Historically the term francic indicates the language of the Francs or the areas populated by the Francs. Today, by extension, francic indicates certain languages or Germanic dialects spoken in Germany, in France, with the Luxembourg and in Belgium.
Historical significance of the word francic
Historically the first Francs quite front Charlemagne spoke a language attached to the linguistic group said Low-German, group at the origin of the Dutch inter alia. This francique-là, low-German, undoubtedly did not have a written form. The countries of origin of the Francs at the time of Clovis were the north of Belgium, area known nowadays like the Flanders. Moreover, these Francs did not constitute a quite precise people, consequently it was to have several linguistic alternatives there, that is to say dialects. The modern Flanders knows 4 more dialects quite distinct. Under Charlemagne, the Francs had been more spread in Europe and the linguistic alternatives had already taken the step on what one was going to call the Low-German ( ), the Means-German ( ) and the German superior ( ).
In the Oaths of Strasbourg , going back to 842, shortly after the death of Charlemagne, the text in theodisca lingua is written in a Rhenish Francique of the time, already attached to the Means-German sub-group of the High-German (). Thus the Rhenish Francique was the native tongue of Charlemagne, because this Franc emperor had lived on the Rhenish grounds, and not because since the origin the Francs would have spoken the Rhenish Francique.
Consequently, already at the time Carolingian, the term francic is a historical concept which does not correspond to a single Germanic linguistic group, nor even in a distinct geographical area.
Today in Europe
For these historical reasons the term francic is used today to indicate dead or alive languages, belonging as well to the Germanic linguistic group said Low-German as to the Germanic linguistic group said High-German.
If a certain number of languages or modern dialects known as francic belongs to the group High-German, they is because these dialects underwent the same types of modification as in Franconie the Eastern ex Francie, or Eastern France called Frankenland or Franken in German. From there the adjective comes, whose francic is the translation in French.
One classifies there:
- modern Germanic speeches of Lorraine, the Luxembourg and Hesse, attached to the sub-group Means-German. These modern speeches are the Francique native of the Moselle region, the Rhenish Francique, the Luxembourg (still called Luxembourg Francique).
Today regional language of France
- Rhenish Francique (used also in uneven Alsace)
- Francique native of the Moselle region
- Luxembourg Francique
In addition to these three topolectes present in Lorraine thioise, one notes in Alsatian extreme-north (around Wissembourg), the pregnancy of the southernmost Francique. Contrary to the Lorraine speeches, francic the Southerner made like the Germanic Alsatian part of the German superior.
Linguistic significance of the word francic
The adjectives low and high (in bas-francic , high-German , etc) are conventionally used to indicate, respectively, the linguistic zones of North ( low ) and South ( high ) or Very with the South ( higher ).
One can distinguish three main categories of francic
Rhenish means francic and francic
The Means-francique is attached to the sub-group Means-German itself part of the group High-German. The Means-francique then the Rhenish Francique cover the west of the Means-German while in the east one finds for example the Thuringien and the Saxon.
The means-francique subdivides North in the South and of West in Is in:
- Francique ripuaire spoken in the area about Cologne in Germany
- Luxembourg Francique spoken with the Luxembourg (but also Belgium, France)
- Francique native of the Moselle region spoken in France (the Moselle) and in Germany (the Rhineland-Palatinat and the Saar)
- Rhenish Francique
- Rhenish Francique about Lorraine
- palatine Rhenish Francique in Germany (the Rhineland-Palatinat and the Saar)
- francic Rhenish about Hesse or hessois
It should be noted that certain authors consider that the francic Rhenish one of Lorraine is francic Rhenish palatine, others exclude the hessois from francic Rhenish.
The writing of francic of Lorraine was harmonized by Geripa (group of research of the Université of High Alsace), the Luxembourg Francique uses the official C-W communication of the Grand-Duché of Luxembourg.
The Haut-francique is attached to the sub-group German superior High-German. The haut-francique one covers the north of the German superior while in the east one finds for example the thuringien and the Saxon one.
The Haut-francique subdivides north in the south in:
Geography of the francique one
- the francique one colognais ('' Kölsch '') which is spoken in the area about Cologne and in the Cantons of the East (Francique ripuaire)
francic the hessois ( Hessisch ) which is spoken in Hesse (Rhenish Francique).
the francic palatine one ( Pälzisch , in German Pfälzisch ) which is spoken in the Palatinat (Rhenish Francique).
- the Luxembourg, spoken in the area about Arlon (Luxembourg Francique).
- the francique one colognais ( Kölsch ) is also spoken in Belgium, in the Cantons of the East (Francique ripuaire).
Spoken in the North-East about the Lorraine , like in the north and the west of the Alsace, the francique one is regarded as one of the regional Langues of France and one of the two regional languages of Lorraine.
The Lorraine Francique should not be confused with the “Romance” of Lorraine which is as its name indicates it a Romance Dialecte , nor with the Alsacien Germanic dialect (spoken in most of Alsace) or with standard German (regarded as the written standard of reference by part of those which speak the francique one).
Three forms of francic are spoken in Lorraine, it are of west in east:
the Luxembourg Francique of Lorraine of the country thionvillois): who is Luxembourg, Lëtzebuergesch ) also spoken with the Luxembourg and in Belgium (in the country of Arlon). Certain classifications still attach Luxemburgish to the Francique native of the Moselle region.
the Francique native of the Moselle region of Lorraine ( Moselfränkisch ) spoken in the Country about Nied, towards the Boulay-Moselle, but also in Germany (along the the Moselle)
- the Rhenish Francique of Lorraine ( Rheinfränkisch ) spoken in France, in the Lorraine coal basin (with Forbach), the valley of the the Saar and the Country of Bitche, as well as the country of Sarrebourg (being also prolonged in Alsace West (Saar-Union and towards the the Saar and the Palatinat)
In Lorraine, the francique one is indicated in language running by the terms: Platt', Plattdeitsch , Lothringer Platt , Lothringer Plattdeitsch , Lothringer Déitsch , Fränkisch , Lothringisch , francic Lorraine, Lorraine francic.
The Lorraine Francique in its various alternatives does not constitute a specific branch of francic on the linguistic level since it is subdivided in several alternatives also spoken elsewhere than in Lorraine. Nowadays it tends to be mixed in the current expression with many words borrowed from French, the speakers practitioner frequently the codeswitching .
The “ platt ” is the term more used currently (2004) by the Lorraine ones to indicate the francic Lorraine one. It is attested in particular in the local press and the edition, but does not appear in the French dictionaries.
the Rhenish Francique is spoken in Alsace Bossue (area about Saar-Union: on the Western slope of the the Vosges of North this part of Alsace is attached to the same linguistic surface as the close Lorraine.
In Alsatian North, several villages as well as the commune of Wissembourg traditionally use of francic speeches Southerners. Though attached to the German superior, this small space proves to be transitional because hybrid with its limits with Germanic the bas-rhinois (southernmost frontage) or with the dialects means-German of the Lorraine Rhenish Francique (Western frontage).
In LuxembourgThe Luxembourg (or francic Luxemburgish) is one of the official languages of the Grand-Duché of Luxembourg, as well as the French and the German .
Loans of French to the francique oneHere some words that the French borrowed from old francic, the language of the Francs.
- spur < *sporo (old francic, cf German Sporn )
- beech < *haistr (old francic)
- armchair < faldistôl (francic, cf German falten “to fold” and Stuhl “chair”)
- garden < *gart or gardo (old francic, cf German Garten and English garden ), “fence”, but also “spine”…
- heaume < helm (francic helmet, cf English helmet and German Helm )
- marsh < *marisk (old francic, cf English marsh and German Marsch (Land) )
- mark (to mark) & goes (border) < *marka (old francic, cf English mark )
- row < *hring “ring, circle, assembly military” (old francic, cf German Ring )
- harangue < *harihring literally “troop, armed (hari) & assembled (hring)”
- truce < *treuwa “contract, convention” (old francic, cf German Treue )
- haubert < halsberg literally “neck (halls) & protection (berg)”
- belfry < bergfrid literally “day before, protection (berg) & peace (frid)”
- blue < blao (cf German blau )
- linguistic Border native of the Moselle region
- francic Literature
- endogenous regional Language (Belgium)
- Plattweb a gate of the platt
- the site of the festival of Sarreguemines
- site of '' Gau Griis '', association for defense and promotion of francic (Bouzonville). " Gau Griis" publish, since 2001, a literary review trilingual (French, German, francic) and semi-annual, the " Paraple".
- site history of the francique-chart-literature
- site more properly linguistic
- with discovered the franciques ones of Lorraine
- the influence of the language of the Francs on French, seen by the Ministry for the French Culture
- the influence of the language of the Francs on French, seen by the French Community (Walloon) of Belgium
- the Lorraine '' term francic '' indicates three Germanic dialects of Lorraine
- an article on the linguistic situation of frontier in the Moselle
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