In Breton, the French language (French) says " galleg" , gallo is same family, i.e. in Breton language, the Romance dialect spoken in High-Brittany about the family about French. The Breton word " Gall" designated initially Gaulle then France and by extension, gallo meant French.
Saun the galo poènt of Bertaèyn! ( Without the gallo not of Brittany )
gallo, alternative galo or gallot
- language gallèse
The gallo is a language of Oil, with the departure very close to the Angevin. However, in Brittany, one does not speak about angevin but about gallo or language gallèse. The gallo is resulting from the Latin popular, introduced in Gaulle by the Roman conquest, which supplanted little by little the common language Gaulois E of origin Celtic. The popular pronunciation deteriorated this Latin de Gaulle. The French and the gallo result from same popular Latin of the Roman Bas-Empire. They evolved/moved differently while remaining very close and comprehensible by their speakers, the gallo remaining generally more antiquated, keeping forms older than French (for example vigil for Veillée) and of many common features with the Breton one in particular in the vocabulary. The territorial unit facilitated the diffusion of French in the nobility and the practice of the gallo, remaining an exclusively spoken language, was confined in the rural areas until the 20th century. One speaks traditionally about gallo for the oriental party of the Brittany (High-Brittany) with some lexical, grammatical differences and of strong differences in pronunciation. In the west, especially in the places where the gallo was established only very recently (Guérande, Questembert, Saint Caradec) the gallo was largely influenced by a Breton substrate, as well grammatically as lexicalement, however the gallo remains much closer of its Romance origin than of the Breton one. In the south of the Loire (Country of Retz, Nantes Vineyard, Steps Brittany-Poitou and Breton Marsh) the gallo is strongly influenced by the dialect Poitevin. The area of Aleth (Saint-Malo - Cancale) and of the South-Avranchin presents a gallo influenced by the Normand. The chronicles of the 15th century show that there was mutual comprehension between people of course and that no interpreter was then necessary of Mayenne to High Brittany. Moreover it is today very difficult for a neophyte to see the difference between the various languages of the campaigns of the North-West of France (gallo, Norman, angevin, poitevin, tourangeau…). This proximity being less and less obvious as one moves away from the Eastern borders of Brittany. The gallo of the steps having undergone strong deteriorations in particular because of the early contact with French, the gallo of the western part of high-Brittany east, as for him, more differentiated much from his/her cousins of the field of Oil. This report does not give however causes the obvious unit of the gallo of it, the difference between the various dialects of the gallo generally relating to the rate of " dilution" of the latter.
The Créole réunionnais was also influenced by the gallo and the Normand. One finds also similarities with the speech Cajun and Canadian French because many families originating in Anjou and High-Brittany left to North America.
ClassificationThe gallo belongs to the family of the Langues of oil, connects Romance languages which also includes/understands the French, the Angevin, the Picard, the Poitevin, the Saintongeais, the Wallon, etc
Geographical distribution of the alternatives of the gallo
The current linguistic limit, defined in 1980, share of Plouha ( Plóha ), in Coast-with Armor, to the south of Paimpol ( Penpol ), passes by Châtelaudren ( Chastèu ), Corlay ( Corlaè ), Loudéac ( Lódeiac ), Pontivy ( Pondivi ), Locminé ( Lominoec ), Vannes ( Vann ) and finishes in the peninsula of Rhuys, in the Morbihan.
- Gallo Western (Country of Saint-Brieuc, Carried out, Poudouvre and Porhoet (zone of transition with country of Rennes)) characterized by the influence of Breton and Gallic survivals.
- Gallo of Rennes (area of Rennes, south-avranchin, west-Mayenne the Mayennais)
- Nantes Gallo, called the " locally; to speak Nantes " (Nantes country), crossbred of certain expressions angevines.
- Gallo of Bay of the Mount-Saint-Michel (Country of Aleth, Avranchin of the south-Sélune) characterized by the influence Norman
- Gallo Briéron and of the Country Mitaw
- Gallo of the South-Loire (Country of Retz, Vineyard and Clissonais, Breton Marsh) characterized by the influence poitevine.
- Gallo of the Country of Redon
Example of lexical alternative: the word " château" : " chastèu" , " chatiau" , " châtieau" and even " châtéo" .
- " Chastèu" is a term used also in other areas of France (the Limousin, Poitou, Auvergne, Occitanie).
- " Chatiau" and " châtieau" are used in the various patois of the Loire Valley since its mouth until its source (Nantes, angevin, tourangeau, blésois, orléanais, sancerrois, manceau and upstream until in the country of the Forez).
- " Châtéo" is used by the team of the translators of the adventures of Tintin in language gallo. (Châtéo de Moulinsac: Castle of Moulinsart)
The language gallo often gives several ways of writing a place name. This speech did not fix in a rigid way the writing of the proper names.
A Breton linguist, Alan-Joseph Raude of the island of Groix is the polyglot inventor of ELG ( E crire L E G hello). After solids studies in linguistics, he studies and analyzes the graphic coherence of a language. Currently it prepares (always for the gallo) a trilingual dictionary gallo-Breton-French of at least 6000 entries in order to reaffirm the place of the gallo in Brittany. The publisher " A-demôrr" , member of Andon dou Gallo, for its part uses a C-W communication called BAP (Beautiful has Parfétae: " easy to pronounce correctement") where the stress is laid on the respect of the pronunciation at the detriment of the ethymology. This C-W communication is used by the writers Urielle Massot, Fabien Lécuyer and Mikael Genevée. Chubri association uses and promotes, as for it, the MOGA, a writing based primarily on the pronunciation of the Eastern dialect of the gallo. This writing is used by the singer Bertrân Ôbrée.
ToponymyCertain associations (Maézoe, Andon dou Gallo, Chubri) do a work of standardization of Gallo. Some toponymies of Brittany of language gallo according to the Maézoe association which proposes a linguistic standardization.
- departamàn dou It or It: (Ille-et-Vilaine)
- Arjantrae: (Argentré-of-Plessis the)
- Beréau: (Bréal-under-Montfort)
- Boen: (Bath-of-Brittany)
- Cauncall: (Cancale)
- Bitch: (Saint-Georges-with-Chesné)
- Foujerr or Foujère: (Ferns)
- Parczae: (Parcé)
- Resnn or Reindeer or Renn: (Rennes)
- Rdon: (Redon)
- Saent-Malô: (Saint-Malo))
- If: (Sixt-on-Aff)
- Teintenyac: (Tinténiac)
- Vitrae: (Glazed)
- departamàn dou Loère-Atlantiqe : (Loire-Atlantique)
- Anczeniz or Anceniz: (Ancenis)
- Bass-Goleinn: (Low-Goulaine)
- Blaen: (Blain)
- Borg-of-Baz: (Batz-on-Sea) (Borg = Borough)
- Borg-Noah-year-Ray: (Bourgneuf-in-Retz)
- Chatiaubriant or Chateauberriant: (Chateaubriant)
- Cliczon: (Clisson)
- Malvill: (Malville)
- Móstiers: (Moutiers-in-Retz)
- Naunnt or Nàntt: (Nantes)
- Paeï de Nàntt: (Country of Nantes) (anterr Nàntt E Seint-Nazaerr)
- Paeï de Rais or Paeï de Raezaé: (Country of Retz)
- Saent-Nazère or Saent-Nazaer or Seint-Nazaerr: (Saint-Nazaire)
- departamàn dou Graéy d' Armor: (Coast-with Armor) ( Graéy = Strike )
- departamàn dou Morbihan : (Morbihan)
Whereas the gallo is often described as in less good posture in comparison with its Breton neighbor, the surprising vitality of the gallo reveals that between 200.000 and 400.000 people today in Brittany continue to speak the gallo regularly and that between 400.000 and 800.000 include/understand it.
The teaching of the gallo is only one option. This option is taught in seven colleges and nine colleges of the academy of Rennes, like in the IUFM of St-Brieuc and Vannes. The department of the Letters of the university of Rennes II also offers an option entitled " Language and Literature High-Bretagne" The university of Nantes also offers in its linguistic department, a teaching programme of teaching of the gallo
The first difficulty of the teaching of Gallo lies in her standardization in high-Brittany which resulted in a complexed and celtized writing of share the will of certain associations denounced by the linguist rear Olier Mogn: " enormous effort made by some to make leave the gallo the family of the languages of Oil; effort which indiffère as much the population which it is not vain. Is there then a future for the gallo? Undoubtedly not, if the goal is to manufacture a new language of culture having broken any bond with French. Perhaps, if the movement of defense of the gallo agrees to assume the place of the gallo within the group of the languages of Oil and to thus play a positive role for the recognition of diversity within this groupe".
The problem of the teaching of the gallo lies in this context where the followers from the creation of a language with share and those are distinguished which replace Gallo within the framework of the angevin and the languages of Oil, evoking its difficult relationship with State education. Thus the teaching of the gallo from a didactic and teaching point of view must offer suitable disciplinary contents as well as adapted teaching supports. Such a teaching can take place only after having found an answer to the questions of the standardization of the language and its graphic system.
The table below makes it possible to compare the gallo (near to the angevin), the patois of Mans and French
Some examples of talks in gallo
- the galo E unn laungg romaunn with caùzz that Al deriv of the latein : The gallo is a Romance language which comes from Latin.
Defànss E pormouvànss dou galo : Defense and promotion (diffusion) of the gallo.
Istouaérr of Bertaèyn E Haùtt-Bertaèyn : History of Brittany and High-Brittany.
Bonjórn ! Acoutez voér your aut'. The paeï of Haùtt-Bertaèyn and a terouaerr istoriq dou galo. Astor, one is sure Ben that doez chozz: they is that us caùzon frànsae séman maé égaumant year galo of aùtfaï, Tótt the semaenn (Monday, Tuesday, Merqerdi, Joesdi, Vanderdi, Samadi, dimaenn) in seiraéy, in veilhaéy E apoeprès tótt lèz noetz, COM it faezae to neir. Alon-gift, maé vóz savae Ben qe we praïchons the galo in tótt lèz meson of our pareiss! E porqoie q' one it caoserae been able not' galo duran noz causeriy? One E Ben of acor, it is poein of hand the veill' that one ruffle lèz deurgnier with bagu' naudé in caosan the galo with marchaé for choser of the bell' légum E unn pogné of shrimps for maunjae its fricot… I rmèrsion of nouz' avaer escoutae E of leirr not' artiq su' not langaij. With bentost! With the r' voyure!
Piece of literature gallèse
- “Horniy, I year soe horniy dou neck it! ” - “Qé Qhi nor has corr, gift??!??” - “Avizz! year vennla corr unn vnaeü has pâssae, Pa” E yèll-if qé of anségnae O its daï unn vouèliéy of gouéziaù IQ taen has antt-pourgalae olmon the rabinn. - " Maùsion! Touaé smaenn of tan mézae q' it and has bouzae the óréy… center faï qé I haùpi the maereriy E châq faï and the meim draènn qé I ouaï: " to véir to véir, I sóm for Z year vni, yan yan I alon Z anchoui, sia sia terjou v' alaez yett dépouézónae… sonj you! Nor pâ has been able aùqhun has yett corr vneü has lvae dou naèi by iloe diq' astourr qé of feeds known my jnouae, pa" - " Grànt dizouz, fâlhit faezouz… and of dome châq faï, qhi q' you vieü… " - " Véir, mein guy I goes, May, lou derssae feeds it dssuï the ziae èz adlaïzi it, Pa… and pouein gouézriy IQ goes mnae the world all-cóm E prejudice and pouein May IQ goes me jouqae olmon has faerr the epaeürissâ! Qhi faerr, gift maùdit?!!? "
Adlaïdd taet fléy dou neck it, prejudice… Ett-latt, IQ mnae unn eta ruy of the " Fablet" mound; known the grànt Renn, taet béin of amein of amouaé, pamein. Yan mein prejudice astourr-if, and degrignouzz cóm unn biqh IQ vaï the lou q' O taet… E by the faet, the lou taet puto dou neck it unn bèrnn of gouéziaù IQ avaen souein q' has bizoulhae its paù depéi unn gerouéy of tan, of qa IQ metae lèz pratiq has pouein chómae berouéy has bouae of the goull aù-davàn of its eta-have-hann cóm of juice E of béin antandeü. Prejudice, gernuch-a-gernaï, sti it taet has dezacoursae…
" I soe béin year peinn qhi q' it one q' I boueinn by iloe all-cóm" q' O bernozi…
The istouérr resti of meim E Adlaïdd taet tenàn has degrignae toutt penny E has faerr lèz pitiae pa', haùtt-ourr E bass-ourr, edge q' it and q' unn siunn fire terouae atijéy béin atijéy known the paù with the Hospital, opita IQ tiein has deüz qhulbutéy touaéz ancaléy dou catiae-Li. Einvànsion of savaïr dedd eyou q' ett-latt taet orinéy, mein. And raporr has unn cotisseürr droll q' O fire souégnéy E duràn q' O fire la-lein pâ aùqhun ràncontri pouein born sound nonborn sound aderss. Pâ aùqhun limero of suretéy sosia of O yèll netou, which been able Pa. (...)
(Fabien Lécuyer. The souaètt dou bouaé-jouaerr)
the pléy cheit (gallo) - the rain falls (frs reg. HB) - it rains (French)
- the ostèu it (gallo) - the house (frs reg. HB) - this house (French)
- a ladle (gallo) - a ladle (frs reg. HB) - a sachet (French)
- unn bótelhaéy of aèv (gallo) - one bouteillée of water (frs reg. HB) - a water bottle (French)
- V' alétz vantiers viendr has nóz to veir to adseir! - You perhaps will come to see us this evening!
daN qhi qe you sonj? - With what do you think?
I oreinn of tei. - We have the same ideas.
Of eyó qe be to you nasqi? - Where were you born?
Is necessary for qe I saèj. - It is necessary that I know.
Is necessary q' ol year auj. - It is necessary that it from goes away.
a tésier IQ Ben test. - Tisserand which weaves well.
a graund tuchonór is not poént a good travalhór. - a large cajolor is not a good worker.
Beurouët - Wheelbarrow. (aggregate French word with the gallo with traditional inversion of the vowels)
A comic example of confusion of the spirits is given by the evolution of the name of a village of It and Unpleasant: Irodoire was marked Irodouaire, with the gallo mode. With beginning of the year 80, its name was thus changed into Irodouër. Since, everyone says Irodoire…
Cartoons and literature
Some adventures of Tintin were translated into gallo:
- 1993, the Island Naire: (the Black Island),
- 1997, Breadths gildings in Castafiore: (Jewels of Castafiore) ( the istouaérr not O châtéo of Moulinsac: The history proceeds with the castle of Moulinsart )
- 2001, Cutrie dla Licône: (The secrecy of the Unicorn),
- 2005, Guénochée with Rackham Red: (The treasure of Rackham Red). ( Professor Mirlune, inventor of eune mécaniqe to fére of under-the iaou : Professor inventive Tournesol of a submarine ).
Characters of Hergé:
- Tintin : Tintin
- Milou : Milou
- Haddock Captain: capitàn Minard ( " thousand million thousand sabords" ! become " thousand million thousand chaoumards" ! )
- Professor Tryphon Sunflower: Professor Polite Mirlune
- Dupond and Dupont: Morand and Morhan
- Nestor: Baptist
- Sanzot Butchery: the butcher Tôcebeu
- Seraph Lampion: Ghustin Lachandele
Astérix in gallo:
- Astérix at the school of return: Astérix and the re-entry of the classes.
Literature in gallo:
- Roger Contou and Fred Disou, ruro-comic duet in " gallo allégé". Official site
Bébert Huchait and Unpleasant Bétes, payso-humorous group of folk-rock'n'roll: they compose their songs only in " gallo very allégé" Official site
PolemicThe major polemics with regard to the world of the gallo relate to two different but complementary points: the register and the writing. - > the register: between the language used by writers like Andre Bienvenue, Fabien Lécuyer or that used in the majority of the translations of Tintin or Astérix and the language popularized by the contous and others mentous there exists a world and the whole of the possible nuances. Between a very rigorous gallo and loan of many structures, turnings and expressions popular (Fabien Lécuyer, Andre Bienvenue, the team the Cock having translated the majority of the data bases available on the market) and hardly crossbred popular French of gallo there exists an infinite spectrum energy of the gallo perclu of neologism and grammatical structures copied on French with the patois centered on the caricature of the agricultural world. This question constitutes the central point determining the future of the gallo according to much. The put question being finally " can one call " gallo" all and anything? "
- > the writing: only " the school Maézoe/Bertaèyn Galeizz" use a written form to date truly succeeded called ELG (even if this one underwent some modifications these last years). The ELG suffers unfortunately from an obvious difficulty of training and a distance handicapping compared to the various dialectal pronunciations. The other orthographical systems existing and used (BAP and MOGA), them at present, are stabilized always well little. The MOGA, via association CHUBRI knows a certain stabilization however lately. The BAP carried by Lèz Emôleriy aù Sôrgarr and in particular the writer Fabien Lécuyer suffer as for him from a too strong disparity between the various publications, Fabien Lécuyer concentrating only on " the question of the register and the literary quality which must be conveyed by the gallo".
It is true that this question of the register and the " modernité" topics developed by the language gallèse and its literature is a painful question for many actors of this medium confusing by too " culture gallèse" and " language gallèse" (see higher).
In December 2004, the District council of Brittany officially recognized the Breton one unanimously and the gallo like “languages of Brittany”, at the side of the French language, within the framework of a plan in favor of bilingualism in Brittany to save the regional languages.
Since 2006, the gallo is proposed in optional option of language to the baccalaureat. This option is effective only in 4 of the 5 Breton departments (Loire-Atlantique being excluded). (Official Bulletin of State education n° 7 of February 16th, 2006).
- 1976 : Friends of the Speech gallo
- 1978: Maézoe
- 198? : Association of the Teachers of Gallo
- 2003: A-demórr
- 2004 : Lez emóleriy with the sórgarr/L' andon dou Gallo
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