The original current of the French Nationalisme is very near doctrinally to the current “Nationalisme counter-revolutionary” referring to the Christianisme, with the Monarchisme, the Contre-révolution and the traditional nationalism (which designs France like a State-Nation since the kings Capétiens). Catholicism then has a place privileged in the identity of the French Nation. This nationalism often refers to the “Chrétienté”. He in addition condemns the ideological principles of the French revolution and the Républicanisme. However, the French revolution, and in particular Valmy, or the Napoleonean epopee are key national historical events that the nationalists do not disavow.
Birth of the “French nation”“French nationalisms” being very different, they are thus divided on the question of the French nation:
- the catholic nationals think that it was born into 496 with the baptism from Clovis by St Remi. It is the mobility of the “Nationalisme counter-revolutionary” whose principal representatives are Bernard Antony and the French Renouveau
- the Monarchiste S of French Action thinks that it is born into 987 with the advent from Hugues Capet and the development of the Monarchie capétienne which reinforces the authority of the State while decentralizing with the provinces and the intermediate Corps S. This Monarchie will culminate under the Bourbons with Louis XIV and its Absolutisme.
- the revolutionary nationalists think that it is born with the French revolution.
- the Bonapartiste S think that it was born at the time of the Napoleonean conquests, then of the invasion of Algeria, or from the war of Mexico or the Crimea, in its republican form after the defeat from 1870 is born, especially in the radical mediums of right-hand side at the end of the century.
The Nationaliste S wanted in the beginning to exceed ideological cleavages born of the Revolution and to seek to bring together the French around a History and of a identity in the objective of a revenge vis-a-vis nationalism and to the German imperialism. French nationalism can be thus defined like the success of a French State, at the origin multinational and multicultural, which succeeded in imposing the same laws, the same payments, the same language, the same culture with a whole of different people. The feeling to be French is the resultant of this long-term policy. In France, it is the State which was confined of the nation.
Thus included/understood, French nationalism can be regarded as a general movement which embraces all the nonsocialist parties (Internationaliste S and Antibelliciste S until 1914), of the conservatives to the radicals, sometimes in populist forms dangerously warmongers (the Boulangisme) or being able to derive on conservatism (defense at all costs of the army and, less strongly, the Church), on the Xénophobie or the Antisémitisme (obsession of the interior enemy especially in the Dreyfus Business).
This general movement is propagated in the country by the education system which prepares the population with revenge.
The French Action, “integral nationalism” and monarchism
The French Action is presented in the form of a going beyond of “republican nationalism” (of Barrès) towards the “integral nationalism” (of Maurras) or Monarchisme rejecting all the revolutionary heritage. The French Action retains revolution only the concept even of nation like fundamental body politic. For the AF what changes also it is that one is “monarchist of reason”, i.e. that it is the nationalism which leads to the monarchism.
All the interests individual and corporative must be entirely subordinates with the nation, but not denied (what distinguishes it from the future Fascisme), including:
- monarchy (what distinguishes it from old the Légitimisme which does not recognize the concept of nation),
- the Church (what explains its judgment on the doctrinal level independently of the political reasons).
The integral nationalism of the French Action will be thus paradoxically an authoritative neo-orleanism anti-liberal and, positivist, supporter of corporatism and nationalist with in his center of the preserving tendencies or progressists.
Many Royalistes Légitimiste S will reproach Maurras for having chooses Orleans like applicant, seeing in his family an opportunist asset with many revolutionary ideals.
SouverainismThe French Nationalisme is often regarded as a characteristic suitable for the Extreme-right-hand side. Some consider in addition that the Souverainisme is one of its current forms. The Souverainisme gathers several groups of right-hand side like left, of Jean-Pierre Chevènement with Pasqua and Philippe de Villiers. The Souverainisme is primarily characterized by the Antieuropéanisme and the Antiaméricanisme. A certain speech " National-republican " is also attached to this current of thought: thus that of Mélenchon which sees in the war of Algeria " a war civile" (see its work republican Causes ), or that of the Party of the workers, savagely anti-European. These movements have as common theses the Anticommunautarisme.
French nationalist movements
In France, several parties on the right or with the Extrême right-hand side of the political chessboard are regarded as nationalists French :
the National front of Jean-Marie Le Pen
- the French Work, created in 1968.
- the French Action, to which Charles Maurras belongbelonged, recognized theorist of French nationalism.
- the French Revival created in 2005
- the National Restoration, scission of the French Action
- the National republican movement of Bruno Mégret
A movement being claimed as souverainist and patriotic but not like nationalist:
- association For the Social republic of Jean-Luc Mélenchon.
- association Lives the Republic of François Morvan.
Religious identityThe question of the religious identity creates cleavages within these movements. One can in particular distinguish two principal currents
- the Christian current from those referring to the National-Catholicism, with the Monarchisme, the Contre-révolution and the traditional nationalism (which designs France like a State-Nation). Catholicism then has a place privileged in the identity of the French nation. The French separation of the Church and the State is criticized.
- and the current of atheistic coloring , and sometimes even néo-pagan , preaching a revolutionary Nationalism and a European Nationalism diffused in particular by the current New right-hand side. For this tendency Christianity does not form part of the clean identity of the continent of Europe, are opposed to the pagan traditions.
Nationalism of stateCertain nationalist doctrines were doctrines of State in France: petainism, of 1940 to 1944, and, on another plan, the gaullism, of 1958 to 1974.
- This France, to which we are the heirs, was historically constituted in nation. It could have been about it differently. It is a fact, however, against which it is not allowed to go without missing with piety towards the ancestors. If, tomorrow, France ceased being a nation, it would cease being. None among us has the right to decide that the nation will not be any more. French nationalism thus wants to be only conservation. He refuses any will of imperialism, any aggressive intention. It is a question for him of maintaining the work of the fathers. It is that, effect, in a country like France, the nation preexists to nationalism. It was necessary, it to forge, more than one millenium. Not more, it is not made contempt or of hostility towards the other people. To recognize heir to a certain History, it is to admit that there are other heritages and different Stories. Not more than we do not admit to be dispossessed, we do not conceive to dispossess. The respect of others leads us to admit that the nations do not obey the same rule of constitution. A single reason does not control the empires. Louis Daménie
- nationalism, it is to solve each question compared to France. Maurice Bars
- a nationalist, it is a French who became aware of his formation. Nationalism is acceptance of a determinism. Maurice Bars, Scenes and doctrines of nationalism .
- Nationalism, Nationalism counter-revolutionary
- Extreme French right-hand side, Fascism in France
- Political party,
- Political movements
French and political nationalism
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