This term is vaguer than it does not appear to with it. Indeed, the countries should be distinguished where French is Official language (single or not), those where French is the Native tongue of most of the population, those where he is Langue of culture, those where he is used by certain social classes of the population, etc But, these categories are not recut. In certain countries for example, although being official language, French is not the native tongue of the population, nor that usually used by this one.
One estimates today the number of real speakers of French at approximately 200 million, in the whole of the Member States of the International organization of the Francophonie. For some, French is the native tongue of the great majority of the population (France with its departments and overseas territories, Quebec, left acadian the New Brunswick, French-speaking zone of the Ontario, Walloon region and majority of the Bruxellois in Belgium, French-speaking Switzerland, minority of Jersey, Val of Aoste, principality of Monaco). For others, French is a second or a third language (the Maghreb, sub-Saharan Africa, Grand-Duché of Luxembourg). In other Member States of the the French-speaking Community, as with the Lebanon, the Vietnam, in Romania, there exist important French-speaking minorities.
Finally one evaluates with nearly 100 million the number of young people and adults, in the countries of the world non-member of the Francophonie, which learn French during their studies and formations, in particular in the establishments of the the Alliance Fran1caise and the schools and French colleges distributed on the five continents.
Moreover, one confuses sometimes the francophonie as a concept with the International organization of the Francophonie (OIF), organization much more political and economic that cultural, which gathers a certain number of countries which are not therefore those where French is used or frequently recognized officially. It is besides sometimes this International organization of the Francophonie which is seen reproaching, wrongly or rightly, of the neo-colonial practices.
Quebec asserts francophonie, without whole to break the bond of cousinage of a Québécois Culture. This phenomenon is not without to have influenced a reflection of the same type in Wallonia with the Manifeste for the Walloon culture, parallel so that one also discovers in the French-speaking Switzerland and whose Charles Ferdinand Ramuz had already outlined the deep sense. This diversity of the Francophonie is besides perhaps its brighter asset since, by the diversity of forms of life of the speakers of the French, the francophonie is the only unit Linguistique world which can be compared in universality or diversity with the anglophone world. Senghor also spoke about Négritude in the context of the francophonie.
HistoryIn the beginning, the term of francophonie was used in a purely descriptive way by Géographe S as of 1871, the word “having been invented” by Onésime Reclus (1837 - 1916). It is however only after the Second world war, starting from an special issue of the review Esprit (1962), that a “French-speaking conscience” developed. The term was particularly popularized by Léopold Sédar Senghor. It is consequently in this direction that it is advisable to include/understand the francophonie: it is a question more Conscience of having jointly a Langue and a French-speaking Culture that official decisions or objective data. It is a Communauté of interest.
The speakers of the French felt threatened by omnipresence of the English and Anglo-American Culture influences it after the Second world war. It is only at this time that the Conscience of the French-speaking community awoke with the will to link itself to defend:
- certain specificities of the French language, which do it more precise than the English language. The habit not to juxtapose (in general) two substantives without indicating the true nature of their report/ratio also constitutes one “more” recognized precision of the French compared to the English.
In Political economy and in the Universalization ( globalization ), the francophonie is only one of the regroupings around some characteristics. ALENA, APEC are economic regional regroupings like the European Union ". The francophonie is around a Langue first, second or third. It is only one attempt at regrouping among others, like OPEC for the Pétrole.
possible “a French-speaking cultural exception”. This one tends to take today the form of the Cultural diversity (see Universal declaration of UNESCO on cultural diversity and Déclaration of Montreal of 2007).
The defense of their Identité is a tendency of all the Culture S. the francophonie thus constitutes also a particular case of the aspiration of much of inhabitants of the Planet to a Cultural diversity. Certain defenders of the French-speaking idea as Stelio Farandjis also saw in the francophonie the crucible of a Dialog of the cultures going until creating a specific terminology (Arabofrancophonie).
The March 20th is devoted international Journée Francophonie.
Members of the International organization of the Francophonie
- Austria (O)
- federal Belgium,
government taking part of the
- Cyprus (A) (since 2006)
- Croatia (O)
- Hungary (O)
- Lithuania (O)
- Poland (O)
- Serbia (O) (since 2006)
- Slovakia (O)
- Ukraine (O) (since 2006)
America and the Caribbean
- federal Canada,
participating governments of and the
government taking part, 1971, French official language, province of Canada; old French colony New France.
- St Lucia
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Ghana (A) (since 2006)
- Mozambique (O) (since 2006)
- classification by area is that published officially by the International organization of the Francophonie.
- (A) : associated member
- (O) : observant member
Many French-speaking people in the States not-French-speaking people
Ministry in charge in France
Today, there exists a strategic think tank of the francophonie to the Ministries for Foreign Affairs and European.
Francophonie and information systems in the world
For more details: Francophonie and world summits on the company of information
See also: Management of the languages
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