The francoprovençal , or arpitan , is one of the three gallo-Romance Langues, the others being the Occitan and the Langue of oil (whose French is a variety). This whole of speeches which forever known a single standard, in regression, underwent a parcelling out in many dialects. Sometimes presenting common features with the speeches of language of oil (from where the name free ) and those of language of oc, (from where the name of of Provence ), it is not therefore a mixture of French and occitan, but constitutes a linguistic group distinct gallo-novel.
Denominations of the language
The invention of the Franco-Provençal substantive goes up with the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli in 1873: “I call Franco-Provençal a type Linguistique which joins together, in addition to some characters which are clean for him, other characters of which a part is common for him with French (one of the dialects of languages of oil) and whose another is common for him with the of Provence one, and who does not come from a late junction of various elements, but on the contrary its own independence historical, not very different from that attests by which are characterized between them the other principal Romance types. ” This word from now on is written without Hyphen in order to avoid confusion and to underline the character independent of this language. It is imperative to note that the term “of Provence”, at the time when Ascoli writes these lines, does not refer solely to the language of Provence, but with the entirety of the language occitane. Indeed, the occitan before obtaining its final Christian name, received some several, chronologically “the Limousin”, then “of Provence”.
Removal of the hyphen, proposed with the Conference of dialectology francoprovençale of 1969 in Université of Neuchâtel (cf Marzys 1971), translated lexicalement the will to create a clean and more marked identity; it also aims at avoiding suggesting that the language is limited to a simple juxtaposition of elements of oil and oc.
FrenchThe French term to name the francoprovençal is attested since XVe century (in a Freibourgese document of 1424 which authorizes the notaries “to make letters as teif German and rommant ”); it is frequent in documents of Vaud and Freibourgese of XVIIe and XVIIIe centuries. It is still attested in Geneva with the XIXe century, but it forever exceeded, to our knowledge, the borders of the current French-speaking Switzerland.
ArpitanThe terms arpitan and arpian which means mountain for the first, shepherd for the second, were taken again at the beginning of the Années 1970 to meet the need to raise the confusion generated by the term francoprovençal . The particular form arpitan was selected for its resemblance to the name of the second great gallo-Romance language, the occitan . Literally, arpian or arpitan , thus means “the mountain dweller, the shepherd”. Arpitan is formed starting from the pre-indo-European root alp- , in its modern dialectal alternative arp- ; in francoprovençal, this word not does not indicate the “mountain”, a “form of raised relief”, as it commonly is believed, but the “pastures of mountain where the herds are led and spend the summer” (see Alpage). This root is present in many place names, so much in High-Provence ( Arpasse , Arpette , Arpillon ,…), that into Dauphine ( Arp , Foot , Arpisson ,…), that in Savoy ( Arpettaz , Arpeyron , Arpiane ,…), that Were worth some ( Arpette , Arpache , Arpitetta ,…) and that on the Italian slope ( Arpet , Arpetta , Arpettaz ,…). One finds this root or his alternative, in Lombardy, in Switzerland, in Germany and Austria.
As from 1974, and until the beginning of the year 1980, an equivalent spelled harpitan is used by a political bunch valdôtain called Movement Harpitanya . Of tendency Maoist, he preaches the “national and social release of Harpitanie”.
Uncommon in the publications of the French-speaking university research, arpitan in spite of is very recognized in the university terminology like a synonym of francoprovençal, since the SUDOC (University system of Documentation), frame of reference, indexed it like tel. On the other hand, the term starts to be used in the university literature of the nonFrench-speaking researchers and not specialists. It is today of use in certain associations of speakers, in particular the Association of the teachers of Savoyard (AES, president: Marc Bron), which seeks to revitalize their language, and a transborder association established with Rochetaillée (France) and Freiburg (Swiss), the Alliance Culturèla Arpitana, which wishes “ to make visible the arpitan on the public place ”, promotes the use of a unified orthography (the Orthography of Reference B) and the word arpitan , asserting that the term francoprovençal lends to confusion, thus blocking his chances of official recognition as a minority language (in France in particular).
Diffusion area of the francoprovençal
The surface francoprovençale is delimited, inclusively, by the following areas (in the direction of the needles of a watch):
- the major part of the area the Rhone-Alps, is: the Drill (department of the Loire), the Bresse, the Dombes, the Revermont, the Bugey, the agglomeration of Lyon, the Dauphiné, the Savoy and part of the Franche-Comté.
- according to the dialectologist comtoise Colette Dondaine, it is probable that in the beginning (before the appearance of the first literary texts), the current Franche-Comté, to the feet of the Vosges, also belonged to space francoprovençal.
- all French space , except for the Canton of the Jura and the district of Moutier, canton of Bern, which belong to the speeches of oil.
- the Valley of Aoste (except for the valley Walser of Gressoney)
- high the Piedmontese valleys in the following communes:
+ part of the commune of Trana and the hamlet of Grandubbione
- Note: Southernmost valleys (High valley of Suse, Valley of Cluson…) about Piedmont speak the Occitan.
- Two enclaves in the Pouilles are due to the emigration of speakers at the 14th century: Faeto/'' Fayet '' and That di San Vito.
The historical definition of the francoprovençal remains delicate as well as possible. The area was populated as of the paleolithic one, as various remainders testify some megalithic, in particular the Cromlec' H of the collar of the Small-Saint-Bernard. The linguistic heritage of this primitive settlement is limited to toponymy and hydronymy (Arrondine, Arve, the Alps, Truc, Bec, etc); the word country cottage , popularized by J.J Rousseau, drift also of a hypothetical ligure root (to include/understand: preceltic) cal , shelter (but the alpine francoprovençal cheutâ , chotta meaning “shelter”, that some wanted to attach to this base, comes from popular Latin *susta , of the Latin verb substare which means “to be held below” '' Glossaire of the patois of the French-speaking Switzerland '', vol. 4, pp. 18-21).
Then the Celts came, whose archaeological prototype, the civilization of Tène, precisely occurred in margin of the current territory francoprovençal. Allobroges, Ceutrons in Valley of Isere, Salted in Valley of Aoste, Helvètes, Séquanes and Allobroges in the current French-speaking Switzerland, as many tribes which will be fixed in the zone. Their influence separately remains perceptible in the common lexicon: larch , nant (< *nantu , valley), balme (< *balma , hole), etc; it occupies a significant place in toponymy.
Like all the Romance languages, the francoprovençal drift however mainly of Latin. This descent could be coloured (though that remains discussed) by the presence of the superstratum burgonde. The philologist Pierre Bec (1971) estimates that the francoprovençal would constitute the first divergent branch of the group of the speeches of oil (cf Morphologie), and locates this divergence at the neighborhoods of the 8th century or 9th century. The block of oil would have continued to evolve/move, the francoprovençal showing an important conservatism. More recent research (Chambon/Greub 2000, Kristol 2004) tends to show that the francoprovençal is not an antiquated branch of the oïlique one, but an independent Romance language, as old as the other gallo-Romance languages. The first characteristics of this language are indeed attested in monetary inscriptions mérovingiennes of the end of the 6th century. The modern language continues to resort in the medieval terms for certain current acts ( bayâ to give, pâta for rag, moussâ to lie down, etc). Désormaux written on this subject in the foreword of excellent the Savoyard Dictionary : “The antiquated character of the Savoyard patois is striking. One can note it not only in phonetics and morphology, but also in the vocabulary, where one finds number of words and directions disappeared in clean French. ” Moreover, the francoprovençal division certain primitive phonetic evolutions with old French, but not most recent. Certain features attach it to the occitan (see the Morphologie chapter).
This language forever been able to rise on the level of its three large neighbors of oil, oc and “sì” (Italian). The political parcelling out (cutting between France, Switzerland, Savoy/Sardinia, Piedmont) and geographical, as well as the abandonment, in large the urban centres like Lyon, Grenoble or Geneva, of the vernacular speech in favor of the vehicular language of oil , explains the weakness of the existing literary corpus. The first hard copies go back to the 12th century and 13th century. It is about a long text of the 13th century writes in Lyons dialect, the Vie of holy Béatrice d' Ornacieux , due to Marguerite d' Oingt (and not of Duingt, like Champollion believed inopportunely), of which here an extract:
“§ 112: As Co Li diz vicayros saw that ay O coventavet fayre, this alyet that leaves and in ot must dongiers and travayl, ancis that lash which gardont lo lua of Emuet Li volissant layssyer Co that it demandavet and that Li evesques of Valenci O volit commandar. Totes veys yses COM Deus O aveyt ordonat OY was done. ”
At the 14th century, the town of Freiburg (Swiss) made francoprovençal its " language nationale" in a form that modern research (CH. Th. Gossen 1970) calls scripta para-francoprovençale . The official reports of the deliberations of the Council of the city, the acts of the notaries, etc are written in this language:
Item hont ordoney Li advoye, Li consed and Li ijc, that into chesque for of Fribor soyt Li moistre and one to bacheleir and ij. let us garzons por to porteir the aygue and meiz in what one whose por chasque coppa of farina .iiij D. por tottes things and chascon moves back its farina einsy as for luy will playrra of that chasque forna doyt to contain vij. coppes, Li that forna amonte ij. S. iiij. D. has vij. coppes of farina. (Freiburg 1370, cf Aebischer 1950, p. 115)
As from the 16th century, one counts many transcriptions of songs, poetries, fragments, etc We extract hereafter some biographical information again from the Savoyard Dictionnaire from A.Constantin and J.Désormaux (see Bibliographie).
1520 : Song of Complanta and desolation die To feed , patois of Geneva, retranscribed at the 17th century.
- 1547: Wall cupboard of eight lines in patois of Geneva, in Research on the patois of Geneva , by Eugene Ritter.
- 1555: Noelz and songs lately compose as well as a vulgar François as savoysien dict patois , Nicolas Martin, Lyon. In patois mauriennais.
A poem epic of 10.000 lines of the middle of the 12th century, Girart of Roussillon , is sometimes considered francoprovençal, and present undoubtedly certain characters, although a modern edition presents it like a mixture of French forms and occitanes (Price, 1998).
A literary long tradition francoprovençale exists although no written form prévalente is identified. A fragment of the beginning of the 12th century containing 105 worms of a poem on Alexandre Large the seems to be the oldest known writing. Girart of Roussillon , an epopee of 10.002 lines of half of the 12th century, was written in francoprovençal. It contains certainly important characteristics francoprovençales, however the editor of an edition of this work which makes authority affirms that the language used is a mixture of forms Frenchwoman and occitanes (Price, 1998). An important document of the same period containing a list of vassal county of the Forez is not without literary interest.
Among the first historical writings in this language appear of the texts written by notaries who appear at the 13th century when Latin started to be abandoned by the official administration. One can quote the translation of the Corpus Juris Civilis (known also under the term of Code Justinien ) in the vernacular language spoken in Grenoble. Religious works also were translated or conceived in Franco-Provençal dialect in monasteries of the area. the Legend of Saint Barthelemy one of these works, is written in Lyons dialect, which survived the 13th century. Marguerite d' Oingt (approx. 1240 - 1310), a nun of the Order of the Carthusian monks, wrote two long particularly remarkable texts in this same dialect. Here an extract of the original text of life of Holy Beatrice d' Ornacieux :
§ 112 : “ Quant saw Co Li diz vicayros that ay O coventavet fayre, this alyet that leaves and in ot must dongiers and travayl, ancis that lash which gardont lo lua of Emuet Li volissant layssyer Co that it demandavet and that Li evesques of Valenci O volit commandar. Totes veys yses COM Deus O aveyt ordonat OY was done. ”
At the beginning of the 17th century, many texts in francoprovençal see the day at the time of the religious conflicts between the reforming Calvinistes and the catholic conservatives supported by the Duché of Savoy. Among the most known, one finds Cé that E lainô (That which is in top), written in 1603 by an unknown author. This long narrative poem describes an attack of the Savoyard army which caused strong patriotic feelings. This poem became later the anthem of the Republic of Geneva. Here the first three stanzas in Genevese dialect with their French translation:
For the period which followed, of many writers composed of the satirical , moralizers *, poetic texts , comic and of the texts for the theater, which clearly shows the great vitality of the language francoprovençale of the time. Among these texts: Bernardin Uchard (1575-1624), author and dramatic author of Bresse; Henri Perrin , author of comedy, Lyon; Jean Millet (1600? - 1675), author of comedies, pastoral Poetry and other poems, of Grenoble; Jacques Brossard de Montaney (1638-1702), type-setter of songs for chœur* and comedies, Bresse; Jean Chapelon (1647-1694), a writer who wrote more than 1.500 songs for chorus, songs, epistles, and essays, of Saint-Etienne; and François Blanc says the Drop (1690-1742), writer of prose poems, of which Grenoblo maléirou on the large flood of Grenoble in 1733. Among the authors of the XIXe century, one finds Guillaume Roquille]] (1804-1860), poet pertaining to the working class, of Bank-with-Gier close to Saint-Chamond, like Joseph Béard (1805-1872) of Rumilly.
Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne (1826 - 1910), Abbot with which one admits the merit to have promu* the cultural identity of the Val of Aoste by its poetry (inter alia " The infan predeggo" , 1855) and by its first scientific work. (The Cerlogne Contest - an annual demonstration which bears its name - makes it possible since 1963 to sensitize thousands of Italian students to the need for preserving the language of the area, its literature and its heritage.)
Amélie Gex (1835, Vault-White the, (Savoy) - 1883, Chambéry), the great Savoyard poetess wrote as well in its native language as in. It was an impassioned lawyer of its language. The topics of its work include work, the topics lyric, the love, the tragic loss to be it liked, nature, the time which passes, the religion and the policy. Many regards its literary contributions as most important of this language. One counts among his works: Reclans of Savoy (Echoes of Savoy, 1879), Lo Hundred Ditons of Pierre d' Emo (Hundred sayings of Pierre of the good sense, 1879), Fables (1898), and Contio of Bova (Tales of the Cattle shed, - date? -). Some of its French writings are about to be imprimés*.
It is at the end of the 19th century that the regional francoprovençaux dialects started to disappear. The main reasons were the expansion of French in all the fields of the vie* but also the emigration of the countrymen towards the urban centres. It is at that time that cultural and regional learned societies started to collect the Conte S, the Proverbes and the Légende S in contact with the native speakers. This transcription continues today. Very many work was published. Among those here an extract in dialect Neuchâtelois of the renâ with Dâvid Ronnet (the fox of David Ronnet), drawn from the Patois Neuchâtelois (Favre, 1894, p. 196):
- “ Aë-vo jamai ohyi contâ the istoire of the renâ that Dâvid Ronnet has tioua die N otau, in Bouidry? Vo peuté the craëre, E the E will pura it veurtâ.
- Dâvid Ronnet êtaë én' écofi, one louse couédet, that anmâve grô breadth dzeneuillè; el E d-avaë me of èna dozân-Na, acknowledged one poui that tsantâve die viadze with mined, mâ adé with the lévaye of the solet. Quaë subiet of the métsance! me Z-friend! E réveillive to the otau, to lo vesenau; nion povaë restâ U llie quan the poui with Dâvid boétàve with rélâ. It you poui étaë N orgoû.
- the gran mataë, devan of assetâ known its sulta por typed its heart & teri the nieu, the écofi lévâve the tsatire of the dzeneuilli por bouèta dzeneuillé for & breadth vaër horn of the néveau. E tsampâve with stupid die gran-, of the queurtse, the side gummed of wearied, die cartofiè coûtè, & amouésâve with breadth vaër medzi, wrapped breadth pile Be bocon, énoussa por pile quickly épyi the dzaifre . (...)”
- “did you already hear the history of the fox that David Ronnet killed at his place, with Boudry? You can believe in it; it is the plain truth.
- David Ronnet was a rather hard-working shoe-maker who loved much hens; it had of it more than one dozen, with a cock which sometimes sang at midnight, but always with the rising of the sun. What a grabuge, my friends! Ca awoke all the house, all the vicinity; nobody could remain with the bed when the cock of David started to shout. This cock was its pride.
- Of great morning, before sitting down on its seat to beat its leather and to draw the semelles*, the shoe-maker raised the door of the hen house to make leave its hens and look at them running in the porch. It launched to its animals of the grains, the oats, the bread soaked in milk, cooked potatoes, and it had fun to see them eating, voler* the greatest pieces, hâter* for more quickly filling the stomach. (…) ”
At the 20th century, the writers most famous for their use of the patois are: Prosper Convert (1852 - 1934), the bard of Bresse; Louis Draper (1870 - 1951), popular singer and author of more than twelve volumes of prose, Coutouvre, close to Roanne; Just Songeon (1880-1940), author, poet and activist, of Combe, Sillingy close to Annecy; Eugenie Trip hammer (1896-1968), poetess of Aoste; and Joseph Yerly (1896-1961) of Gruyères whose complete works were published in Kan it will téra tsantè (When the ground sang).
Those which are interested in reading in this rare language a well-known work will be able to get Lo Petsou Prince , an edition of reference of traditional of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry the Small Prince , translated by Raymond Vautherin, (Gressan, Aosta: Wesak Editions, 2000), ISBN 88-87719-00-4. Here first lines of the second part of the tale in dialect Valdôtain:
- “ is there chouë S-year, dz' ëro restà arrëto EP lo déser di the Sahara. Driving Quaque tsousa ëre rontu dedin lo of my plane. And di moman that dz' ayò avouë neither mecanichen, nor passadzë, dze me apprestavo of tried, solet, euna reparachon defecila. The ëre EP me euna questson of via O of mor. Dz' ayò dzeusto praou of rough Eve p' euna vouètèina of dzor.
the premiëre so donque Net dze me indrumi dessu sanded it has pi of grinding stone vouet hundred and fifty dou kilometer of a bocon of will terra abitàye. Dz' ëro well pi isolà of a nofragà dessu euna plata-fourma I menten of the ocean. Donque imaginade undermined surprèisa, with the pouinte di dzò, quan euna drola of petsouda voéce me At revèillà. I dijet:
-- EP plèisi… féi-me lo drawing of a tseque maouton! ”
In the year 2000, the Editions of Pnottas published the first book of cartoon in francoprovençal (Savoyard dialect), the rebloshon that tyouè! (the Reblochon which kills!), in the series Fanfoué of Pnottas , illustrated by Felix Meynet and written by Romance Pascal. One also translated into francoprovençal two cartoons drawn from the Aventures of Tintin : Breadth Pèguelyon of Castafiore (Jewels of Castafiore) in dialect Bressan, Afére Pecârd in francoprovençal or arpitan ORB*, and Afére Sunflower in dialect gruérien. These three books, in the beginning written and illustrated by Hergé (Georges Remi), were published in 2006 and 2007 with the editions Casterman.
Although confined the oral expression, the francoprovençal survived relatively well until the beginning of the 20th century, in spite of its parcelling out, in the rural populations. The relative insulation of the alpine valleys and a weak migratory balance before the industrial revolution explains this maintenance.
The francoprovençal was socially discredited a long time, as well as the other languages and dialects which made and continue to make the linguistic richness of the France. It disappears quickly from France and Switzerland (except in the Gruyere Freibourgese and zones isolated from the Canton of Were worth); France does not even recognize its existence as a regional language, however he is taught in several colleges of Savoy and Italy. In several villages of the Were worth Swiss (Savièse, Nendaz, etc), the francoprovençal remains the vernacular language of current expression of the 60 year old elderly or more. Only with Évolène, certain children still learn the francoprovençal in family, according to the data of 2005.
Its perpetuation in Val of Aoste is explained by political reasons and histories. The massive immigration of Italy during the XXe century, plain with the emigration of the autochtones (towards France especially) caused a fall of the number of the patoisants, which constitute approximately 51% today population of the area (49% being composed by Italian and other ethnos groups). For this reason the “patois” (thus named by Valdôtains themselves) regressed considerably with Aoste. There remains still quite alive in the side valleys, such as the valley of Rhêmes, the Valsavarenche, the Valgrisenche, the valley of Cogne, or the Valtournenche, seuelement to quote some examples, where this idiom also takes part of a certain identity claim, in the line of the action of Emile Chanoux. In 1985, by a regional law within the framework of the Culture sections of the regional Assessorship of the State education, the Regional office was consitué for the Ethnology and the Linguistics (B.R.E.L.), which was so to speak grafted on the activity already put in building site by two associations: the Center of Studies francoprovençales " Rene Willien" of Saint Nicolas's Day (village where was born the abbot Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne, the félibre of poetry valdôtaine in patois) and the AVAS, Valdôtaine Association of the Sound archives, of which it took the changing and with which it continues to collaborate grace also to a convention which regulates the reports/ratios of them. In 1995 in particular the popular School of patois was founded, which organizes courses for the adults and the children.
Since 2004, Alliance culturela arpitana endeavors “to make visible” the francoprovençal on the public place with projects of scale (information, edition, method of training, promotion of the idea of a unified orthography, bilingual Signalisation). This association promotes the neologism arpitan by wishing that in the long term it replace the word francoprovençal .
a superabundance of the closed vowels:
Disappearance of the blocked and not-accentuated vowels:
various Realization of the Palatalization of the Consonant : According to the valleys, in front of vowel leads to /ch/ (regularly), /ts/, /st/ or with the interdentale/θ/. There is thus lat. campus > /chan/, /stan/, /tsan/,/θan/.
Evolution, comparable with French of /a/ towards /ie/ after palatalization
Comparison of words
The table below compares francoprovençaux words with their equivalents in various Romance languages, plus Latin for reference. One notices in particular the evolution of “p” Latin in “v”, of “C” and “G” in “there”, and the disappearance of “T” and “D”. There is more similarity with French, than with the other Romance languages in comparison.
The francoprovençal uses the Decimal system. That is found in regional French for the 70, 80 and 90 (70 sèptanta /s ɛˈtɑ̃tɑ/ , 80 huitanta /vwi ˈtɑ̃tɑ/ , 90 nonanta /no ˈnɑ̃tɑ/ ). However the Western dialects use the vigesimal (bases 20) for 80, quatro-vingts /katro ˈvɛ̃/ " 120" (six-vingts) become again a hundred and twenty.
Orthography of reference BLOrthographe of reference B (ORB) is a proposal of C-W communication supradialectale' suggested by the linguist Dominique Stich to unify the orthography of the francoprovençal and for its patois. It is the improvement of the orthography of reference has proposed in 1998 in the work Parlons francoprovençal (ED. Harmattan). This C-W communication uses “quiescent” letters (etymological or pseudo-etymological, which do not decide) making it possible to differentiate the homonyms, on the model of the orthographies of reference of the two other Romance languages which are French and the occitan. These dumb letters are also used to indicate to the reader if the tonic accent falls on the last syllable or not. In ORB only words in - has , - O , - E , and one are paroxytones (accentuated on the penultimate syllable).
Works in ORB
- the francoprovençal of pocket, Assimil 2006
- Mini dictionary Savoyard-French, Yoran Embanner 2005
- Dictionary French francoprovençal/, Editions the Square, Thonon-the-Baths 2005
- Adventures of Tintin: Afére Pecârd, Casterman, Brussels 2007
List francoprovençaux dialects
The orthography differs according to the authors. Martin (2005), gives the example between Bressan and Savoyard.
external Bond : Linguistic atlas speaking about an alpine area: between francoprovençal and occitan - multi-media Site of the University of Grenoble with more than 700 words and expressions received from native speakers. Fifteen main themes were gathered. This atlas shows the phonological and geographical transition francoprovençal in North to the occitan in the South.
The independent source of survival of the francoprovençal is done in the names of hamlets, country, boroughs and cities of the diffusion area. Suffixes in - az, - OZ (- otz), - uz, - ax, - ex, - ux, - oux, and - ieux (- ieu) of it are characteristic. They indicated the stressed syllable. The last consonant is seldom pronounced, or its pronunciation indicates the foreign origin of the speaker. For the names multisyllabic, “Z” indicates the stressing on the penultimate syllable, and “X” on the last, ex: Chanaz: /ˈʃɑ.nɑ/ ( shana ); Chênex: /ʃɛˈne/ ( shèné ). Examples:
Ain: Outriaz, Seillonnaz, Ordonnaz, Culoz, Marboz, Contrevoz, Oyonnax, Sonthonnax-the-Mountain, Gex, Echenevex, Chevroux, Lescheroux, Jujurieux, Civrieux, Misérieux, Toussieux, Ceyzérieu, Pugieu, Perrex, Niévroz, Lagnieu, Lompnaz, Lompnieu
- Ardeche: Boulieu,
- Doubs: Saraz, Éternoz, Bolandoz, It Cluse-and-Mijoux, Montmahoux.
- the Jura: Saffloz, Vertamboz, Morez, Lajoux, Vaudioux.
- Savoy: Chanaz, Sonnaz, Motz, Lovettaz, Séez, the Mound-Servolex, Ontex, Verthemex, Avrieux, Ruffieux, Chindrieux, Champagneux, Drumettaz
- Haute-Savoie: Clusaz, Viuz-in-Sallaz, Marcellaz, Aviernoz, Chevenoz, Charvonnex, Chênex, Seythenex, Thélévex, Seytroux, Combloux, Carroz, Viuz-la-Chiésaz.
- the Rhone: Jarnioux, Ouroux, Rillieux-the-Pope, Sermenaz, Grézieu-the-Game preserve, Vénissieux, Meyzieu.
- the Loire: Turn-in-Jarez, Razoux, Chénieux, Écullieux, Aveizieux.
- Isere: Vernioz, Proveysieux, Ornacieux, Brussieu, Courzieu, Monsteroux-Medium.
- Geneva: Athenaz, Choulex, Onex, Laconnex, Saconnex, Troinex, Certoux.
- Freiburg: Brillaz, Sonnaz, Chesopelloz, Neyruz, Bridge-in-Ogoz.
- Neuchâtel: Valley-of-Ruz, Brot-Plamboz, Prevoux, Mutrux.
- Were worth: Arbaz, Dorénaz, Nendaz, Vérossaz, Mazembroz, Vétroz, Nax, Mex, Vex, Massongex.
- Vaud : Saubraz, Cerniaz, Penthaz, Tolochenaz, Cheserex, Trelex, Paudex, Bex.
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