The Gabonese Republic or Gabon is a country located at the west of the central Africa, on the equator, slightly populated. Neighbor of the Congo-Brazzaville, the Guinea Equatoriale and the Cameroun, it is a forest country where fauna and the flora are still well preserved. In the past implied in the triangular Trade, then French colony, Gabon is independent since 1960.
The settlement of Gabon was done by successive waves of immigration, until the 19th century, of Pygmy S then more massively of Bantous, nowadays majority. It is during this process that at the 15th century the first Europeans accosted, of the Portuguese. The name of Gabon comes to him besides from these first colonists: Portuguese Gabão means " caban" , in connection with the form of the Estuary which borders the coasts of Libreville. The France gradually occupied Gabon starting from the middle of the 19th century. Gabon acquired its independence the August 17th 1960.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Political of Gabon]]
Gabon has a presidential regime. The first president of the Gabonese Republic was Leon Mba. The second and current president are Omar Bongo Ondimba since 1967. Between 1968 and 1990, its capacity was clearly dictatorial, being based on a sole party, the Gabonese Democratic party (chairman). Following the political agitation which struck a good part of the African continent after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Bongo had to be solved to authorize the multi-party system in its country. Since, it is maintained with the capacity, election after election. Its opponents regularly dispute the regularity of the organized polls, the Corruption and the Népotisme of the mode.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Subdivisions of Gabon]]
Gabon is divided into 9 provinces, directed by a governor, themselves subdivided in departments depending on a prefect and, sometimes, in districts, dependant on a sub-prefect. Certain Gabonese present, while joking, Guinea Equatoriale, like the " G10" , it tenth province of Gabon.
- Ogooué-Maritime Ogooué-Ivindo
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Geography of Gabon]]
Gabon being located on the equator, its Climat is of equatorial type. It be-with-to say hot and wet, with an alternation of dry seasons and rain seasons during the year. Three areas are distinguished: coastal plains (broad from 20 to 300 km), mountainous solid masses (Crystal mounts in the North-East of Libreville, solid mass of Chaillu in the center, culminating with 1575 meters with the Iboundji mount), and plates. The most important river is Ogooué, length 1200 km. 85% of the territory are covered by the forest.
See also: Contenu=Pour infos to more see also [[Forest of the Basin of Congo]]
The catchment Area of the Ogooué covers the essence of the Gabonese territory. This is why five of the nine administrative provinces bear its name. Nevertheless, it is the estuary of Komo (or Como), small river of the north of the country which initially attracted Europeans in Gabon, rather than the marshy delta of Ogooué. There exist other rivers in Gabon, like Nyanga or Ngounié in the provinces of the same name. In north, Ntem is used as border with Cameroun.
Fauna and flora
The fauna and the flora of Gabon are all the more remarkable as the Equatorial forest is still relatively well preserved there. It could constitute an important tourist attraction besides, in measurement or it abounds in rare species of Animals (the Pangolin of Gabon) and of trees typical to this country following the example Okoumé.
Some live animals in Gabon: Boa, bongo, Buffalo, Calao, chameleon, Caracal, Cat gilded, Chimpanzee, blue Crab, squirrel stealing, elephant of forest, Gorilla, Guib harnessed, Hippopotamus, Hylochère, Ibis, Manatee, black Mamba, green Mamba, Mandrill, Mongoose, Pangolin, Panther, Picatharte, Potamochère, gray Parrot, Porcupine, Silure , Tortoise lute, Viper of Gabon.
Some trees and plants of Gabon: L okoumé, Mango tree, Atangatier, Badamier, Banana, Balsam tree, Coconut, ebony, Iboga, Ozigo, Mangrove, Palm tree, Tulipier of Gabon, Cacao-tree pricipalement in the area of Makokou in Ogooué-Invindo.
At the time of the top of the ground, in Johannesburg, in 2002, Gabon announced the creation of a network of 13 National parks.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Economy of Gabon]]
Gabon is a country with the very rich basement. It exports Manganèse, Pétrole, gas, Fer, Bois and many other products of its ground and its basement for a long time. The exploitation of the mines of Uranium of Franceville was closed in 2001 because of arrival on the worldwide market of new competitors. The revival of the exploitation of its important uranium layers is today of topicality. The train of Franceville-Libreville exports, since the years 1980, the ore of the iron and uranium, manganese mines of located at Moanda. The ferrous layers of Bélinga in the North-East of Makokou are not exploited yet. Their exploitation is planned for during 2012.
The oil incomes, become important as from the years 1970, were very only partially used to modernize the country and to diversify the Gabonese economy. In fact, the population does not profit that few the richnesses Gabon so that the standard of living of much of Gabonese remains average in spite of a GNP per capita relatively high.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Demography of Gabon]]
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Culture of Gabon]]
Religions autochtones and imported
Before colonization, the people of Gabon shared beliefs animists characterized by myths and rites varied but having like common points the worship of the ancestors, whose spirit could always influence the existence of the alive ones, and the recourse to the fetishes. Besides one finds still today mutilated corpses children victims of ritual crimes intended to ensure their authors power and richness. There were, as from the 19th century, a true competition between catholic missionaries and Protestants for évangéliser the Gabonese one. In practice, much with people associate today a Christian faith with old beliefs autochtones.
It is necessary to note success in Gabon of all kinds of sects, in particular evangelists, inspired of American models or African. There exists in the country a Moslem minority primarily made up of immigrants of West Africa. One can suppose that the conversion of Albert-Bernard Bongo to the Islam in the years 1970 ensured a certain recognition to him.
In margin of the religious practices, halfway between esotericism and network of influence, one can mention the existence of the Franc-maçonnerie in Gabon which counts to a notable number followers in the leader mediums. There exists a Big room of Gabon, pertaining to the same obedience as the GNLF (French National Big room) and also a Great Gabonese Equatorial Rite. There exists also a movement Rosicrucien in Gabon.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Gabonese Music]]
The Gabonese Musique takes a great place in the daily life. It draws its roots in the traditional music. Independence with the other musics of the world gives rise to the modern music. The music of today is a splendid mixture of traditional and modern sonorities which, twinned, represent all the cultural richness of these people. The Gabonese typical dances are in fact the INGWALA born of Ethnos group NZEBI, the ELONE, that of L Etnie FANG, L IKOKHOU and MBOUANDA of the PUNUS… But one finds there also dances at the MPONGWES, and the TEKES. As a whole it is a very rich folklore with which Gabon like many African Countries is equipped.
The most known singers are: Pierre-Claver Akendengué, Prince Martin Rompavet, Michele Ndoulou, Batchiellilys Annie-flora, Dabany patience, Makaya Mackjoss, Vickoss' Ekondo Hilarion Nguema, Oliver Ngoma, Nicole Amogho, Ba' ponga, Koba Sima Mboula, and Pierre claver Nze. Groups like MOUYANGA, NGUMI, MOVAIZALENE, HAYO' E and EBEN FAMILLY. Abroad, it is necessary to mention the free-Gabonese singer Jann Halexander.
Country of oral culture until the 20th century, Gabon is rich traditional epopees, the such Mvett at Fangs, or the Ingwala at the nzébis that certain storytellers endeavor to maintain alive. André Raponda-Walker (1871-1968) published an anthology of " Tales gabonais" , collected during its long existence near a score of ethnos groups. Testing itself initially with poetry (Ndouna Depenaud, Wisi Magangue-My-Mbuju, Georges Rawiri), the writers Gabonese approach the novel only as from the years 1970 and especially 1980. " History of a child trouvé" of Robert Zotoumbat, in addition to this author you can also find great name of the Gabonese literature following the example Jean Divassa Nyama (uncle MÄ, noise of the heritage which was a best-seller besides, moreover the water-bottle or even sonpetit last the vocation of dignity). Since the years 1990, the women put themselves at the writing and Justine Mintsa, for example, reached a certain international repute. Inter alia subjects, the Gabonese literature approaches the topics of the place of the woman in the company and contradictions between traditional culture and modernity. One can note aussile short novel of Freddy-Hubert Ndong Mbeng, " Matitis" , which draws with much reality a little difficult life of the young people with Libreville with the beginning of the year 1990.
See also: Contenu=Voir the detailed article [[Masks Gabonese]]
The traditional Masque S have a big part in the Gabonese culture. Each ethnos group has its own masks with the significances and varied uses. They are frequently used in the traditional ceremonies (marriage, birth, mourning, etc). Most known are in particular the Punus masks which one finds in large museums. Traditionalists putting forward their art for the sculpture of Wood (in general of invaluable wood) and of the rare matters.
CinemaLike that of other African countries, the Gabonese cinema suffers from a lack of means financial, small number of rooms of projection available in the country (which prefers, moreover, to diffuse great commercial productions) and of a lack of public. It is still in the French Arts center of Libreville (the majestic) that one is likely the most to see a Gabonese film!
Nevertheless, a certain number of films, mainly of the Court-measurings, were produced since the years 1970. Several scenario writers Gabonese were preceded besides with the Panafrican Festival of the cinema and the television of Ouagadougou (FESPACO). It is about Pierre-Marie Dong in 1972 and 1973 for court-measurings, of Imunga Ivanga for its film " Dolè" in 2001, and, the same year, of Henri Joseph Koumba Bibidi for " Testicles of the élephant". Imunga Ivanga also received gold the tanit of the cinematographic Journées of Carthage (JCC) for " Dolè". The CENACI (National center of the Gabonese Cinema), directed by Charles Mensah, endeavors to support the production of films of realizers Gabonese.
A serial produced in 1994 for Gabonese television, the Inn of the Hello, was a real success in the country and was diffused in other countries of Africa (Coast-in Ivoire and Burkina Faso).
Gabon counts nearly about fifty Ethnie S. If Fangs represent a third of the Gabonese population, other ethnos groups hardly count but a few hundreds of individuals. Culturally, some are brought to melt themselves gradually in the mass and to lose their language and their characteristics. It is difficult to give an exhaustive list of ethnos groups because some are only subsets of other groups and all depends on the level of detail to which one wants to arrive. The language and the traditions of a population make it possible to distinguish it but as from which moment a local alternative of dialect or cultural practices is sufficient to justify the qualification of separate ethnos group? Here consequently an not-exhaustive and sometimes redundant list (a sub-group can be mentioned under a clean entry whereas the group to which it is attached appears further).
Several names or orthographies can appear to indicate the same ethnos group. Indeed, the prefix Ba is often the mark of plural in the Langues bantoues so that " Bapunu" and " Punu" indicate the same ethnos group, under consideration in the plural or. One can also find a form more or less francized of the same name " Punu" and " Pounou" are a single differently spelled word.
Adouma, Aduma or Baduma
- Adyumba or Adjumba
- Akélés, Bakélés or Nkélés
- Bandjabi or Banzabi
- Galoa or Galwa
- Humbu, Houmbou or Bawoumbou
- Kota or Bakota
- Lumbu, Loumbou or Baloumbou
- Mbedé or Me Bedé
- Meimbè (of which Simbaka, Mokanke, Mopindzi, Motsogho)
- Mitsogo, Mitsogho or Tsogo
- Nkomi or komi
- Myènè or Ngwè-Myènè
- doumou or Ndumu
- Ndzebi (of which Adouma, Akanigui, Awandji, Batsiagui , Badjabi, Sihou, Sissihou)
- Orungu or Oroungou
- Punu, Pounous or Bapounous
- Pygmies (Akowa, Baka, Bekui, Bakongo, Babinga, Barimba, etc)
- Sékyani or Sékiani
- Téké (of which batsitségue) or Bateké
- Vili or Bavili
- Vungu, Voungou or Bavungu
Phone networkSince 2005, telephone numbering is on 8 digits (format ABPQ MCDU).
* the figure has corresponds is the identifier of the conveyer - 0 => Acheminement by the conveyer by defect of the appealing one; - 1 => Special services - 2 to 9 => nonaffected to date. * the figure B is the identifier of the services For the STN (Commutated Phone network): - 1 => Abonnés of Libreville for the operator Gabon Telecom - 2 => Abonnés other provinces for the operator Gabon Telecom - 3 => Abonnés of Libreville for the other operators - 4 => Abonnés other provinces for the other operators For the mobile operators - 5 => Abonnés TELECEL - > Repurchased in 2007 by Moove. - 6 => Abonnés LIBERTIS - 7 => Abonnés CELTEL
Intelligent Networks: - 8 => Intelligent Réseaux
* the figure P is differentiated according to the membership of the historical operator or the other operators For the Subscribers of Gabon Telecom - P belongs to the number of the subscriber (PQMCDU = current number of the subscriber)
For the other operators - P is the identifier of the operator In this case, Q represents is the identifier of the switch of Libreville for the subscribers of Libreville ( MCDU is then the number of the subscriber) that is to say the identifier of the province for other cities ( CDU is then the number of the subscriber).
numbers of the special services:
Population: 1.221.175 inhabitants (in 2001). 0-14 years: 33,29%; 15-64 years: 60,77%; + 65 years: 5,94%
Surface: 267.667 km ²
Density: 4,5 hab./km²
Land borders: 2.551 km (Republic of Congo 1.903 km; Guinea Equatoriale 350 km; Cameroun 298 km)
Littoral: 885 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 1.575 m
Life expectancy of the men: 48 years (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the women: 51 years (in 2001)
Growth rate of the population: 1,02% (in 2001)
Birth rate: 27,42% (in 2001)
Death rate: 17,22% (in 2001)
infantile Death rate: Total: 53,64 décès/1.000 normal births (in 2005 is)
Fertility rate: 3,7 children/woman (in 2001)
Rate of migration: 0% (in 2001)
Independence: August 17th 1960 Telephone lines: 37.000 (in 1997)
Cellphones: 5.000 in 1997, between 500.000 and 550.000 in 2005 (distributed between 3 operators)
Indicative telephone: 241
Electric current: 220 V
Radios: 208.000 (in 1997)
Television stations: 63.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 5.000 in 2000,55 000 in 2005 (according to Artel)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 3 (in 2005)
Roads: 7.670 km (including 629 tarred km) (in 1996)
Railways: 649 km (in 1994) (the Transgabonais)
inland Waterways: 1.600 km
Many airports: 59 (including 10 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
CodesGabon has as a code:
- G, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- GA, according to the standard ISO 3166-1, alpha-2 (code list country),
.ga, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain), * GAB, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- GAB, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, explorer of Africa.
- Paul Belloni Of Chaillu, explorer of Gabon.
- Charles Tchoréré, soldier.
- Roads of Gabon
- Official site of the Republic of Gabon
Beats-smg: Gabuons Simple: Gabon Zh-min-nan: Gabon
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