The Grammaire French E is the study of the rules governing this language.
It is necessary to distinguish descriptive grammar from normative grammar. The first is given for objective to describe and analyze the structures and characteristics of the French language from a point of view Linguistique. The descriptive grammar of French nowadays clearly benefitted from the development of the contemporary linguistics, that it is in the field of the textual Grammaire, of the Pragmatique or the Sémantique, renewing and thus refining our comprehension of the mechanisms of French.
Normative grammar has, on the other hand, for object the rules of the speech " correct". It is indeed important with the eyes of to know well much the rules of Grammaire which control these changes to be expressed correctly, as well orally as to the writing. The purpose of this grammar does not have a fine scientist, but is only to say " how exprimer" is needed;.
Although descriptive grammar concerns linguistics, it should be distinguished from the general linguistics which has as an aim the linguistic phenomena present in various languages whereas the grammar of French concerns linguistics applied, i.e. study of a particular language.
Parts of speech
By part of speech, one understands the whole of the classes of word which compose a language. They are in French the noun, the pronoun, the verb, the adverb, the article and the conjunctions.
In order to differentiate the various parts of speech, we will present their morphological, semantic and syntactic characteristics.
Morphological characteristics of the French name: he is variable of number (one can put it in the singular and), but often invariable in kind (he varies in cases as baker/baker, author/auteure).
Semantic characteristics of the French name: he indicates a being, an entity or an abstracted concept in the case of the common noun or an living being, a place, etc in the case of the proper name. “Table”, “car” or “freedom” are examples of common nouns, while “Marie-Antoinette”, “Paul” or “Berlin” are examples of proper names.
Morphological characteristics of the French pronoun: he is variable in kind (male or female) and of number (singular or plural).
Semantic characteristics of the French pronoun: he does not have clean significance, because it depends either on the extralinguistic context (when the pronoun is a Déictique), or of the textual context (if the pronoun is an anaphoric or an electrical ). The significance of the pronoun deictic “it”, for example, depends on the Référence, i.e. of the person or to be it to which this pronoun returns. The significance of the electrical pronoun “this one”, on the other hand, depends on the textual context, that is to say word to which it refers.
Syntactic characteristics of the French pronoun: they are identical to that of the name, that the pronoun can replace in the sentence. It is this property of the pronoun which explains its origin besides, meaning pronoun what is “for” (“pro”) the name.
Morphological characteristics of the French verb: the verb varies in person (1st, 2nd, 3rd), of number (singular or plural), in time (present, future, imperfect, last made up, past anterior, pluperfect, preterit, former future), in mode (indicative, conditional, subjunctive, infinitive, imperative, takes part, gerund) and in voice (liability, credit).
Semantic characteristics of the French verb: he indicates a state (to be, appear, seem, become, remain, remain, pass for, die, live and be born) or an action (to eat, drink, think, etc).
Syntactic characteristics of the French verb: he is the node of the sentence. Without him, there is no sentence. He often requires complements (direct object and/or indirect). The verbs of state (to be, remain, pass for, seem, etc) have the function of Copule between the subject and the attribute of the subject.
Time allows, as its name indicates it, to locate the action in time. Certain times are absolute (present, imperfect, preterit, last made up, future) and the other relative ones (like the past anterior, pluperfect, former future), the first simply locating the lawsuit in time whereas the seconds locate it according to other times.
The present indicative has several uses but it makes it possible above all to indicate that the action takes place at the time or at the time one contemporary moment of that where the speaker speaks.
The present of general truth, on the other hand, indicates a valid truth in a general way. One finds it for example in proverbs as “which flies an egg steals an ox”.
The preterit indicates an action without relationship with the present moment and completely completed at the time when the speaker speaks. It is a time of the account which tends to disappear from the oral language.
The four principal values of imperfect are the following ones:
- the imperfect one of the code is ready to give an account of a fact located in the past. It indicates that the event does not belong any more/not to the topicality of the enonciator. The imperfect one presents the lawsuit in its unfolding, in the course of achievement. " It faisait" (imperfect) for example insists over the time necessary to carry out an action in opposition to " it fit" (preterit) indicating a specific action.
- the imperfect description
- the imperfect history
- the imperfect one of repetition (iterative aspect)
Passed composed of the active codeThe made up past as its name indicates it is a time made up of two pieces:
The verb " avoir" or " être" (called then auxiliary) combined with the present + the last participle of the verb.
Thus, to the present, the verb to eat gives:
Becomes, with last made up:
I ate (the verb to have combined with the présent+le takes part last of the verb to eat).
The auxiliary employed is generally the verb " être" when the verb which one wants to conjugate with last made up is a verb of movement.
EX: I went, I left, I fell. In this case, one grants the participle past with the subject (It fell, but it is fallen )
The made up past gets busy to indicate an act which took place in the past and which in the past was finished. Thus, " I ate then I am parti" , whereas the imperfect one indicates an action which was started in the past, but which was stopped (I ate but my brother arrived at this moment).
The Past anterior is formed with the auxiliary being or to have combined with the preterit, followed by a last participle (it is a made up time).
preterit: It bought shoes.
past anterior: It had bought shoes.
Just like the preterit, the past anterior is used rather with the writing that with the oral examination…
Pluperfect is a compound tense, almost like the made up past:
A auxiliaire+participe passed of the verb which one wants to conjugate.
But the auxiliary is not combined at the present, but with the imperfect one.
Thus, one obtains:
I eat - at the present
I ate - with passed made up
I had eaten - with pluperfect
FutureContemporary French grammar knows two types of futures: future and former future.
See also: Future
- when the verb is first or of the second group, one takes again the verb with infinitive present by adding the following terminations: - have, - aces, - has, ons, - ez, - have .
- when the verb is a regular verb of the third group:
- when it finishes in ir to proceed as with the first and second group (exceptions: " courir" , " mourir" , " venir" , " tenir" and their derivatives, verbs in " oir") ;
- in the other case to take again to the third anybody of the present indicative and to use the terminations: - spoke, - short-nap cloth, - ruffle, let us rons, - rez, - ront (exception: " aller").
former future: it is a made up time with the auxiliary being or to have combined with the future followed by the verb to the last participle.
ModesThe mode is an aspect of the form of the verb which indicates the degree of reality that which speaks gives to the proposal that it fait.
The Grammaire française allows six modes, two realities (the code and infinitive) and four unreal (the subjunctive. the conditional one, the requirement and the participle) which make it possible to express fictions, assumptions, orders, etc
All the artificial languages, such as mathematics, make proposals according to a real mode (generally equivalent of infinitive), even if they distinguish the assumptions from the axioms and have operators indicating of the conditions. The disjunctive logical opposition between truth and the forgery is different from the modal opposition between reality and fictions.
Examples: Paul goes in the cuisine.
Je know that Paul goes in the cuisine.
let us Supposons that Paul goes in the cuisine.
- the Subjonctif
Indeed, the subjunctive mode gets busy only in sentences comprising two subordinate clauses one to the other by a conjunction: a proposal called principale (of which the verb is in general with the code), and a proposal known as subordonnée whose verb is with the subjunctive:
Example: Je want that Paul goes in the cuisine.
Let us suppose that Paul goes in the cuisine.
The main clause can be sous-entendue.
Example: (...) That it goes in the cuisine.
- the Impératif
Example: Va in kitchen!
The requirement is only one form particular and shortened subjunctive mode whenever, on the one hand the main clause which expresses volition is implied, on the other hand this volition is that of the speaker, in addition finally the speech is addressed about the subordinate clause which seems the principale.
proposal then Example: Je want (I wish, I would like) that you go in the cuisine. is equivalent of:
Va in the cuisine.
Some grammairiens current reject the idea that the conditional one is a mode.
The last two modes, called soverbal because the verb is not really any more a verb, are employed when two proposals are made up between them without their verbs on distinct subjects. The subordinate clause is then reduced to its verb which replaces of a noun or an adjective having a function in the principale.
proposal When the first verb is a verbe auxiliaire, i.e. exclusively the verbs " avoir" or " être" , the second verb is with the participe.
mode Example: Les children went in the cuisine.
When the first verb is another verb, the second verb is with the infinitive mode. As the first verb is very often a verbe semi-auxiliaire (to want, have, to be able, etc.), or a verbe of état (to appear, seem, become, remain, remain), one regards that infinitive is, as the subjunctive, a irréel.
mode Examples: Les children wants to go in the cuisine.est the contraction of:
Les children wants that they go in the cuisine.
- the Infinitif
Examples: Les children wants (them) to go in the cuisine.
Les children thinks of leaving in the cuisine.
Although substantivized, the verb with the indicative mode remains invariable and continuous to express the reality of an action with complements, here an adverbial phrase of place.
- the Participle
As the verbes auxiliaire to be and to have pose reality of what is said, one regards that infinitive is, as the code, an unreal mode.
The adverb is a usually invariable word whose function is to modify the direction of the verb, the adjective or another adverb to which it is referred.
- the professor speaks slowly. (a verb modifies)
- the professor speaks well slowly. (the adverb modifies)
- It is very nice. (an adjective modifies)
Classesin manner: well, badly, together, constantly, suitably, easily, etc
time: today, early, a long time, sometimes, often, always, etc
of place: in front of, behind, where, near, far, outside, here, there, etc
of quantity: much, too, also, enough, all, very, less, etc
of assertion and doubt: yes, if, naturally, probably, perhaps, etc
of negation: not, not, at all, at all, never, etc
of interrogation: how much, how, where, why, when, etc
adverbial phrases: while waiting, gradually, from time to time, with long, about, by the way, at the same time, some share, by chance, of course, immediately, undoubtedly, with half, etc
General rule: They are formed by adding the suffix - lies to female of the adjective.
Happy e.g., heureuse→ fortunately sharp, vive→ highly naturalness, naturelle→ naturally
Particular cases 1- Sometimes the E of female changes into E.
Ex.profond, profonde→ deeply blind man, aveugle→ blindly precis, précise→ precisely 2- Those which finish in - E, - I, - u> the suffix - lies is added to the masculine
E.g. vrai→ really aisé→ easily résolu→ resolutely
3- Those which finish in ant or - ent→ - amment or in → emment. The two terminations decide in the same way.
Ex: savant→ learnedly, prudent→ prudently Except: lente→ slowly, Présente→ at present
Place de l' adverb
1-Un adverb which modifies an adjective or another adverb precedes this mot.
Ex: You are badly equipped. (in front of an adjective) It is probably better. (in front of an adverb
2-Un adverb which modifies a verb places behind the verb:
A) If it modifies a verb at simple tense, it follows the verb.
Ex.Je generally believe it. Speak to me frankly. It was never per hour. B) If it modifies a verb at a compound tense, the adverb is placed between the auxiliary and the past participle when it is short or common: always, often, already, etc
Ex.Vous badly judged the situation. I almost finished. You already made your decision?
3-if the adverb is long (as much of adverbs lies about it) and not commun run, one places it after the last participle.
Ex.Il spoke to you nicely. It acted liberally.
4 them adverbs of time and place are placed at the beginning of the sentence, after the last participle or at the end of the sentence. Ex.Aujourd'hui, I have races to make. I met it over there. I did not make large-thing yesterday. You rose late this morning.
Subordinated consequence or consecutive
The adverbs of intensity introduce a report/ratio of consequence. Ex: It is so sick that it cannot rise.
Si+ Adj O adv + that Such an amount of + +que Verb So much + of + subt+ that
The article is a determining. There exist two types of article in French: the definite article and the indefinite article.
The definite articlethe is the singular male definite article, the the singular female definite article, the is the male and female plural definite article.
The indefinite articlea is the singular male indefinite article, a the singular female indefinite article, of the is the male and female plural indefinite article and of the the male partitive article (the female partitive article is carried out by the pair ).
ConjunctionsSome subordinating conjunctions:
Cause: like, because, since, since, considering, under pretext that (code)
- Goal: so that, so that, so that, so that (subjunctive)
- negative Goal (when it is a question of avoiding a certain consequence) fear/feared that (subjunctive)
- Comparaison: like, just as, like, more/less than (indicative)
- Concession: though, no matter what, although, although (subjunctive)
- Restriction: even if (code), although, by admitting that (subjunctive)
- alternative Restriction: while, whereas (code)
- Condition: if, even if (code), if (conditional), provided that, provided that, to suppose that (subjunctive)
- negative Condition: unless (subjunctive), except if, or else (indicative)
- Simultaneity: at the moment or, at the same time as, while, while, whereas, when, when (code)
- Anteriority: before, until, while waiting for that (subjunctive)
- Posteriority: after, as soon as, at once that, once (code)
- Proportion: as, each time, all times that (code)
- Consequence: so much so that, so that, so much so that, so that, so that, si/tellement/tant… that (code)
Coordinating conjuctions“but”, “or”, “and”, “therefore”, “but”, “nor”, “because”. Introduce an independent coordinate. For some “thus” is not a coordinating conjuction but an adverb of coordinaton.
Syntax is the whole of rules which govern the structure of the sentences of a language.
The expansion of the name
The Expansion of the name specifies the direction of the name; it can be an adjective, a noun or a relative subordinate clause. Among them, one distinguishes: the dependant epithet , the detached epithet , the Affixing, the complement of the name and the complement of the antecedent.
Syntax of the independent clauseAugust 1st
Circumstantial complementsAugust 1st
Syntax of the complex proposalAugust 1st
Circumstantial proposalsAugust 1st
Syntax of the interrogative proposalAugust 1st
In the French language, some Mot S are variable, according to the context.
The variable words, in French, are:
- the Name S and the Pronoun S;
- Adjectival S, Participle S passed, and present participles;
- the Verb S.
The words of the other categories are (almost) always invariable:
- the Adverb S;
- the coordinating conjuctions;
- the subordinating conjunctions;
- the Preposition S;
- the exclamative words and the interrogative words;
- the Interjection S.
Morphology of the articleAugust 1st
The variation of the definite articleAugust 1st
The variation of the indefinite articleAugust 1st
Morphology of the pronounAugust 1st
Morphology of the verbAugust 1st
Grammairiens of the French language
- Gilles Spares (grammairien) (1613 - 1692);
- Dominique Bouhours (1628 - 1702);
- François-Urbain Domergue, (1745 - 1810)
- Jean-Charles Laveaux (1749 - 1827), grammairien and lexicographer French;
- Jean-Etienne-Judith Forester Boinvilliers (1764 - 1830);
- Charles-Pierre Chapsal (1787 - 1858);
- Charles Marty-Laveaux (1823 - 1899), man of letters and grammairien French;
- Edouard Pichon (1890 - 1940);
- Maurice Grevisse (1895 - 1980), author of the grammar of reference the Good use ;
- Jacques Cellard.
Mr. Léopold Sédar Senghor, was the first personality Francophone of nonFrench nationality to the birth entered to the French Academy, and the first titular African of the aggregation: in Grammar (1935).
See also: List of grammairiens Walloon
- Category or nature of the words
- Time of the verb
- Numbers in French
- Names and adjectives of colors
- Independent clauses, principal and subordinate
- relative Subordinate clause
- Agreement of the last participle
- Agreement of the verb with the prone nominal group
- Manual of French grammar in line
- Mnemonic grammatical and orthographical (Wikibooks)
- Of very many grammar exercises françaisepar Etienne Meul.
- literary Studies
|Random links:||Island of the City | Inertial confinement by laser | Anna Mendieta | Isabel port | Sancho de Tovar|