The department of Gard (30) is a department French. It holds its name of Gard, more often called Gardon, a river which crosses it.
Historydetailed Article: History of Gard
XIII-Ier century before JC
This country was, says one, originally occupied by Ibères. Those were driven out by the Celtic people of Volces which took, while being established in this region, the nickname of Arécomiques, i.e. Volces of the flat country, to be distinguished from Volces Tectosages, which occupied the mountains on the side of Toulouse. Eastern civilization was brought on these shores by the Phéniciens, which, of 13th at the 11th century before Jesus-Christ, founded many counters there; by Rhodiens, which, towards - 900, founded Rhoda with the mouth of the the Rhone; finally, by Phocéens, founders of Marseilles. One remembers remote forwardings which joined Arécomiques, under Sigovèse, Bellovèse, Brennus. Trained undoubtedly by Massaliotes in the party of Rome, Arécomiques were opposed in the passing of Annibal and tried to stop it on the edges of the Rhone. It overcame them and passed (- 218). Towards - 154, Arvernes subjected all the country of Arécomiques; but their stay was little of duration, and already they had disappeared when the Romains were shown. The influence of Marseilles decided Arécomiques to be voluntarily submitted (- 121) to the proconsul In. Domitius; in reward, the senate allowed Nimes and the twenty-four boroughs placed in its dependence to preserve their laws, their religion and their uses. Rome found since in Arécomiques from the subjects always faithful and always abroad to the movements which agitated the Gaulle. A few years after, Cimbres and Teutons crossed, with the impetuosity and the devastations of a storm, all the country between the the Rhone, the the Cevennes and the the Pyrenees, and melted on the Spain to then return to be made beat by Marius.
The attachment that Arécomiques consequently dedicated to the winner of the barbarians of North and his Sertorius heir was worth them the hatred of Sylla and Pompée, which gave part of their grounds to the Marseillais. Consequently reason, they were favorably treated by Jules César and Auguste (which more is, of origin nîmoise). Their country was included/understood in the Narbonnaise, later, in the Narbonnese first, and covered Roman monuments which make of Gard the department richest in antiquities of this time.
The cruel invasions, stopped since Marius by the Roman power, started again in 407. Crocus, king of the Vandals, devastated the Narbonnese and reversed several Roman monuments. It was overcome by the second Marius. The Vandals the Visigoths succeeded to which the country of Nimes was subjected. Clovis theirs removed one moment. But the victory of Ibbas, general Ostrogoth, theirs returned, and their domination was disturbed more there only by the revolt of the duke Paul under Wamba (672).
In 720, the Buckwheats, under the emir Zama, are spread to the Rhone; they are overcome two years afterwards by Eudes. Iousouf takes the same way in 737; Charles Martel beats it in its turn. For the third time the country of Nimes is invaded by Buckwheats in 752; but he revolts, form a league and drives out the foreigners. The chief who had been carried to the head of this kind of republic, Ansemond, not feeling enough forces to resist to the Moors a long time, put under the protection of Pépin the Brief and delivered to him Nimes in 752. Pip gave the government of Nimes and Uzès to Radulfe, which was the first count (753).
the Middle Ages
The counts of Nimes became hereditary after Charlemagne, in these times of disorder where the Normands were made so frightening. These pirates unloaded in 858 in the region which occupies us; the Hungarian appeared to with it in their turn in 924 and made dreadful devastations there. But soon Nemosez had lords able to defend it; it was in 956, when the Cécile heiress married Bernard II, Viscount of Albi, whose descendants, become Masters of Béziers and Carcassonne, were so powerful and so famous under the name of Trencavel. The Viscount of Nimes was however detached from the fields of Trencavel, in 1130, to become the prerogative of Bernard, wire junior by Bernard-Athon IV. It was sold in the same century (1185) by Bernard-Athon VI to Raymond V, count of Toulouse, already Master of this part of the region which one called the county of Saint-Gilles. At the beginning of the next century, Simon de Montfort was made it allocate, and its successor gave it to Louis saint, who finally joins together it with the crown of France. Since this time, Nemosez, directly submitted to the royal officers, did not change Masters any more.
The stronghold of Went (Alès) belonged, with the Middle Ages, the house of Pellet, downward of the former counts de Melgueil, who had themselves as authors the first Viscounts of Narbonne. The Pellet, which always claimed in vain the county of Melgueil and the Viscount of Narbonne, were even obliged to be satisfied with half of Went when Simon de Montfort had seized the different one. They kept this half, under the title of baronnie, until the middle of the 17th century. The other half, become part of the field of the crown by the transfer of Amaury de Montfort, was set up in county and passed successively by marriage or sale to Beaufort, Montmorency and Conti.
The Viscount of Uzès, at the beginning of the 16th century, was won over by a marriage with the baron de Crussol; the grandson of this lord made it set up in duchy (1556), then in peerage, and, at the 18th century, the duke of Uzès was already the oldest par of the kingdom, all other peerages being itself extinct before.
At 16th and the 17th century, the dioceses of Nimes, Went and of Uzès were agitated by the religious wars. Although unceasingly persecuted (as of 1660 with the dragonnades), the Protestants were very numerous there, when the revocation of the edict of Nantes (October 18th 1685) struck them of a general proscription. Then, indeed, one sent missionaries and soldiers to them, who converted some of them; but the greatest number loved expatrier better or to suffer for his beliefs.
They were only reversed temples, pastors put at died or sent to the galères, old men, women, children thrown in prison (as with the Tower of Constancy to Acute-Dead where this Protestant woman had engraved on the walls " Resist! "). Much took refuge in the the Cevennes in the north of the department; but, there still, the enquiry continued them, and of the thousands perished there on roughing-hew it or the wheel. Despaired, some Cevennes mountain dwellers armed themselves, the ones of forgery, the others of forks, others of swords or rifles; and, of the mountains of Gard, the Lozere and the Vivarais, the revolt was propagated in the country of Went. Thus started the Guerre of Camisards (1702).
Like all the men of party, the Camisards were badly judged: the ones made of them brigands, others of the heroes, those of the saints and prophets, these of the sacrileges and irreligious people. They was the honest country poor which, tired to be held to ransom and upset by people of war, simply fought for the defense of their goods, their values, their freedoms and their lives. They wanted some especially with clergy, whose intolerance and fanaticism unceasingly requested against them new persecutions. The catholics reflect very with fire and blood in this country, not saving neither the age nor the sex. One quotes villages where several expectant mothers were cut the throat of and of which children, snatches of their center, were carried in procession with the point of a pile.
It is known that this war of extermination lasted three years. But repression lasted until 1744, even 1787 (date of the edict of Tolerance) and even the French revolution (1789) with the declarations of the rights and its article on freedom of religion (written by Gardois Protesting). The Camisards went day and night, and by bands; they called brothers their chiefs. Jean Cavalier, which ordered the bands of the plain or from the country of Went, was hardly a butcher's assistant twenty years old. Burning and courageous, it passed for a prophet and had on his companions an absolute capacity. It had to fight the marshal of Montrevel, which it did successfully; but it went to Villars. It is said that the large king being made present, the young hero, with the sight of his weak air and his small size, it raised the shoulders and the back turned to him.
After these bloody wars, the country of Nimes, from Went and Uzès enjoys a long rest; but the Revolution there awoke old religious passions: the history of the department counts sad pages at that time.
With the Rebirth, and especially with 18th and 19th centuries, Gard makes impressive great strides. In particular, of great fabric manufactures develop in particular in the Cevennes - thus, and it is not a legend, the first jeans (Levi's) were carried out with Nimes with a resistant fabric, initially designed for the Cevennes shepherds and the sailors gênois, then for the colonists of the American west, gold diggers and " cow-boys". From where the terms “Jean (Genoa) Denim (Of Nimes)”. Weaving looms this fabric are visible with the Museum of Old man-Nimes. Soon the production of fabrics and the silk stocking is exported in Europe and in the Spanish Indies. Two thirds of the active population of Nimes are employed in the textile. The city and the department grow rich. Gard changes.
The capital of the department, manufacturing city dedicated to the textile and important commercial place, becomes moreover one essential railway turntable at the time of the installation of the railway network in the years 1830 - 1840.
Here what appears superb private mansions in the cities and villages, here that takes shape an urban revival. With Nimes, by chance, at the Age of Enlightenment, one redécouvre the Roman sanctuary of the Source. One makes a great project of town planning of it. The industry of silk is reconverted into the clothes industry of shawls thanks to the first Jacquard looms initiated by Turion, a workman nîmois. Thirty years of fulgurating success place Gard and Nimes the industrial one at a European row.
Fine XIXe century
But Lyons competition is hard in this second half of the 19th century. Very quickly, before losing money, one reinvests the capital of the textile in the vineyard. The culture of the Vigne is facilitated by the construction of the Canal of the South, the transport of the Vin by that of the railroad, very developed in Gard as of moitiée of the 19th century (in particular thanks to the industrialist Paulin Talabot and with the engineer Charles Dombre).
It is a new era of prosperity. The cities cover private mansions. Lastly, the central station of Gard with Nimes becomes the center of transit of Cevennes coal towards Beaucaire, the the Rhone and Marseilles.
It is to be stressed that this department always was inspired by multiple cultures, this being in particular due to its exceptional geographical location: culture Latin, of Provence, Protestant, Cevennes, camarguaise - and in particular bullfighting -, Languedocien.
Today, Gard is reorganized. In a deliberated dash, its capital, Nimes, combine since a score of years the contemporary art most pointed to the richnesses of the past. She rehabilitates her old districts and extends towards the south. She entrusts her projects of town planning and architecture to the greatest international creators: Norman Foster, Vittorio Gregotti, Kisho Kurokawa, Jean Nouvel, Martial Raysse, Philippe Starck, Jean-Michel Wilmotte…
Technical prowess between all, Fine Geipel and Nicolas Michelin offer to the arenas nîmoises cover of a inflatable, removable fabric at the beautiful days. Winter like summer, Nimes organizes spectacles in the arenas. Today, for reasons of costs but especially of safety of the building and people, the bubble was removed this winter and will not cover from now on any more the arenas for the winters to come.
The vine growing there is always important but privileges from now on largely quality with the quantity. The cultural life is dense there and of many festivals take place in the department during all the year.
Historical or famous characters mark out the history of the department (famous cf Personnages).
Lastly, the passion for the south-east of France and the arrival in 2001 of the Line at Mediterranean high speed, putting Gard at 2:52 of Paris in the TGV, give a new dynamism to the department and contribute for a good portion to its important demographic and economic rise.
Policydetailed Article: Political of Gard
List of the deputies of Gard
- List of the senators of Gard
- List of the general advisers of Gard
- List of the prefects of Common Gard
- of Gard
- Old communes of Gard
Geographydetailed Article: Geography of Gard
Gard belongs to the area Languedoc-Roussillon. It is bordering on the departments of the Rhone delta, of the Ardèche, the Vaucluse, the Herault, and the Lozere. The culminating point is the Mont Aigoual.
Climatedetailed Article: Climate of Gard
Climate of Gard east of the Mediterranean type.
Economydetailed Article: Economy of Gard
Demographydetailed Article: Demography of Gard
The inhabitants of Gard are the Gardois .
Culturedetailed Article: Culture in Gard
Tourismdetailed Article: Tourism in Gard
- Leonce Bénédite (1859-1925), art critic
- Leon Drink, engraver
- Jean Bosc, draftsman
- Frederic Cants, draftsman
- Elisee Cavaillon, sculptor
- Marc Dautry, illustrator
- Albert Dubout, draftsman, sculptor
- Barthélemy Guibal, sculptor
- Bernadette Lafont, actress
- Alexandra Lamy, actress
- Christian Montcouquiol known as Nimeño II, matador
- Léopold Morice, sculptor
- Louis Nataval, sculptor
- Antoine Renard, tenor
- Albert Riffard, sculptor
- Philibert Rouvière, actor
- Jehan Testevuide, caricaturist
- Myriam Abel, singer
- Eve Angéli, singer (it was born in Sete, in the department of Herault and not Gard)
- Elisabeth Barber,
- Henry Battles (1872 - 1922), playwright and famous poet,
- Marc Bernard, writer and Prix Goncourt 1942, with Pareil with children .
- Paul Bonnetain,
- Jean Career (1934 - 2005), Price Goncourt 1972 with the Sparrowhawk of Maheux .
- Jacques Cassagne, abbot
- Andre Chamson (1900 - 1983), member of the French Academy and directing of the Files of France.
- Jean-Pierre Chabrol, born in 1925 with Chamborigaud, writer, journalist and storyteller.
- Antoine Court of Gébelin,
- Ernest Daudet,
- Alphonse Daudet, author in particular of the Letters of my mill and Tartarin de Tarascon . It was born and lived in Nimes, just like his son: Leon Daudet
- Leon Daudet,
- Christian Giudicelli (1942 -): writer, poet, literary chronicler inter alia,
- Pierre Guerin,
- Frederique Hébrard (1927 -), novelist, girl of the academician Andre Chamson, woman of the actor Louis Calve.
- Barthelemy Imbert,
- Bernard Lazare,
- Christian Liger (1937 - 2002),
- Bernard de Montaut Manse,
- Madam of the Walnut tree,
- Jean Paulhan (1884 - 1968), resulting Protestant big families, illustrates writer, critic and editor, creator of the “NRF” - the New French Review. Member of the French Academy,
- Carlo Rim (1902 - 1989), novelist, essay writer, scenario writer and realizer,
- Antoine de Rivarol, 17th Polemist,
- Anne Rulman,
- Jean Bousquet known as " Cacharel ", dressmaker
- Pierre Lanvers,
- Paulin Talabot, creator of the company " PLM" (Company of the Railroads the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranean)
- Louis Boucoiran,
- Bernard Lazare (1865 - 1903), journalist and writer, who it first will take the defense of the captain Alfred Dreyfus in 1895.
- Henri Donnedieu de Vabres, which was only the lawyer representing the France with the Procès of Nuremberg, and the grandfather of a Minister for the culture,
- François Jalabert, jurisconsult
- Philippe Lamour (1903-1992), originating in North, lawyer, journalist and writer. Become farmer in Bellegarde, beginning of the year 40. Craftsman of the qualitative improvement of the wines of Languedoc, it founds the Company of the Low-Rhone and allows the irrigation of part of the area thanks to the channel which bears its name.
- Louis Alexandre d' Albignac, general
- Riding Jean, Chief Camisard
- Jean Carayon, general
- Gabriel Donnadieu, general
- Louis Montcalm, general
- Roland, Chief Camisard
- Louis-Nathaniel Rossel, colonel, deputy secretary with the war of the Commune of Paris
- Maurice Andre, trompetist
- Bruno d' Auzon, type-setter
- François Brémond, horn player
- Jules Duprato, type-setter
- Marguerite Length, pianist
- Etienne Ozi,
- Ferdinand Poise,
- Jean-Pierre Solié,
- Raoul Arus,
- Luc Barbut-Davray,
- Alfred Boisson,
- Numa Boucoiran,
- Auguste Chabaud (1882 - 1955),
- Georges Clairefond,
- Paul Hake,
- Pierre Colonna of Istria,
- Charles Delort,
- Gabriel Ferrier,
- Adolphe Gandon,
- Charles Jalabert,
- Adolphe Jourdan,
- Pierre Lacroix,
- Lucien Lautrec (1909 - 1991),
- Renaud the Old man,
- Charles Natoire (1700 - 1777),
- Jeanne Natoire,
- Jean Pellenc,
- Adolphe Perrot,
- Polished Jacques,
- Jules Rastoux,
- Louis Sabon,
- Gaston Saint-Pierre,
- Jules Room-Wagner,
- Alphonse de Seynes,
- Claude Viallat, born in 1936, cofounder and organizer of the movement " Support-Surface".
- François Chabaud-Latour,
- Gaston Crémieux, revolutionist
- Isaac Crémieux,
- Jean Feuchères, baron d' Empire
- Charles Gide (1845-1932), originating in Uzès, this uncle d' André Gide is the theorist of the co-operative movement.
- Jean-Pierre Michel,
- Besaleël Milhaud,
- Marius Moutet,
- Jean Nicot, diplomat who imported the Tabac in France in 1560 and gave his name to the Nicotine,
- Jean Raymond-Laurent,
- Louis-Nathaniel Rossel, deputy secretary with the war of the Commune of Paris
- Paul Révoil, diplomat
- Henri Serving, diplomatic
- Titus Aurelius Fulvus, paternal Grand-père of the Antonin Roman Emperor Piles. Nimes owes him its title of " city of Antonins".
- Charles Trinquelague,
- Henri Yrissou. senior official
- Gaston Doumergue (1863-1937), 13th President of the Republic of 1924 to 1931. Born and died in the commune of Acute-Sharp.
- Louis Hand-barrow,
- Hippolyte Religious bigot,
- Mathieu Lacroix,
- Jean Michel,
- Jean Reboul (1796 - 1864), poet-baker
- Louis Roumieux,
- Joseph Roustan,
Of the monks
- Raoul To combine, Pasteur and theologist celebrates for his combat for the secularity and the defense of the captain Alfred Dreyfus
- Emmanuel d' Alzon, vicar general (1810-1880) Cevennes
- Claude Brousson, Pasteur
- Saint Beaver, prelate
- Auguste Dide, Pasteur
- Jean Fabre, camisard
- Louis Fontanès, theologist
- Guy Foulques (XIIIe century), born with Saint-Gilles, elected official pope under the name of Clément IV. Died in 1628.
- Holy Leonce, prelate
- Abraham Mazel, prophet of the " Désert"
- Elie Marion, prophet of the " Désert"
- Joseph Martin-Paschoud, Pasteur
- Paul Rabaut, Pasteur of the " Désert"
- Jean-Paul Rabaut-Saint-Etienne, Pasteur
- Rabaut-Apple tree, Pasteur
- Samuel Vincent, theologist
Scientists and philosophers
- Claude Baduel, professor
- Pierre Beams, doctor, meteorologist, botanist, naturalist
- Roger Country house, sociologist
- Marie Boissier, historian
- Robert Chabal, physicist
- Emile Cheysson, engineer
- Gaston Darboux, mathematician
- Ernest Denis, historian specialist in the Czechoslovakia regarded as cofounder of the new Czechoslovakian State in 1918. A bust commemorates it on a place of Prague.
- Charles Dombre, engineer
- Emile Doumergue, historian
- Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800-1884), famous chemist and politician born in Alès. Member of the French Academy, it was also parliamentary and Minister Commercial and Agriculture.
- Louis Dumas, musicographe
- Eugene Flachat, engineer
- Albert Gisclard, engineer
- Alain Grill, engineer
- Henri Lacombe, hydrographic engineer
- Louis Massebieau, historian
- Gaston Milhaud, philosopher
- Frederic Paulhan, philosopher and father of Jean Paulhan
- François Perrier, geodesist born in Valleraugues. Member of the Academy of Science, he was also President of the General advice of his area.
- Jean Quet, physicist
- Jean-François Séguier, botanist
- Benjamin Valz (1787 - 1867), astronomer of reputation
- Marcel Verdet, physicist
- Laurent Blanc, footballer originating in Rousson born in 1965 in Alès, world champion in 1998 with the team of France.
- Emmanuel Boileau de Castelnau, mountaineer
- Jean-Philippe Gatien, pongist originating in Salindres born in 1968 in Alès, world champion and Olympic vice-champion.
- Eva Serrano, gymnaste
- French Department
- List of bridges of Gard
- Prefecture of Gard
- General advice of Gard
- Tourism in the Cevennes the Mediterranean
- Nemausensis - History of Nimes and of Gard
- Site general practitioner on the Town of Nimes and the department of Gard
- Gate of tourism in Gard
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