on the Social Security the April 30th, which between in application the June 30th, after ten years of debates, during which the CGTU denounced them, whereas CGT supported them. A double contribution, employers' and wage, abounded by the State, obligatory for the employees gaining more 15 000 francs per annum finance these insurances. Beyond the disease, the Social Security covers also the fields of old age, premature disability and the involuntary unemployment.
- the November 30th, installation of the " commission of the 22" for the reunification of CGT: the failure is obvious at the end of 1932.
- Benoît Frachon becomes general secretary of the CGTU.
- Progression of the unemployment which reaches already 450.000 people in 1931 and will amount to 860.000 in 1936.
- 1932: After a progression at the end of the Twenties to 300.000 members, the CGTU falls down to 258.000 in 1932. CGT knows a parallel evolution; it counts 490 000 members in 1921 as in 1933, after having had also a transitory progression at the end of the Twenties. During the not very claiming time between 1924 and 1934, approximately 50% of the conflicts finish in an unfruitful way.
- 1933 : The accession with the capacity of Adolf Hitler in Germany reveals the bankruptcy of the fight plan against the social democracy of the Komintern. The planning, theorized in 1927 by the Belgian Henri de Man in Beyond the Marxism is a vector of bringing together of the two components. But 1934 will have to be awaited so that the concrete effects appear.
- 1934 - 1935: In response with the riot of the February 6th, a call to the general strike “against the Fascism” on the initiative of CGT and the CGTU for the February 12th gives place to a convergence of the two processions places Nation. The May 30th, Maurice Thorez gives his downstream to a bringing together of two CGT. The October 9th begin from the discussions for the reunification, which will lead the July 14th 1935 to a program of Popular front. Two simultaneous separate congresses of the 24 to the October 27th give their downstream to the reunification.
- 1936 :
- Reunification of CGT and the CGTU at the time of the congress of Toulouse (2 - March 5th); confederated largely dominate the CGT news. Adhesion with the FSI is voted by 5500 mandates against 2500. Theunit ones control only seven departmental unions.
- the May 26th a wave of strikes marked by occupations of factories starts with the Havre and extends like a powder trail everywhere in France, contrary to the unfruitful movements of 1906 and 1919-1920. The June 7th, are signed the Accords of Matignon, between CGT and Employers. The 11 and June 12th are voted the social laws over the extension of the Collective agreements, the delegated institution of workshop, the raising of the Salaire S, 15 days of Paid vacations and the week of the 40 hours.
- 1937 : CGT quadrupled its audience and counts 4 million members. The internal power struggle changed in favor of theunit ones. The federation of the metallurgy of Ambroise Croizat thus passed to 750 000 members. Development of the social works managed by CGT.
- 1938 :
- the Accords of Munich cause the polemic between the various tendencies of CGT. They are defended by the tendency Syndicats (20% of CGT) directed by Rene Belin, when theunit ones denounce them. The center of Leon Jouhaux, Projecting Louis and Robert Bothereau is combined with theunit ones (close relations of the PCF).
- Failure of the strike against the Orders in Council of Paul Reynaud of the November 12th which found the six days week. Badly prepared after the congress of Nantes, the strike of the end of the month is a failure. 15 000 militants are laid off and CGT loses a quarter of its manpower, which remain nevertheless high with 2 million and half of members.
- 1939 : The August 23rd, the Pact germano-Soviet between Ribbentrop and Molotov sows consternation in CGT and exacerbates the tensions against the Communists. Beginning of the Second world war the September 3rd. The September 18th, the Confederal office of CGT votes a declaration excluding the militants who refuse to condemn the Pacte germano-Soviet. This decision is approved by the Administrative Commission of CGT the September 25th, which causes to exclude the Communists from CGT. More than 600 trade unions are dissolved and of many militants and excluded leaders are stopped. Those which are not stopped, nor mobilized, will enter clandestinity.
- 1940 :
- CGT does not count any more that 500.000 members when the government makes vote, little before his fall, the 60 hours of work per week.
- the August 16th, the Vichy government of Pétain dissolves the working and employers' central trade-unions, of which the CGT; the federations can however theoretically continue their action. The October 9th, Rene Belin, become collaborator minister institutes the Charte of work. The October 15th, twelve leaders trade unionists, of which three of the CFTC make public an opposite text known like the Manifeste of the Twelve.
From 1941 to 19481941: Promulgation of the Charter of work prohibiting the Strike S and the Lockout the October 4th. As of winter 40/41, publication of the first clandestine newspapers. Development of the “popular committees” which organize the first wage claims disputes. May 26th with the June 9th takes place the strike of the minors of North and the Pas-de-Calais. Intervention of the Germans: 327 arrests. In October: execution by the Germans of 88 hostages mainly made up of CGT militants excluded, including 27 of Chateaubriant.
1943: Agreements of Perreux, signed the April 17th by Robert Bothereau and Projecting Louis for “ex-confederated”; Henri Raynaud and Andre Tollet for the “ex-unit ones”, reconstitutes CGT. CGT reunified takes part in the constitution of the National council of the Resistance (France) (CNR) which takes place the May 27th.
1944: Publication the March 15th of the Program of the CNR (defining the nationalizations, the Social security and the work's councils) where CGT is represented by Louis Saillant. August 10th, the Strike of the Railwaymen of the Paris region starts and extends at all the public services. The August 15th, the Parisian police force enters the strike. The August 18th, CGT clandestine calls with the General strike for the Libération. The following day it is the release of the Parisian insurrection, which will end with the Libération of Paris the August 25th and the arrival of the Général de Gaulle. The August 26th, CGT settles at the great day in its buildings of 213 rue Lafayette: it is the end of clandestinity with a first meeting of its office. The September 8th, its newspaper “the Working Life” which had appeared in the form of leaflet during the occupation, reappears at the great day. Creation of the General confederation of the executives (CGC).
1945: Beginning of the Nationalization S, creation of the work's councils and installation of the Social security. Creation of the world Trade union federation (FSM) to which adheres CGT. 1946: From April 8th to 12th takes place the 26e congress of CGT in Paris, which sees a clear domination of the " unitaires" (close relations of the PCF). She asserts the figure of 5 million and half of members. The report/ratio of Benoît Frachon is adopted by 84,4% of the voices. October 5th, promulgation of the General status of the Civils servant by the minister Maurice Thorez. Beginning of the War of Indo-China (November 19th 1946). Throughout all conflict, CGT organizes demonstrations of solidarity with regard to the Vietnamese people and in favor of peace.
1947: CGT obtains 59% of the voices at the time of the first election to the Social security, but the CFTC records an opening with 26% of the voices. May 1st, great demonstrations for the claims with the call of CGT. The May 5th, ousting of the communist Ministers for the government. In June, strikes at Citroen, with the SNCF, in the banks, the department stores. The Ramadier Prime Minister speaks about “clandestine leader”. In July, strikes with EDF, then at Peugeot, Berliet, Michelin. , CGT agreement/CNPF for an increase of 11% denounced by the government.
On November 13rd and 14th division is accentuated at the National Confederal Committee (CCN) of CGT between the majority and the minority in connection with the Marshall plan and of the strike movements. The majority, faithful to Moscow, refuses the Marshall plan. The December 19th, it is the scission and the creation by the minority ones (which refuse the tender with the PC) of the confederation Working force (FO). FO will hold its constitutive congress in April 1948 carrying approximately 300 000 members, is a clear minority.
From 1948 to 20001949: Division: the FSM criticizes the Marshall plan and the American influence in Europe, which causes a scission. The trade unions of the United States, England and the Netherlands withdraw FSM. They create the international Confédération of the free trade unions (CISL) to which adheres the CGT-FO. 1950: Conquests: vote law on the Collective agreements. Creation of the guaranteed interprofessional Minimum wage (Smig). 1953: Retirements: from August 4th to 25th, great strike in the public services. The August 4th, CGT then CFTC calls at one day of action of the sectors public and nationalized against the retreat of the age to the retirement. The post-office employees of Bordeaux decide the continuation of the movement. At once the confederations CGT, FO, CFTC call with the general strike in these sectors. The August 14th, one counts four million strikers. 1954: Release: beginning of the war of Algeria (November 1st). During all the conflict CGT supports “the claims of the Algerians and their national aspirations. ” 1956: Conquest: third week of paid vacations. 1962: Peace: February 8th, a hard repressed anti-OAS demonstration makes 9 dead, for the majority members of CGT, with the subway Charonne. Agreements of Evian, end of the War of Algeria (March 18th). 1963: Minors: with the call of CGT and FO, vast strike movement of the minors. They worry about uncertainties weighing on their profession and assert a wage increase. 1966: Unit: claiming agreement between CGT and the CFDT, which created for itself in November 1964 on the basis of CFTC.
1967: Georges Séguy succeeds Benoît Frachon at the time of the 36e congress held of the 11 with the June 16th. May 68: General strike: in May and June seven million workers in strike occupies their factories. Report of Grenelle: increase of 35% of the minimum wage, recognition of the local union to the company… 1970: New agreement CGT-CFDT, the December 15th, on priority claims: revalorization of the SMIC, retirement at 60 years, 40 hours week, use, hours of trade-union formation.
1972: CGT supports the common Programme Left.
1982: Left government: vote Law of nationalization (five industry groups, 36 banks). Ordinances reducing the weekly Working time to 39 hours, instituting the fifth week of Paid vacations and bringing back the age of the retirement to 60 years. Laws on the rights of the workers in the company, in particular the right of expression during the working time. Creation of the Committees of hygiene, safety and work conditions (CHSCT). 1988: Nurses: strike movement of the nurses to the call of a National coordination which claims in particular a significant growth of the wages and true means for the formation. After the defection of the other trade unions, CGT is alone to support the movement.
1993: At the time of the political elections, CGT does not give any call to vote. 1995: Burden and departure with the FSM: important strike movements against the plan of Alain Juppe (November-December), in which Bernard Thibault is illustrated. At the time of sound 45e Congress, CGT decides to renovate its statutes and to leave the FSM. 1999: CGT adheres to the European Confédération Trade unions, founded in 1973. Second law on the 35 hours, which become the legal duration of work on January 1st 2000.
2002: Last conciliation board elections . CGT remains Net leader with 32,13% of the voices (- 0,98%) in front of CFDT 25,33%. 2003: Retirements: important social movements against the project of Law Fillon (May-June) http://www.ihs.cgt.fr/
2005: The February 9th, the national confederal committee (CCN), the “Parliament” of the trade union, recommends the rejection of the European Constitution, against the opinion of the general secretary Bernard Thibault. The congress of 2006 is advanced of a few months.
OrganizationWith 32,1% of the voices to the last conciliation board elections (December 2002), CGT is the first trade-union organization of France in audience, but second behind CFDT in terms of asserted members (873 000), with nearly 711.049 members (2004)
CGT includes/understands 22.000 trade unions or basic sections, gathered in 33 professional federations, of which most important are those of the railwaymen, the metallurgy, Mine-Energy, the postal and telecommunications authorities, Health, and of Transport.
CGT counts also two unions, of the engineers, frameworks and technicians (UGICT) and of reprocessed (UCR), as well as a National committee of fight and defense of the unemployed.
It is divided into 857 local unions (UL), 96 departmental unions (UD), gathered in 21 interprofessional regional committees. The most important areas are the Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, areas PACA and the Rhone-Alps.
The leading authorities of the power station are the Confederal office (12 members) and the executive commission (54). The office is elected within the executive commission by the national confederal committee (CCN, 300 members), which joins together three to four times per annum the representatives of the departments, areas and federations and which constitutes the " parlement" of CGT.
The structuring of CGT is rather confused. With 30 federations, CGT has of it the double of CFDT with a cutting inherited the history which is not very coherent. The multiplicity of the basic trade unions makes that much of them is too small to have a satisfactory operation. After the reform of the contributions voted with the congress of 2006, the clarification of its structures remains a big challenge for CGT.
- agroalimentary and forest National federation CGT (FNAF-CGT)
- National federation of the trade unions of the spectacle of audio-visual and the cultural activity CGT (FNSAC-CGT)
- Federation of education of research and the culture CGT (FERC-CGT)
- National federation of the equipment and the environment CGT (CGT Equipment)
- Federation of health and the social action CGT (Santeas CGT)
- Federation of Finances CGT (CGT Finances)
- National federation of chemical industries CGT (FNIC-CGT)
- National union of the journalists CGT (SNJ-CGT)
- National federation of the mines and ofenergy CGT (FNME-CGT)
- Federation of the commercial naval officers CGT (FOMM-CGT)
- National federation of the personnel of the social welfare CGT (orgasociaux CGT)
- Federation of the personnel of the trade of the distributions and the services CGT
- National federation of the ports and docks CGT
- National federation of the professionals of the sale CGT
- National federation of paid construction CGT (CGT Construction)
- Federation of the public services CGT
- Federation of the survey firms CGT
- Federation of transport CGT
- National federation of the maritime trade unions CGT (FNSM-CGT)
- Federation of the tobaccos and matches CGT
- Federation of the workers frameworks and technicians of the railroads CGT (CGT Railwaymen)
- National federation of the workers of the State CGT (FNTE-CGT)
- Federation of the workers of the metallurgy CGT (FTM-CGT)
- Federation of the workers of industries of wood, furnishing and related CGT
- Federation of the workers of the communication and paper, book-related industries CGT (Filpac-CGT)
- National federation of the workers of glass and ceramics CGT
- general Federation of the trade unions of the National police force CGT
- textile Federation clothing leather CGT
- National federation of paid sector of the postal activities and telecommunications CGT (FAPT-CGT)
- Federation of the trade unions of the personnel of the bank and insurance CGT
- General union of the civil servant federations (UGFF-CGT)
- General union of the engineers, frameworks and technicians CGT (UGICT-CGT)
- confederal Union of reprocessed CGT (UCR-CGT)
- Young CGT
- National committee of fight and defense of the unemployed CGT
List general secretaries*De 1945 to 1957, the Office of CGT is composed of two general secretaries. (Modification of article 9 at the time of the 26e Congress of CGT in 1946)
CGT was blamed by the parquet floor of Paris which suspect of the embezzlements coming from the work's council of EDF. Bernard Thibault was heard (as a simple witness), her assistant having been according to the judge of Huy paid by the EC from EDF, having managed only by CGT. CGT it contradicts any embezzlement at the EC of EDF-GDF, affirming that " the expenditure is controlled permanently since ten years, there is a board of appeals of offre".
- the Confederal office of Cgt
- the General confederation of unit work
- confederal Congress of 2006
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