The Francoism indicates the name given to the Spanish Political regime under the dictatorship of the general Francisco Franco, between the end of the civil war of 1936, and the dissolution of the pro-Franco institutions in 1977, during the process of the Spanish Democratic transition.
The mode which takes form starting from October 1st 1936 is not an ideology political in oneself but a whole of preserving and nationalist values based on the Autoritarisme and established by the victorious forces of the civil war, gathered around the patriarchal figure of Free.
The main features of this dictatorship will evolve/move in several stages during the 37 years of mode. Francoism triumphing over 1939, which nourishes martial virtues and myths imperialists, will succeed a stage moralist and pious which makes of the priest the Spanish hero par excellence. Then, the diplomatic requirements will put a term at economic autarky and will register the capitalist development with the day order. Lastly, after some inclinations of opening in the years 1960, the Seventies transfer the mode to be contracted to finish finally in repression.
Fundamental laws of the pro-Franco State:
The Fundamental laws of the State (Kingdom) or, Leyes Fundamentales del Ėstado (Reino) are known like the whole of seven laws which organized the capacities of the State during the mode of the Franco general. More than of a Constitution, it was about a granted Charter, since they elaborate nor had not been approved by popular representatives.
Charter of Work of 1938. It was influenced by the Carta di Lavoro. It controls and organizes work and the economic life. One establishes there limits the one day's work and the remunerations minimal, but all these concessions were subjected to the interest of the nation.
Law Constitutive of the Cortes of 1942. It was elaborate from the point of view of the victory of the allies. One creates of the Cortes like instrument of collaboration and voluntary restraint, to prepare and work out the laws.
Law of the National Referendum of 1945. One establishes the use of the referendum for the important businesses. The law of Succession of the Head of the State makes compulsory the referendum to amend the fundamental laws.
the law of Succession of the Head of the State of 1947. Control the succession. Spain configures itself like a kingdom. Free is Head of State to life. The Council of the Kingdom and the Council of Regency are created.
Law of the Principles of the National movement of 1958. Establishes guiding principles of the pro-Franco legal order.
Organic law of the State of 1967. The ends of the State are enumerated, one fixes the capacities of the Head of the State and one declares his political responsibility.
Subsequently to died of Free, another law will be approved with row of Fundamental law , the Loi for the Political reform of 1977 which, actually, establishes the minimal conditions to choose the Cortes by the vote for all and entitles for the same procedure with the constitutional reform of the fundamental laws. This one was the legal instrument which had made it possible to articulate the Spanish Transition.
Characteristics of the mode
Substitution of the parliamentary democracy by the system known as of the organic democracy .
Concentration of capacities in the only person of the Caudillo . Development of the worship of the personality similar to that of all the authoritarian regimes (Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao, Ho Chi Minh, Fidel Castro…).
Restriction of the Freedom of thought, association and meeting.
Catholicism is made religion of state. Installation of a mode close to the National-Catholicism.
The pro-Franco ideology exaltait Spain traditionalist and antimodernist, in particular founded on the Catholic religion and corporatism. It must much at the beginning with the Phalange founded in 1933 by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera in the mobility of the Italian Fascisme. It was presented as a second reading of thought traditionalist who had allured the leading class after the Restoration bourbonienne of the end of the 19th century. Other contributions will supplement this " ideology franquiste" the such mythical evocation of a glorious past (the spirit of reconquering crusade of the catholic kings), the reflex anti-liberal inherited the absolutism of Ferdinand VII or visceral hostility that inspire with the caudillo the Marxisme, the freethinking and the Franc-maçonnerie.
One compares sometimes Franco to the Fascisme. In fact Spanish Fascism initially is muzzled, then destroyed by Franco. The pro-Franco ideology proceeds of a preserving spirit and reactionary, which contradicts the social and revolutionary ambitions Fascism. The Atlantic turn of Free also threw the disorder. Thus, on November 20th, 1956, the general secretary of the Phalange, Jose Shine of Arrese Magra, had made with the Spanish radio an address, where it expressed his reservations with regard to recovery by Franco of his movement: “Jose Antonio, are you content with us? I do not think it. Why? Because you fought against the materialism and selfishness, and that, the men of today, having forgotten the size of your message, made idols of them. Because you fought against the materialism and selfishness, and that, the men of today, having forgotten the size of your message, made their idols of them. Because you preached the sacrifice, and that the men of today refuse it. ”
Pro-Franco propaganda stresses the nationalist and religious traditional values, whose top is the term of “crusade” which is the leitmotiv. The pro-Franco slogan España una, large free insists there on the unit, the size and the independence of Spain.
See also: National-Catholicism
At the beginning of the civil war, most of the Catholic church had joined and brought its support to Franco, but the attitude of the the Vatican remained secret and ambiguous in many connections.
Free the Catholicisme like religion of State (signature of a legal settlement) recognizes, restores the budget of the worship, restores chaplaincies in the schools, the trade unions, the army.
Towards the end of the civil war, the Phalange is gradually isolated capacity with the profit of the Catholic church. Thus Francoism is directed more towards a clericalism and the Catholic church of Spain becomes closely related to the capacity. The clergy regularly led actions of denouncement near the pro-Franco courts to the opposition to the parishioners remained faithful to the republican ideas or to the Communists.
She also narrowly collaborated by providing the personnel of the penal establishments, in particular near the prisons for women and of the reformatories for young people. The ex-prisoners publicly showed the clerical to apply ill treatments to the physique plans and psychological personnel. The Church is represented at the beginning especially by the catholic Action, then in the Années 1960 by the Opus Dei, which joins a economic revival impelled by the State and the IMF.
Organization of the State
Since the first decrees of his/her brother-in-law and minister, Ramón Serrano Súñer (1938-1942) until the end of the mode, while passing by the censorial reign of Gabriel Arias Salgado, (1951-1962), the mode set up a kaleidoscope of more or less competitor organizations which assigned for task to control education and any cultural or artistic form. Finally under the impulse of Salgado Arias, an administrative structure which will become shortly after the ministry for Information and Tourism makes square the whole of the national territory by vigilant " délégués" departmental devoted to the principles.
The Sole party
The National movement is the only party authorized in Spain as from 1937. Free its political office chairs and names approximately the quarter of the members of its national council.
Since April 1937 (date of dissolution of the political parties), the Phalange Traditionalist and of mow J.O.N.S. (FET-JONS) and various bunches of right-hand side are gathered within a sole party and unifier, Movimiento, making it possible Franco to adapt the mysteries of the capacity.
Among these bunches and right parties with the various ideological and sociological tendencies, one distinguishes: anticommunists, " small bourgeois" , of the fascists, the anticlericals, the conservatives, the reactionaries, the Christian-Democrats, the Carliste S, the monarchists, the preserving republicans… Free will be able to perfectly operate within the movimiento all these opposite currents.
Its influence however was determining during the conflict and during immediate the post-war period although the pure and often sincere radicalism of its first leaders perished with them in the engagements. Although the phalangists sat in the majority of the governments of Free, it was difficult to perceive in this movement an effective defender of the mode. In addition much of the former phalangists of the Primo de Rivera time were men rather old or business men, skilful who benefitted from the industrial and economic expansion but as from corruption and the mercenary attitude as known Spain under the pro-Franco mode.
In the organic democracy, the popular will is represented by the family, the municipality and the trade union. The representative nomination in front of the Cortes is not done by the vote for all but by designation of the government, or elected by economic and cultural corporations (system of the Corporatisme).
Vertical trade unions ( sindicatos )
The latter are responsible in front of the minister for the Phalange as such. He constitutes a kind of alternative of face of the work of the Phalange, bring together the workers, the employers and the government in groupings according to the type of trades or industry. The chief of each trade union is named by Franco.
This National-trade unionism is bureaucratisé and official is founded on a principle: all the relative questions with work concern a tripartite commission. If an employer does not have the right to lay off a worker nor to pay it with the threshold of a minimum wage, this last cannot use the right to strike. When a work-related conflict occurs, it is regulated at the local headquarter of the trade union by a Joint Committee. One can on the other hand measure the extraordinary courage which one needed to the minors coal asturiens to carry out an effective strike that of 1962. They had to assume on the financial plan the cost of the not-compensation for their action.
The legal system
The judges can be named at stations little sought by the Minister for the justice of Free. The civil jurisdictions can be also dispossessions with the profit of military tribunals. The latter result directly from the authority of the Armed forces whose Franco is the supreme leader. Their mission consists of what each time the government wishes that a business be judged quickly and secretly, they decide that it engages the safety of the State and return it in front of a military tribunal.
The figure of the Caudillo , a new worship of the personality
Proclaimed Head of the State, Franco is responsible only in front of God and the nation, chief of the supreme council of defense. Called Caudillo, the currencies struck under the mode affirm that Franco is Caudillo of Spain by the grace of God . What confers a capacity of divine right to him. In addition it reinforces by this skew in Spain the myth of the Hispanité and that of the ¡ Viva Cristo Rey! . The law of the August 8th 1939 concentrates all the levels of capacities (legislature, executive and legal) between the hands of the dictator. Caudillo directs the military capacity until the end of the dictatorship. Many generals are present in the governments of Free. It referee this army thanks to his skill to spare the various currents without supporting some no in particular.
In 1945, Franco proclaimed a “Declaration of the Human rights” ( Fuero of the los Españoles ), all in softener a law of 1937 kind soldiers and civils servant to make fascistic safety at the time of the official ceremonies.
Restriction of freedoms
Pro-Franco and right Spain of the press
It is during the civil war, in the zones conquered that the soldiers promulgate, with the law of 1938, a first Censure concerning the Freedom of the press, and control the framing of the journalists. Only the press depending directly on the Catholic church escapes control from this censure.
In 1966, a new law reformist tends to liberalize the right to freedom of expression, however, the sanctions of the mode apply sanctions in the form of heavy fines, even of seizure of certain periodicals or works, which leads the press to practice a policy of Autocensure. After having profited from a great freedom, the dissenting catholic press will be checked of the civils servant of the ministry for Information.
It should be noted that the Spanish Catholic church continued as of this time to apply a form of censure to the whole of the media. It took the control of the radiophonic networks, in particular the COPE chain, and the publications of the catholic Éditions shareholder of the periodicals of Madrid like Ya . The Catholic church instituted in its center the training and the continuing education of the journalists to the Université Menéndez Pelayo and exempted the courses with the Instituto del Periodismo .
Evolution of the mode
Francoism is thus well installed with leaving the war to Spain. The mode is supported besides by part of the Spaniards who were marked by the execution of the 6000 priests by the fanaticism of certain Republicans during the civil war. Certain social categories support Caudillo more than others: they are the land great landowners, of the industrial and financial upper middle classes, the middle-classes shocked by the hardness of the life in republican zone during the war… According to Free, the country needed a direction and not doctrines. This dictatorial mode does not have doctrinary bases. Free does not bring new political ideas. Francoism will evolve/move by privileging certain assets more than others thereafter.
; The autarky of post-war period
In 1939, Spain is a country ruined and decimated démographiquement. The hunger and extreme poverty were the daily reality of most of the population.
The solution which gave the pro-Franco mode to the economic shortage similar to those was created by Italy mussolinienne, and was consolidated by the Nazi Germany: autarky, an economic policy based on the research of economic self-sufficiency and the official intervention.
Interventionism extended mainly on the nation's economy. The State fixed the farm prices and obliged the peasants to give the surpluses of their harvests. Instituto Nacional de Industria ( National institute of Industry , INI) was created in 1941, for better controlling bloodless Spanish industry, and establishing a rigid control on the foreign trade.
; A repressive mode
Following the war and until in 1944, the mode is very repressive: former imprisoned Republicans (500 000 prisoners in 1940), capital executions of opponents… Free the counter-revolution begun in 1936 completes.
; Francoism during the Second world war
During the Second world war, Franco passes from neutrality to non-belligerency in 1940 (interview with Hitler in Hendaye). It plans to enter in war in exchange of Gibraltar and French Morocco, but the German failure in the Bataille of England encourages it with prudence. It is satisfied to develop the commercial exchanges with the axis, to offer a radio operator relay to the submarines and the German secret services, then to send a division of anti-Soviet volunteers, the División Azul .
The political refugees and the Jews which flee the German occupation are interned, but not delivered to Reich. As from 1943, they are authorized to discreetly gain Portugal and free French Africa.
; A great economic failure, and the period post-1945
The years of post-war period were remembered by an important regression as regards economy. The shipwreck of the agricultural production and industrial was accompanied by jumps behind: the primary sector redépassant the 50% of the national revenue. In a context of shortage and intervention of the State, the black-market, and generalized corruption choked the economy of the country.
This situation was strongly worsened by the international conjuncture. Indeed, Spain left isolated from the Second world war (1939-1945), unanimously condemned, like allied of the Axis.
In 1944, groups of exiled republican, former men of the maquis in France, pass by again the Pyrenees and try to launch a guerilla against the pro-Franco mode. Isolated, divided (communist against anarchists), probably betrayed, they are quickly put out of combat.
For this period, the role of the Phalange in the exercise of the capacity is determining. It controls the political police, state education, the union action, the press, the radio, propaganda and all the economic life and trade-union. In 1947, is marked the monarchical character of the Spanish State. Spain is a kingdom without King where Franco will decide which will reign and when.
The mode moderates its ideology fascisante in the years 1960 for a more liberal design of the political power and economy; it much less remains it on the level of manners and its impregnation of Catholicism.
Years 1950 mark the end of autarky. The obvious failure of the isolationist model made choose with the pro-Franco mode a change of course in term of economic policy, as of the beginning of the year 1950. One witnessed a liberalization partial of the prices and trade and a greater freedom as for the trade of the goods. In 1952, one put an end to rationing food. These measurements brought back a certain economic growth, and in 1954, one redépassa finally PIB/habitant of 1935, Spain had thus lost twenty years as regards economic development. In April of the same year, Juan Carlos is designated as successor of Free with his death. He will owe his legitimacy with the nomination of Free and not with dynastic heredity.
The Cold war makes it possible Franco to profit from the Marshall plan in 1950 and to accommodate and ravel in Madrid triumphantly with the president Dwight Eisenhower, one of the winners of the Second world war. In 1953, Franco concluded a treaty with the E. - U., the Pactes of Madrid, which confers on this power an access to several military bases and naval Spanish in exchange of a military aid and economic making of Spain an important member of the Bloc anticommunist in the Western-European context. In 1955, the country is allowed within the international community during its official adhesion to the the United Nations (UNO).
Incipient growth led, inevitably, with a strong inflation which, added to the poor living conditions, supported a strong social discomfort. The need for structural economic reforms was obvious. Finally, after twenty years of missed economic policies, Franco allowed the entry the government, in 1957, of a group of technocrats of the Opus Dei. These new ministers drew the Plan of Estabilización (plane of Stabilization) of 1959. The economic restarting of the country is in place.
In 1960 is founded a plan of stabilization. There is incentive with the Tourisme of mass with 1.400.000 visitors in 1955, and 33.000.000 in 1972, development of the industrial production which passes from an index 100 in 1962 to 379 in 1976. From 1964 to 1967 is held the great economic development plan which constitutes a stage moreover. Since the end of the year 1960, the GNP increases of more than 7% per annum. A wind of reforms blows since the same date.
In spite of that, starting from 1967, the opposition to Franco is increasingly strong: strikes, demonstrations of students, attacks of Basque separatists. The Catholic church ceases being a support for the mode and lines up in the opposition starting from 1970 It is not rare to note that catholic groups openly took party for the workers in their fight against the pro-Franco government at the time of the strikes of the coal minors of the Asturies since 1962. The capacity of the dictator will weaken gradually.
Free growing old, it yields in July - September 1974 the functions of Head of the State to Juan Carlos, then it dies the November 20th 1975. Juan Carlos is then crowned king d' Espagne in accordance with the promulgation of a law of succession specifying in particular that Spain is a catholic and social state made up in kingdom in agreement with its traditions. What means that the country had remained a kingdom without king during the dictatorship.
Assessment of Francoism
the mode evolves/moves between 1939 and 1975. This dictatorial mode was initially very repressive in order to sit the installation of the capacity. Free concentrates all the capacities until its death while gradually bringing Spain towards a more liberal economic policy.
the practical caudillo political opposition to progress founded on the arbitration by itself of the various currents of ideas. Interior, this opposition to progress appeared in the family (one could not divorce once married), in public space (prohibition of meeting and regroupings for reason of State) and in the economy (the system set up did not allow the voluntary liquidation of a company). No astonishment thus that when finished the Spanish night everyone left in the streets and benefits from the Movida in the metropolises.
the Spanish company undergoes a favorable economic transfer in almost 40 years. Agriculture is modernized and an industrial society and urban supplants the rural company of the country. Economic development thus creates new industrial poles in addition to the Pays Basque and Catalonia: Madrid, Saragossa, Valence. The claim separatist disappeared while becoming more political and cultural. The systems of values evolved/moved. In this context Spain offers a considerable tourist environment, There is evolution at the sociological level and of new ethical rights are legislated, like the right to the divorce, contraception, sexual freedom.
In the years which followed, the Spanish governments will not call into question the economic system adopted in the Sixties which had been worth annual growth rates of 8% but they will remove the structures and antiquated legislations of the pro-Franco time.
Judgment of the mode
Democratic institutions, ONG and political parties take part since the stabilization of the democratic regime in Spain during the years 1980 in the repair of the victims of the pro-Franco mode, by promoting various actions on the international plan and national:
the Council of Europe: the November 4th 2005 a report/ratio of recommendations of the parliamentary assembly states in the document Doc. 10737 the Nécessité to condemn Francoism to the international level . The report/ratio supports that L has violation of the Human rights is not an internal business which relates to only Spain alone , reason for which the Council of Europe is ready to engage a serious debate on this subject with the international level . Moreover, the Parliament asks the Council of Ministers to declare the July 18th 2006 like official day of the judgment of the pro-Franco mode.
Amnesty International: denounced the general Amnistie applied to the opposition to the of torture ones and collaborators of the mode at the time of the Spanish Democratic transition as well as the absence of rehabilitation of the memory of the victims of Francoism.
Since the beginning of the years 1980, of many political initiatives and citizens aims withdrawing public places the symbols of the ex-dictatorship, like the statues, at renaming the names of the streets and those of the school institutions, establishment which bear the names related to the généralissime and to that of its partisans with an aim of avoiding repeating the errors of last and condemning the committed crimes.
Of historical and scientific testimonys reports that in immediate the post-war period of the psychiatrists of the junta carried out experiments on the political prisoners to identify the communist genes . They were on the historical level the one the first systematic attempts to put the Psychiatrie at the service of an ideology. Documents published recently reveal the project conceived by the psychiatrist as a chief of Free, the doctor Antonio Vallejo Nágera, to identify the bio psychism of Marxist fanaticism .
The pro-Franco repression compared with totalitarianisms, testimony of an opponent
The mode is soldier and repressive but, in spite of the insistent presence of Gestapo in the years 1940-1941, in spite of the role of the army responsible for the order and repression - or, to employ a periphrasis of Free, charged with " to clean the ground where our building " will be built; -, in spite of excesses of an political police, one remains far from the methods Nazis or Stalinist. The shortly after the civil war, the fear reigned, but criticisms against the orientations of the mode and its government were expressed aloud and were written even in certain authorized newspapers.
The writer Jorge Semprun, who passed his life to fight against the mode, affirms during an interview carried out in 1981 on the writers in exile:
“ the pro-Franco repression, which was very brutal, is not comparable with Stalinist repressions. It is not comparable because it does not have the same means, because it counts its victims per hundreds or thousands but not per million. I know many people who spent fifteen years in a pro-Franco prison, which is monstrous; but a pro-Franco prison, like that of Burgos, compared with a Soviet camp, it is fun. The prisoners received packages, they had a political life. During whole hours they exempted courses. They managed to see contacts with outside and in their hole radios had. The nuns were pleasant and made pass from the letters. They had visits not every six months, but twice by week. I point out it in order to render comprehensible with a certain number of Spanish intellectuals whom they have, of course, lived the dictatorship and the repression, which all that was horrible, but that they are not therefore the navel of the world, and that the sufferings endured by Spain were not most intolerable of the 20th century. It is necessary to keep the direction of the proportions. ”
|Random links:||Juan Atkins | Members of the Comédie-Française | Union of Sidi Kacem | Aleksander Emelianenko | Confession (Battlestar Galactica) | Chesterville,_Maine|