The Canadian term “ ” or “ French Canadian ” traditionally refers to the inhabitants of the Canada who have as an ancestor the French colonists who had been established on the territory of the current province of Quebec at the time of the News-France. Outside Quebec, this term is sometimes used in a contemporary context to refer to all the French-speaking Canadians. However, in Quebec the term was replaced by " Québécois" since the Quiet revolution of the years 1960.
Except the Acadian S, of which the history differs from that of the other French-speaking people, the majority of the French Canadians have as an ancestor of the French farmers who had been established on a territory corresponding to the current province of Quebec lasting the colonization of Canada, which began at the XVIIe century. However, nowadays one finds French-speaking Canadians a little everywhere with the country. 6 million French-speaking Canadians resides at Quebec, where they constitute the linguistic independent group, and another million lies in various areas of the other provinces. Approximately 31% of the Canadian citizens are French-speaking, and among them 25% are of French Canadian origin. The French-speaking people are thus not all of French origin, particularly in the anglophone provinces like Ontario, and Canadian of French Canadian origin is not all exclusively or mainly French-speaking people.
The “Franco-Canadian” term has a similar significance, without however supposing Canadian origins going back to several generations. It is sometimes used to designate the French immigrants or other French-speaking countries installed recently with the country. At all events, the French-speaking cultures form integral part of the culture and the literature Canadian.
French-speaking people in Canada
The denomination of French-speaking Canadian varies according to their province of origin:
With the Quebec, one names them Québécois (E)
- With Newfoundland and Labrador, one names them Franco-Terreneuviens
- In Ontario, one names them Free-Ontarians
- With the Manitoba, one names them Franco-Manitobains
- In Saskatchewan, one names them Fransaskois
- In Alberta, one names them Franco-Albertains
- In Colombia-British, one names them Free-Colombians
- With the Yukon, one names them Franco-Yukonnais
- In the Territoires of the North-West, one names them Franco-Ténois
- With the Nunavut, one names them Franco-Nunavois
The Acadian ones of the seaboard provinces and the Mongrels are not regarded French Canadians, but as distinct French-speaking people.
The the United States also count a Franco-American community. Present especially in New England, but also to the Michigan and in the other states of the Midwest, it is mainly resulting from the French Canadians, but sometimes also of Acadian, especially close to the border between the Maine and the New Brunswick. The Cajun S of Louisiana result primarily from the Acadian deportees of Nova Scotia in the years 1750, although certain French-speaking colonists also came from Quebec, St-Domingue (Haiti), of the Alabama or directly of France. In “the Future of French in the United States”, Calvin Veltman notes that Canadian French was forsaken so massively that today the term “French Canadian” more refers to the ethnicity with the French language.
In Quebec, the term “French Canadian” was more and more massively disavowed since the rise of Québécois nationalism during the Quiet revolution of the years 1960. At a point such where since then all the public institutions of the province adopted the “Québécois” term to designate the inhabitants of Quebec.
This change reflects the depth of the social links, policies and cultural that the Inhabitants of Quebec of origin French Canadian, which constitute the majority of the French-speaking people of Quebec, maintain with Quebec. However, owing to the fact that the “Québécois” term also designates all the residents of Quebec, the use of this term as meaning ethnic to designate the French Canadians since the Quiet revolution made its significance ambiguous, which often played in the political files.
Today, the residents of Quebec, english-speaking like French-speaking people, often prefer Québécois term the “(E)” to express their cultural identity and main road. The French-speaking people who are identified as Québécois but which is not French Canadian origin do not recognize in the term “French Canadian”, and the French-speaking people of French Canadian origin, although they know the significance of the expression “French Canadian”, regard it as antiquated, even pejorative.
In the month of November 2006, the House of Commons adopted a motion to give the nomination of nation in linked Canada, for the Inhabitants of Quebec.
Elsewhere in Canada
One finds a significant number of French Canadians in many other places with the country. They include/understand the following cities and localities (nonexhaustive list):
Peninsula of port to the Port, Newfoundland and Labrador
- Edmundston, New Brunswick
- Moncton, New Brunswick
- Ottawa, Ontario
- Cornwall, Ontario
- Hawkesbury, Ontario
- Sudbury, Ontario
- Windsor, Ontario
- Winnipeg, Manitoba
- Peace To rivet, Alberta
Under the terms of the Canadian constitution, the French-speaking people except Quebec profit since 1982 of certain rights as a minority linguistic, which puts them at the shelter provincial governments traditionally considered as indifferent, or even straightforwardly hostile, with their presence. Consequently, the French Canadians except Quebec can be identified more readily at the end “French Canadian”, though this denomination is generally used to supplement rather than to replace that of their province. This said, of the variations can be observed from one province to another. For example, the Free-Ontarians are named thus much more frequently than the Free-Colombians.
The French were the first Europeans to be established durably on the current territory of Quebec (see French Colonisation of America). The colonies of the News-France covered a territory corresponding today to the Seaboard provinces, in the south of Quebec and Ontario, like with all the valley of the the Mississippi. The first permanent European establishment in Canadian territory was built in 1605 with Royal Port. At that time, the territories belonging to News-France named Canada, Acadie and Louisiana. The inhabitants of Canada then named themselves “Canadian”, those of Acadie, “Acadian” and those of Louisiana, “Louisianian”. Many French Canadians are the descendants of the Filles of Roy, from France at that time. In the years which followed the War of conquest, which made pass News-France under British administration, the contribution of the French Canadian population remained important for the colonies.
The British, who had obtained Acadie by the Traité of Utrecht in 1713, had off-set 75% of the Acadian worms of other British colonies in 1755. The French Canadians partly escaped this fate thanks to the articles from the capitulation, which made them British subjects. Then, the Acte of Quebec of 1774 enabled them to use the French civil code again. The French Canadians of Low-Canada made knowledge with the British parliamentary system as from 1791, with the creation of a legislative assembly made up of elected deputies.
This legislative assembly not having real capacities, this situation ends to the revolt of the Patriots of 1837-1838, which was more virulent in Low-Canada than in High-Canada and at the conclusion which the two provinces were unified. The purpose of this union was in particular to restrict the political powers of the French Canadians. During years 1850, after several decades of British immigration the French Canadians curve minority with thePlain one.
The contribution of the French Canadians was essential to ensure the establishment of a government responsible and the installation for the Canadian Confederation. However, towards the end of XIXe and the XXe century, the dissatisfaction with the French Canadians was accentuated about their role within Canada (see Quebec, history of Canada, Canadian policy).
At the end of the XIXe century and at the beginning of 20th, approximately 1 million French Canadians left Quebec to be established in the United States, mainly in New England. The reasons of this exodus were mainly economic, but also political. French belongs to the two official languages of Canada since 1968. It is the only official language of Quebec and one of the official languages of New Brunswick, of the Territories of the North-West and Nunavut. French spoken in Canada differs notably from that spoken in France (see French inhabitant of Quebec and French acadian).
In English, one uses the terms little being used to designate the inhabitants of the various provinces, but when it is done, one indicates them either by their province of residence, or by the term “French Canadian”. Although the denomination “French Canadian” is most current to indicate them in English, much Canadians of French descent regard it as exceeded, especially in Quebec. The majority of the French-speaking Canadians who use a provincial denomination use that in which they are originating, even if they do not reside there more. For example, an Inhabitant of Quebec which is established in Manitoba will not identify as Franco-Manitobain, but well as Québécois.
The provincial denominations are used more and more to underline cultural and linguistic dimensions French-speaking institutions and organizations in opposition to their ethnic and religious dimensions. The term “French Canadian” however is still used in cultural and historical contexts or when it is necessary to refer to the Canadians of French Canadian origin collectively, for example in the context of an organization which serves the interests of the French-speaking minorities of the country. The French-speaking Canadians who are not French Canadian origin, the such immigrants coming from the French-speaking countries, are usually not designated under the term of “French Canadian”, but rather under that of “French-speaking person”, a more general term used for the Canadians of French language of all ethnic origins.
- cultural Federation Canadian-Frenchwoman (French Canadian Farming Federation)
- Association Canadian-Frenchwoman for advance of sciences (French Canadian Association for the Advancement off Sciences)
- Federation of youth Canadian-Frenchwoman (French Canadian Youth Federation)
Quintupled Dionne (the Dionne binoculars) (Ontario)
- Patrice Desbiens (Ontario) - Poet
- Paul Martin (Ontario) - Politicking
- Eric Bédard (Ontario) - Player of baseball
- Claude Julien (Ontario) - Ex-Trainer-chief of the Canadian of Montreal
- Jean-Louis Kérouac known as Jack Kerouac (New England) - writer
- Gabrielle Roy (Manitoba) - écrivaine
- Henri Bergeron (Manitoba) - stimulating TV
- Daniel Lavoie (Manitoba) - Singer
- Jeanne Saved (Saskatchewan) - Journalist, general gouverneure of Canada
- Rene Levesque (Quebec) - Journalist, Prime Minister for Quebec (1976-1985)
- Paul Piché (Quebec) - engaged singer, Song writer and performer
|Random links:||Spoon with soup | Alive 1997 | Policy magazine | Gergely Rudolf | Season 2002-2003 of the Standard of Brest | Iain_Smith_(politicien_écossais)|