François Duvalier (Port-au-Prince, April 14th 1907 (?) - April 21st 1971), called “Dad Doc.”, was President of Haiti of 1957 with 1964 then Dictateur (“Life president”) of 1964 with his death. Its reign was impresses of corruption and marked by the use of private militia, the uncles macoutes.
First weaponsBorn with Port-au-Prince from a family originating in Martinique, it continues studies of Médecine (from where its nickname of “Dad Doc.”), being useful in the rural regions. It gains there the regard of the populations for her assistance with the fight against the Typhus and another diseases of the extreme poverty. Married with Simone Ovide in 1939, he becomes managing director of the national health service in 1946. In 1949, it exerts the functions of Minister for health and work. After being itself opposite with the coup d'etat of Paul Magloire, it is thorough with the exile until the amnesty of 1956. He is elected President of the Republic in 1957 with the support of the army and on a populist program , using a strategy “pro Négritude” where “Noiriste” to defy the elite of the Mulâtre S and to make call in the majority afro-Haitian. Duvaliers (father and wire) will be constant during their dictatorship by the United States of America to face the communist risk.
Consolidation of the capacityAfter a coup d'etat missed with the mid- 1958, the army is purged and the Voluntary Milice for the National security (more known under the name of its members, the Tontons macoutes ) is created, its organization taking as a starting point the black shirts of the fascistic Italy . Not touching wages, the Tontons lived extortion and organized crime.
In 1961, Duvalier rewrote the constitution and organized an election with one applicant: with 1,32 million voice for him (and 0 against), he was re-elected President and proclaimed Life president in 1964.
In 1966, it persuaded the the Vatican to let name it the Haitian catholic hierarchy. Perpetuating a black nationalism, that also allowed to him to reinforce its influence on the island by the control of the religious institutions.
Worship of the personalityDuvalier reanimated the traditions of the Vaudou, using them to consolidate his capacity: he claimed to be itself a Hougan and, to died of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, indicated that the assassination was the consequence of a fate thrown by him.
Duvalier also deliberately modelled his image on that of the Baron Samedi, in an effort to make itself even more imposing. He often put sunglasses and spoke with a strong nasal tone associated with leasing.
With his death, his/her son Jean-Claude (“Baby Doc.”) succeeded to him. In 1986, with the fall of this last and 15 years after its death, the body of François Duvallier was unearthed and ritually beaten with death.
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