the very horrific life of large Gargantua, father of Pantagruel , or more simply Gargantua , is the Romance second of François Rabelais. The first publication dated from Gargantua goes up with 1534. The author worked over again the text later on. Gargantua was written after Pantagruel (published in 1532), but Gargantua is the father of Pantagruel and when in 1542 the two works were published simultaneously, Gargantua was placed at the head
Gargantua is undoubtedly the narrative text most famous of the French Renaissance. Of a structure comparable with that of Pantagruel , but of a more complex writing, it tells the years of training and the warlike exploits of the Gargantua giant. Plea for a humanistic culture against heavinesses of a fixed teaching sorbonnard, Gargantua is also a novel full with liveliness, a great lexical richness, and an often believed writing, readily Scatologique (which has report/ratio with the excrements).
In prey with the censure of the Sorbonne (Pantagruel is condemned by the Sorbonne in 1534) Rabelais published Gargantua under the same pseudonym as Pantagruel : Alcofrybas Nasier (Anagram of François Rabelais) Abstractor of Fifth Gasoline.
In 1542 is published an anonymous work, the large and priceless cronic: grant and enormous giant Gargantua He takes again an old bottom which shows through in innumerable popular traditions. Behind the truculent giant and glouton hiding place itself a very former apparently benevolent divinity who perhaps goes up, like the construction of the drawn up stones, beyond the Celts, like says it G.E. Plundering in Gargantua truth. Mythology of a giant . Already George Sand raised, in the Rustic Legends : “I would believe that Gargantua is the work of the people and that, as all the great creators, Rabelais took his good where it found it. ”. Gargantua be there is called the Fay (to indicate for example a number of page in the éditin on line) and as all the Fairies - Morgane the Fairy is known as its godmother - it with the control of the forms and transforms themselves particularly into Dragon, which attaches it to the Vouivre representing telluric energies. Henri Dontenville and Henri Fromage allot this dimension of “dragon to him”. The sonority GRG, that one finds in the names of his fathers and mother, Grandgousier and Gargamelle, and which comprises the idea to swallow, is found besides in Gargouille , dragon of the forest of Vouvray, in Grand' Goule , dragon formerly left in procession in the streets Poitiers, and the Graoully-Grawelin of Metz overcome by Clément saint approaches some, as it is shown in Vouivre, a universal symbol (K. Appavou and R.R. Mougeot).
Gargantua can be seen by the people like the personalization of a gigantic, but beneficial energy which orders paramount chaos. In its voyages, it modifies the landscapes while dropping the contents from its hood. The dépâtures of its shoes give hills and hillocks, its dejections form needles and its micturitions of the rivers! Many megaliths are metal discs of Gargantua called chair, armchair, bowl… It is a nonconscious, but directed energy recognized like beneficial. The stones of Gargantua give place to worships of fruitfulness and its third leg is famous! See in that the giant of 54 meters engraved on the slope of Abbas Ring in Dorset in the United Kingdom. It is a phallic divinity who will be also represented in form anguipède, with sometimes a head of ram.
Christianity the diabolisa by baptizing the places, pits, rock chaos, drawn up stones known as of Gargantua in places, pits, chaos, stones of the devil. In same time, it is christianized as a Gorgon saint who replaces it for the worship of fruitfulness, as with Rouen. The Mount Saint-Michel was an old place of worship in Gargantua and the Tombelaine small island would be the burial of Gargamelle. Many Gargans Mounts have, like him, a relationship with the holy Archangel Michel, thus are it in Rouen of the district still called Mont Gargan and, on the heights of the Coast Holy-Catherine, are of it a Saint-Michel priory. The Saint-Paul church of the Neubourg, in the Eure has a stained glass entitled “the triumph of Saint-Michel” and the scene of bottom represents “How Saint-Michel appeared with the Sipoim bishop with the Gargan Mount”. Near Limoges a hill bears the name of Gargan Mount. With Bordeaux, on the southern door of the church Saint-Michel, the miracle of the Gargan Mount is reproduced. There still exists in France of other Gargan Mounts, close to Neufchâtel-in-Bray, with Haudivilliers close to Beauvais, in Tarentaise, with Saffré in Loire-Atlantique, on the Méjean causse…, without counting the rivers Gargas, Gargelle or Jarjattes, the caves like the prehistoric cave of Gargas, famous for the traces of hands that one finds there. Nostradamus, in Centuria IX , quatrain 62, binds Mont Gargan and appearances of Michel saint. Lastly, Assembles it Gargano of Pouilles Italian became also a high-place of Michel saint.
It is completely probable that these toponyms are recalls of this popular giant on all the French soil.
Childhood and education of Gargantua
Jean Audeau, a simple farmer discovers by accident in enormous a tumulus a small booklet which contains the genealogy of the giants of formerly. Grandgousier, the father of Gargantua adores to eat. He marries Gargamelle, girl of the king of the Butterflies. From their union is born Gargantua whom it carries for eleven months. According to Rabelais, duration of a pregnancy depends the perfection on the newborn: the more the pregnancy lasts a long time, the more the newborn will be a “chief of work”. Gargamelle, enclosure of Gargantua, make cut down hundreds of thousands of oxen for Shrove Tuesday, and it invites friends for this too imposing meal for it. In spite of its state and the remonstrances of her husband, Gargamelle cannot resist the tripe and the wine. They dance, sing, start to dispute. Drunk, they hold of the incoherent remarks. During the drinking bout, Gargamelle feels contractions and puts at the strange world of manner Gargantua. It leaves the ear of his mother and claims at once with drinking.
His/her father, by discovering the child, exclaims: “Which large (gosier) you have” And the child is then called Gargantua. To nurse it, one needs the milk of thousands of cows. Lastly, to calm it, one gives him with drinking. Gargantua is equipped with Blanc and Bleu, the two colors of the blazon of his father. Its clothes are immense, like its shoes, its belt, its sword…
The white symbolizes the joy, the pleasure, the delights and the rejoicings. Blue symbolizes the celestial things. It is Grandgousier which chose these colors. Polemical Rabelais on the colors which Gargantua carries. Rabelais gives the history of the symbolic system of the colors since ancient times. He declares that the white means the victory, cheerfulness and the life, in opposition to the black, symbolizing sadness and mourning. Each color symbolizes emotions that another color contradicted.
Then the childhood of Gargantua is evoked. From three to five years, his/her parents do not impose limits to him: he drinks, eats, sleeps, runs after the butterflies and rolls himself in the refuse according to his good pleasure. He has the same frame of mind as the other children. Gargantua sees himself offering a wooden horse so that it becomes a good rider. He impassions himself for horsemanship, at the point to create itself his own wooden horses. Friends of its father go to Grandgousier and Gargantua to make them a joke. Grandgousier returns victorious and finds his son. During his absence, Gargantua invented a torchecul oison and in front of the intelligence of his/her son, Grandgousier decides to make him learn the Latin letters by a considered theologist, Thubal Holoferne. This last makes him learn and recite by heart, at the place and back, according to the moyenâgeuses methods, the Gothic letters.
His/her father realizes whereas Gargantua abrutit and radote. Grandgousier decides with dead on Thubal Holoferne to give him a new professor. Noticing the lack of progress, Grandgousier complains with the one about his/her friends who recommends Ponocrates to him. For proof of its talent, it brings one of the disciples to him who speaks to him with such an ease that Grandgousier wishes the same pedagog for his son. Ponocrats becomes the Master of Gargantua then. Grandgousier receives in gift of king de Numidie an enormous mare, richly harnessed. Thanks to this offering Gargantua can leave for Paris, and follow the lessons of the famous tutor there, Ponocrates. On the road, the mare drives out the horseflies and the flies of its tail with such a force that it shaves all the forest of Beauce. Gargantua arrives finally at Paris.
Gargantua visits the city of Paris and is the subject of the curiosity of the Parisian ones. Thinking that they await a gift of welcome, Gargantua them Urine above, in pledge of good will, and drowns the majority of the inhabitants. Then, it carries the bells of Notre-Dame to hang them to the neck of its mare. The senior of the survivors is sent by the Sorbonne to try to convince it to return the bells to the city. Janotus de Braquemardo, the messenger of the Sorbonne, is presented to the home of Gargantua and argues in way complexes by taking account the subjects of interests of Gargantua: wine, rewards… This last takes council with close to its tutor. Then Maître Janotus de Braquemardo kneels and begs Gargantua to recover the bells: “Return in César what belongs to César and God what belongs to God”. They burst then of laughing. Gargantua offers gifts to him. Janotus finds the Masters of the Sorbonne but the latter refuse to pay it. Janotus starts at once lawsuit to them on lawsuit. Finally the bells are given in the state and the Parisian ones, to thank Gargantua, look after and nourish his mare.
The work method of Ponocrates initially consists in observing Gargantua, and not intervening. After its Ponocrates observations a new timetable imposes to him and to make him forget its old lessons, it makes him drink a potion which cleans the brain of Gargantua. The Holy-Writings are from now on the base of the knowledge of Gargantua. The physical exercise and hygiene are from now on important in its training. The Master teaches him soldiering and develops his critical spirit. When time is not favourable with the exercises, he learns the Art, the Métallurgie, the Artisanat, the Rhétorique, the Escrime, the Herboristerie… From time to time, he leaves the city to have fun and drive out. Ponocrats makes of Gargantua a scholar.
The war picrocholine
During the Season of the Grape harvest, the shepherds of the soil of Grangousier keep the vines. Salesmen of fouaces pass in the vicinity. The shepherds well politely ask them to sell to them of their fouace, but the fouciars refuse and insult even the shepherds. One of, named them Frogier, is upset these insults and their fact of hearing that they did not have to act in this way, and that the shepherds would have given them, in addition to the money, of the grapes. With these words, Marquet, a fouacier, says to him to come to take its fouace, but it strikes Frogier violently. This one shouts with the murder and lance at the same time a large stick which reaches Marquet with the temple and strikes it. The shepherds and the sharecroppers come to the rescue and drive out the fouaciers. The latter go at once in their king who retorts immediately by mobilizing troops and materials. The army gets under way, plunders and ransacks the countryside of Grandgousier… The abbey of Seuillé, protected by its strong walls, resists. The monks are locked up in the church and request while their enemies steal the grape harvest. Then brother Jean, bold monk, enhardit and so extremely strikes the plunderers with his stick that it kills them. In spite of the Plague, the soldiers plunder all. Picrochole, king de Lerne, then leave the field of the abbey during the night and go in a castle to barricade itself there firmly. Grandgousier learns control from Jean brother and Picrochole, but he wants to preserve peace at all costs. He decides to point out Gargantua and to send a messenger to Picrochole.
Grandgousier writes in Gargantua a letter in which he very states to have granted to Picrochole to save peace. He affirms also his will to defend his grounds of the warlike madness of Picrochole and request with Gargantua to come to lend assistance to him. Grandgousier sends a messenger to Picrochole, Ulrich Gallet, to intimate his conditions to him. This last goes then to the castle of Picrochole.
Ulrich reports to Picrochole the surprise, the anger of Grandgousier which asks for to him the reasons of this betrayed friendship and the war. He also intimates to him to turn over on his grounds, to compensate it and to leave him hostages. Picrochole refuses. With the return of Ulrich, Grandgousier, to avoid the war once again, makes send to Picrochole wealths of refunding of the fouaces, causes hostilities. Picrochole there sees an admission of weakness and seizes all the richnesses which Grandgousier sent to him, without putting an end to the hostilities. During this time, the aide-de-camps of Picrochole draw up the battle plan. They dream that after having subjected easily Grandgousier, they will conquériront the whole of the world.
Gargantua leaves Paris and goes in his father. Left in recognition, Gymnaste and his/her companion fall on plunderers. The latter want the détrousser, but Gymnaste claims to be had. Their chief, Tripet, hesitate to steal the horse of Gymnaste. As Tripet calls it the “good devil”, to frighten them still more, Gymnaste made of the pirouettes and the capers on its horse. The soldiers take fear and flee. To finish, Gymnaste gives the responsability and kills Tripet. This incident brings to Gargantua many information on the lack of military preparation of the enemies. Its mare makes overflow the river while urinating and the enemies downstream are drowned. Then, it shaves of only one blow the castle of Ford of Vède. Lastly, with his companions it passes the ford.
They arrive to Grandgousier, which awaited them impatiently. By painting Gargantua makes fall from his hair of the balls of gun. He had not even realized that, during the attack of the castle of Vède, the defenders had drawn to him above. Grandgousier decides to organize an immense feast for the return of his son. Gargantua wants salad; he picking the famous lettuces largest in a garden and suddenly carries six pilgrims who had sheltered there for the night. He swallows his salad and the pilgrims. Those owe their survival only with the fact that clinging to the teeth of the giant and that inopportunely while touching around them with their stick, they touch a significant point. Gargantua, provided with a toothpick, withdraws them his mouth the ones after the others.
During the supper, Grandgousier explains to Gargantua the reasons of the hostilities to Picrochole. He tells him the courage of Jean brother. Gargantua orders to make it come. The latter are appreciated at once and they start to drinking. Drunk, they digress in incoherent remarks. During the meal, Eudémon, one of the companions of Gargantua, are astonished that the monks are rejected world. Gargantua states to him that they do not work with their hands, that they disturb the mortals, and that they live sins of the men. Gymnasium wonders about the fact that the clerks have of so long noses. Frère Jean tells him that its nurse had the soft centres and that its nose was inserted there as in butter and that it grew like the paste with leaven.
After the meal, Gargantua and his companions decide to attack at midnight the troops of Picrochole. Gargantua is not able to fall asleep. Then Jean brother advises to him to request God and with the first psalm, they fall asleep both. At midnight, the monk, accustomed to the rate/rhythm of crossbred, wakes up in start and awakes all his comrades in arms. Then he issues that each morning, he will purge himself with wine. All prepare then, to pass to the attack. The monk encourages his comrades in arms but over-estimates his warlike capacities. Vituperating against the enemy, there passes under a walnut tree and remains hung there. Eudémon climbs in the tree and takes down the monk. Frère Jean gives up his warlike equipment and keeps only its stick.
After having been informed of the rout of Tripet, and believer that Gargantua is really accompanied by demons, Picrochole sends an avant-garde which it made sprinkle of water bénite. Gargantua and the avant-garde meets. The enemy soldiers, terrorized by Jean brother who shouts “by all the devils,” flee except their chief, Tyravant, which charges lowered head. Frère Jean strikes it then, only, continues the routed army. Gargantua decides not to charge. But finally, Jean brother is made prisoner and the avant-garde against attack. Gargantua takes again the top of the battle. Meanwhile, the monk kills his two guards and bottom on the backs of the enemy army in full confusion. He makes captive Toucquedillon, the aide-de-camp of Picrochole.
Gargantua is very unhappy for his friend whom he thinks always captive. Suddenly, this last appears with Toucquedillon and five pilgrims that Picrochole kept as hostages. They feast. Gargantua questions the pilgrims and their offer of the horses to return on their premises. Toucquedillon is presented to Grandgousier. By kindness of heart, it releases it so that it can reason its chief. The friendly countries of Grandgousier propose their assistance to him, but he refuses it because its forces are sufficient. It mobilizes its legions. Toucquedillon proposes in Picrochole to be reconciled with Grandgousier. Hastiveau declares that Toucquedillon is a traitor but this last kills it. And in its Toucquedillon turn is killed by Picrochole. Gargantua and his men attack the castle of Picrochole. The defenders hesitate over the action to be taken. Gargantua passes to the attack and Jean brother kills some soldiers of Picrochole.
Seeing its inescapable defeat, Picrochole decides to flee. On the road, its horse stumbles and by anger it kills it. It then tries to steal an ass to millers who react violently and finally steal it. And since, nobody knows what it became. Gargantua counts the survivors. By benevolence Gargantua releases the soldiers made captive, and it pours three months of balance to them so that they can return on their premises and nourish their families. However, it orders that the advisers of Picrochole are brought back for him. Grandgousier strongly rewards his soldiers and compensates the peasants victims for the war. He organizes an imposing feast where he offers to his lords grounds and privileges.
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