Garry Kimovitch Kasparov (in, born with Bakou (the USSR, today in Azerbaïdjan) the April 13rd 1963) is a Russian player of failures, considered by much as the best player of all times. He obtained the Classement Elo highest ever recorded, being in particular the first player to exceed them: 2800 points. He is called “ the ogre of Bakou ” or “ the monster with the hundred eyes which see all ”. He is also politically committed in the opposition to Vladimir Poutine.
BiographyWith the birth, its name is Garik Kimovitch Weinstein , of a Jewish father, but it took again the name of his mother, Armenian origin, Kasparian, by Russianizing it.
In 1973, recommended by Alexandre Nikitine, it enters to the school Botvinnik (which is the best school of formation to the failures in the USSR). It follows the courses of Mikhaïl Botvinnik, former world champion, of Nikitine, and Dvoretsky Mark, specialist in the ends of parts. Other Masters contributed to his formation like Alexandre Ivanovich Chakarov, inter alia in the field of the openings. With the passing of years, at the time of its master keys of weapons for the championship of the world, it will be helped of a team of assisting like Iossif Dorfman, Zourab Amaïparachvili, Serguéï Dolmatov, Evguéni Vladimirov, and Yuri Dokoyan.
It disputes its first final of championship of the world in 1984 against Anatoli Karpov, the world champion titrates some since 1975, but the match is stopped by FIDE (International federation of the failures) to preserve the health of the players at the time of a match marathon. This interruption is criticized by Kasparov. But it is in 1985, at the time of the second match against Karpov, which he becomes world champion, at the 22 years age. It keeps its title, always against Karpov, in 1986, 1987 and 1990.
In 1992, it is scrambled with the FIDE for financial reasons and policies. It is excluded, and creates an association of high level professional players then, the GMA ( Grand Master Association ), which must organize a championship of the world (a). It thus obtains its championship of world GMA in 1993, by beating in match the British Nigel Short. In 1995, it preserves its title by beating the Indian Viswanathan Anand.
In May 1997, for the first time, a computer beats officially a world champion in singular match (at normal rate of competition). The Supercomputer Deeper Blue, of the company IBM, demolishes Kasparov 3,5 to 2,5 in a match of 6 parts. In July 1999, Kasparov reaches highest Classement Elo of all times with 2851 points.
Its association beating of the wing, it creates some another, the PCA ( Professional Chess Association ), then it is a private organization which takes again the championship of the world (a) in 2000. With the great surprise of all, it loses against Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. Between 2000 and 2005, the various attempts to reunify the world title or to organize a match-revenge against Kramnik fail.
Since then, even without championship of the world, there remain n°1 world, being always 1st with the Elo classification of the FIDE. It multiplies the victories in tournament, in spite of some momentary against-performances in 2004. It disputes in parallel some lucrative match-exhibitions against computer programs, even if the conditions of organization and broad remunerations granted to Kasparov by the editors of the software let plane some doubts about its real motivations for these matches, and thus on the result. The March 11th 2005, after having gained the prestigious Tournament of Linares, it announces that it withdraws world of the professional failures. It will be striped Elo classification one year after, like wants it payment FIDE.
Kasparov also wrote several works échiquéens whose And the insane one became king (1987) and On my large predecessors .
Political commitmentKasparov continues a political career in Russia. Founder of the civic Face unified, it is one of the chiefs of the movement Other Russia, a coalition of opponents with Vladimir Poutine. He was in particular briefly challenged at the time of a manifestation of the movement in Moscow on April 14th, 2007. He was stopped once again on November 24th, 2007 at the time of a demonstration in Moscow against the behavior on December 2nd, 2007 of Russian legislative elections which he considers unjust “.
Since its political commitment in opposition against the president, Garry Kasparov known as anxious for its life. It has for example five bodyguards permanently and does not travel any more with the company Aeroflot.
Kasparov is also one of the defenders of the Nouvelle Chronology of the Russian academician Anatoli Fomenko.
September 30th, 2007 it was designated as the candidate of the movement of opposition Other Russia to the presidential election of 2008 in Russia.
Example of partThe part Kasparov- Topalov, played tournament of Wijk aan Zee in 1999, watch one of its best combinations. When one asked Kasparov which was its best part, it quoted this part, although if Topalov had played as well as possible, it seems that the remarkable sacrifice of Turn of Kasparov to the 24e blow would have only ensured the division to him of the point.
1.e4 d6 2.d4 Cf6 3.Cc3 g6 4.Fe3 Fg7 5.Dd2 c6 6.f3 b5 7.Cge2 Cbd7 8.Fh6 Fxh6 9.Dxh6 Fb7 10.a3 e5 11.0-0-0 De7 12.Rb1 a6 13.Cc1 0-0-0 14.Cb3 exd4 15.Txd4 c5 16.Td1 Cb6 17.g3 Rb8 18.Ca5 Fa8 19.Fh3 d5 20.Df4+ Ra7 21.The1 d4 22.Cd5 Cbxd5 23.exd5 Dd6 (see diagram)
24. Txd4! cxd4 25.Te7+! Rb6 (Dxe7? 26.Dxd4+ Rb8 27.Db6+ followed chechmate) 26.Dxd4+ Rxa5 27.b4+ Ra4 28.Dc3 Dxd5 29.Ta7 Fb7 30.Txb7 Dc4 (the threat of the White was Ff1 followed by Fxb5) 31.Dxf6 Rxa3 32.Dxa6+ Rxb4 33.c3+! Rxc3 34.Da1+ Rd2 35.Db2+ Rd1 36.Ff1! Td2 (Dxf1 37.Dc2+ followed chechmate) 37.Td7! Txd7 38.Fxc4 bxc4 39.Dxh8 Td3 40.Da8 c3 41.Da4+ Re1 42.f4 f5 43.Rc1 Td2 44.Da7 1-0 ...
- Garry Kasparov, And the insane one became king .
- Garry Kasparov, the life is part of failures , Éditions JC Lattès, Paris, October 2007, ISBN/EAN: 9782709627719.
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