Freedom of the press
The freedom of the press is one of the basic principles of the democratic systems which rests on the Freedom of thought, the mental freedom and of expression.
Thus, article 11 of the Declaration of the Human rights and the Citizen of 1789 (French declaration) lays out: the free communication of the thoughts and the opinions is one of the most invaluable rights of the Man: any Citizen can thus speak, write, print freely, except answering the abuse this freedom in the cases determined by the Law.
Great principles of the right of the press
In France, it is which instituted this freedom. Previously, one needed an prior approval, before becoming editor of press, books or to become printer.
the person in charge of what is published in a newspaper, a book, via a radio, a television channel, a Web site, etc is the Publication director.
- If he is known, the author is continued like accomplice.
- the infringements of press (Insult, Slandering, for example), are prescribed at the end of three months, i.e. them author can be neither continued nor condemned any more.
- It does not have there slandering if the person continued for that manages to prove the veracity of what she pleads (exception of truth) .
The current location in the world
World classification according to Reporters without borders
According to the third world classification of freedom of the press To defer Without Borders (RSF), published on October 26th 2004, Eastern Asia and the Middle East would be “ the worst areas of the world ” for freedom of the press, on 167 countries. The North Korea occupies the last position of this classification. The modes of Burma, of China, the Vietnam and the Laos are also classified among most authoritative. The Iraq is placed in 148e position; 44 journalists were killed there since the beginning of the war. The government Communiste of Fidel Castro to Cuba imprisons for its part 26 Journaliste S.
The last classification of RSF (2006) arranges the North Korea, Turkménistan, Érythrée and Cuba in the last places. France loses five place and occupies the 35ème position on 168 countries. The United States of America lose 21 places, of the 23e to the 44e.
Association Reporters without borders draws up a list of the " predatory of freedom of the presse" , that it develops each year. In 2006 these are five new names which increase the list, this year: the Prime Minister Ethiopia N Meles Zenawi, the president Iran IEN Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, groups armed Tamoul S with the Sri Lanka, the chief of the paramilitaries Colombia NS Diego Fernando Murillo Bejarano, and the chief of Colombian guerilla Raul Reyes.
Anna Politkovskaïa and Anatoli Voronined of the news agency Itar-Heap in October 2006, the independence of the Russian media is questioned when it is known that the two principal public television channels (ORT and RTR) are controlled by the government. According to Marie Mendras, at least half of the tv news of these chains is dedicated to the actions of president Putin. Since 2003-2004, Moscow tightened its influence on the television channels deprived such as NTV. After the Taken hostages of Beslan in 2004, the Izvestia had published several photographs of the tragedy and editor association had been returned immediately.
Only the Internet, the radios and the Muscovite press independent ( Novaïa Gazeta , Kommersant , Radio operator Echo of Moscow or Radio Freedom) escape the seizure today from the capacity. However, 20 to 30% of the Russian population have access to the Web.
Cotonou), with its million inhabitants, about forty daily newspapers are published each day, perhaps the record in the world (although roof of all, there is 50% of illiterates). The eight million inhabitants of the country can follow the ORTB of the state, ansi that the contents of more than 70 radios and 4 private televisions. However, the majority of the journalists have a provisional employment (during the dictatorship, two thirds of the journalists had a state aid). Only about five are profitable. They receive a whole small budget of the state and very few assistances.
Bamako (two million inhabitants) more the famous daily newspapers have a pulling from only 1 malted Roman. Also, the radio is the most important information source.
The journalists receive sometimes, in the place of regular wages, a tip of the house where they are employed. The majority of their received money - are (" Phaltis") always in the map of press… (corruption without which one does not eat, quasi). (?)
Also, the few regularly paid journalists do not go so far as to approach the topics of the social problems, like the crisis of the schools and the fast increase in the prices. SMBG
- Charter of Munich
- Reporters without borders
- Freedom off Information Act
- International Freedom off Expression Exchange
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