The funk is a form of Musique Afro-américain E appeared at the end of the Années 1960, and which developed during the Années 1970 and 1980.
Resulting mainly from the Drunk and the Jazz, the funk is characterized by the prevalence of the rhythm section (low Guitare, , battery) which plays of the reasons syncopated, the frequent presence of coppers on rhythmic punctuations (fronts) or many solos, and in a general way, by the great place granted to the instruments.
Contrary to the drunk person traditional who privileges the format “song” and the tandem singer-producer, a piece funk is a collective work, built on a Groove extensible and flexible at will which allows the vocalists and instrumentalists to intervene with equal shares. An anecdote: The funk term comes from the Anglo-American slang funky , which means " literally; puant".
The years 1960
In the middle of the Years 1960, the funk takes life since its roots rhythm' blues and Soul, the words insisting on the defense of the blacks and the difficulties of the ghetto. James Brown is regarded by it as the initiator, initially with the title Papa' S got has brand new bag , left in 1964, followed famous Sex Machine , in 1969. Brown is followed closely by formations such as Dyke and The Blazers or Beautiful archie and The Drells. In this vein, also let us quote The Meters, a group of New-Orleans, formerly French city whose musical history and the existence of its carnival predisposed to be one of the cradles of the funk. The instrumentation is stripped there, the play is unslung there and plentiful, with the crossings of the rhythm' blues, the Soul and the Jazz.
The years 1970
The development of the funk accompanies, starting from the end of the year 1960, that of the culture Afro-American, with the image of James Brown, which signs in 1973 the original soundtrack of the film Black Caesar. The movement funk initially remains been unaware of of the white public, that he finally manages to touch, especially thanks to the disco music, in second half of the years 1970. The general public is finally converted, in particular by the group Chic, of Nile Rodgers (guitar) and Bernard Edwards (low), which connects successes as from 1977 ( Chic Cheer , Freak , Good Times , to only quote most known). Groups founded at the end of the years 1960, like Kool and the Gang, or Earth, Wind and Fire, until there known of the amateurs, are then a considerable public success.
The funk then starts to diversify:
- the movement Jazz-funk: in the years 1970, in the prolongation of the movement free jazz, the musicians of jazz seize the funk, which does not result therefore in a return to the source, on the contrary. The funk opens with the stammerings electronic music, fact in particular of Herbie Hancock, pianist of traditional jazz of formation, which leaves in 1973 the album Head Hunters, his greater business success. One can also quote the guitarist Jeff Beck (former member of the Yardbirds), who leaves the album Blow by Blow in 1975, the bass player Stanley Clarke, the group Funk Inc., or the pianist Hubert Eaves. It is still necessary to mention, in a style which remains closer to the traditional jazz and the drunk person, certain works of Stevie Wonder, like guitarist George Benson, of which the piece Give me the Night became traditional kind.
the movement P-Funk: during all the Years 1970 and until the beginning of the Years 1980, another style is spread, which takes its distances with reality. Started by the psychedelic funk seasoned with the Rock'n'roll of Sly and The Family Stone, it will lead to the birth of the galaxy P-Funk (for Pure Funk) of George Clinton which will mix all the influences of the moment with a irresistible Groove. Parliament, Funkadelic, P-Funk Allstars: these groups have fun has to imagine that they unload of a spaceship to release human negative forces of a world without funk! The name of the rounds is eloquent: “The P-Funk Intergalactic U.S. Turn” for example. Orchestrates with variable geometry (sometimes more than 40 musicians on scene!), sound experiments, extravagances, be delirious and Drogue S with abundance.
birth of the rap: At the end of the Years 1970, the recourse to the boxes at rate/rhythm, platinums vinyl and the last generations of synthetizers concomitant to the disappearance of large the funkbands became too expensive to produce in concert. Armed with arranged turntables, the first DJ, like Grandmaster Flash, play the discs of funk of their childhood by triturating them via tables of mixing and invent the first techniques of scratching. It is the changing: the groups like Sugarhill Gang, Troublefunk, and well of others will be the base funky of the future revolution Hip-hop. Finished the cosmic texts and others be delirious psychedelic, the young generation speaks again of the ghetto and sound quotiden. One is with the hinge between the funk and the hip-hop, whose best example is the famous Rapper' S Delight of Sugarhill Gang, built on a sample of the legendary base line of the piece Good Times , group Chic. One can also quote Drop the Bomb , of Troublefunk, or the piece Rockit , signed by Herbie Hancock. They will open the way with the genuine first stars of the hip hop: KRS-One, Public Enemy…
The years 1980
The Années 1980 mark the last stage of the evolution of the funk. In the United States, one speaks about Urban music. The funk of the years 1980 is characterized by a sound much smoother and accessible that other styles of funk exerted in the previous decades. And the productions (Synthétiseur S, boxes at rates/rhythms, programming) and the melodies closer to the pop than before, with an aim crossover , i.e. that to like the instruments many people, in particular the white public become digital than organic. Often rejected by purists because flirtant with forms that they consider more commercial as the Disco (whereas it is simply about a style different, primarily intended for the dance out of nightclub, but quite as required), groups like Earth, Wind and Fire or Kool & The Gang plays a sophisticated music, in which the production takes a more determining place. The kind is directed towards electronics, the Beat S are supported. The low one, whose apogee could be the year 1982 (see the LP of Stanley Clarke Let me know you ) and the synthetizer, much more marked in 1984, form the gasoline of the melody. Characteristic sounds - these small sounds reducing and involving - since are samplés and re-used in many kinds: to realize it is enough to listen to a few selected pieces of Rap West Coast , which re-use many sounds and pieces. Artists or groups such as Zapp & Roger, Cameo, Mtume, The Gap Band, One Way, George Clinton/Parliament/Funkadelic, The Ohio Players or even Rick James, also belong to this family of the funk.
Obviously the Eighties are remembered by the appearance of a genius of the kind: Prince. Prince makes a success of the alliance of the coppered funk of James Brown and the electro sound of Georges Clinton. He amalgamates this funk with a rock'n'roll without complexes, and serves this whole with melodies worthy of Beatles (what will enable him to be to date the most popular artist funk with unequalled records of sales). The concerts of Prince show his qualities of funkmaster and perpetuate the values of the funk, at one moment when Michael Jackson denatures this sound black to slip towards a pop sound
In parallel of these groups and very known artists, the funk of the Années 1980 is also marked by a new phenomenon, that of the large producers (Kashif, Leon Sylvers III, Willie Lester/Rodney Brown, William Anderson/Raymond Reid…) and of the great labels specialized in Funk and a certain style of Sound (Salsoul, Solar, Prelude, Capitol…). During this period of new labels appear and a very great number of Maximum leave for groups which sometimes melts only some titles before disappearing. It is one extremely prolific period, with final, a very large variety of sounds. It is the hidden part of the iceberg, a whole galaxy of artists which only is too much ignored.
About the middle of the years 80s a relative decline of the funk - or its recycling? - starts, in 1985 one sees the birth of the electro with artists like Colonel Abrams. In 1987-1988, the birth of the New Jack Swing and Dance contribute to its eclipse.
Several styles of funk are actuellements recognized by the amateurs of the kind. Among those one finds:
Funk-drunk person : funk of the drunk beginning of the year 80 strongly connoted music (ex: Leon Ware).
- Boogie-Funk : funk at the beginning of 80 more dancing (ex: Pure energy, Changes, Atkins).
- Italo Funky : Mix italo (ex: Sabrina) and of funk. This style comes mainly from Italy and it is illustrated with artists such as Mike Francis, Ago, Rainbow TEAM or even Kano (alias Dr. Togo).
- Electro-Funk : that one finds mainly as from 1984 and who is a scientist mixes between instruments of tradition and numerical sounds (ex: Carmen, Yvette Glass fragment, Risan, etc).
- drunk Modern or northern drunk : musical derivative of the drunk person with put way between the funk and the new jack which one finds mainly in second half of the Eighties.
There exist other names characterizing the pieces such as midtempo or uptempo indicating environment general of the sound (mélodieux or dancing)
The funk was only one North-American musical movement. One finds many productions coming from various countries such as England, Brazil, Nigeria, Italy, Japan, France, Spain or Sweden.
Since the years 1990
Today, the funk remains a kind which insémine of many pieces: the successive listening of Atomic Dog of George Clinton (1982), then of What' S my name of Snoop Doggy Dogg (1993) is an good example. Indeed, throughout the Nineties and 2000, the producers Hip-hop and R' B do not draw many Samples and Breakbeats in the discs of funk of the time pre Disco (before 1975).
The discs of the great time funk always attract many amateurs, as testify many the vinyls to it who circulate on the sites of bidding as well as the number of conventions discographics in France, which join together impassioned. The funk is present on the radios and in discotheque notemment Friday and Saturday evening.
Some representative artists
- The Bar-Kays
- Bootsy Hakes
- Brothers Johnson
- Smart Cameo
- Chocolate Milk
- Curtis Mayfield
- Donald Byrd
- James “D-Train” Williams
- Diana Ross
- Earth, Wind and Fire
- Evelyn Champagne King
- George Duke
- George Clinton
- Conceited Larry' S Band
- Heat Wave
- James Brown
- Kool & The Gang
- Larry Graham
- Louis Johnson (The Brothers Johnson)
- Keziah Jones
- Maceo Parker
- The Ohio Players
- The O' Jays
- One Way
- Rick James
- Sly and The Family Stone
- Stanley Clarke
- The Brooklyn Bronx & The Queen Band
- The Gap Band
- The Meters
- The Whispers
|Random links:||Francisco EscÃ¡rcega | Marignac-Lasclares | Ludovic Alleaume | Federation of Nicaragua of football | Estadio Agustín Tovar | Godefroi of Renaudie | Des_anneaux_de_la_puissance_et_du_troisième_âge|