The common direction tends to amalgamate the concepts of formation, Apprentissage, education, and to see the simple fact there of transmitting knowledge. Even if these concepts interpenetrate, it is advisable to distinguish them.
One can distinguish the initial training , and the professional training :
initial training corresponds to secondary education and academic, obligatory up to 16 years, giving an education level which will determine, partly, the type of employment which the individual will be able to occupy.
- the formation by Apprentissage is a particular case of initial training with an alternation of theoretical periods and practical periods in company.
- professional training or Continuing education generally adopted for people carrying on an community activity already, and wishing to increase their competences. (in France, the companies of more than 10 paid must finance this step to a total value of 1,6% of the wage bill, those of less than 10 paid to 0,40%.)
One can also speak about formal formation, that which is received in the various institutions of the formation; and of abstract formation, which one can also name Autoformation and which tends today to being recognized thanks to the devices of the Validation of the assets.
Relations between trainer and trained
In a very diagrammatic way, speech of teaching is to speak about the activity of that which teaches. To speak about training, it is to refer to the activity of that which learns.
The concept of formation indicates a more total field where it is question of the relation between that which teaches and that which learns thus that trainings carried out. In the field of the formation, those relate to at the same time To know S , to know to make (see Compétence) and to know to be (see Attitude). The pedagog Jean Houssaye, proposes a schematization often included in the field of sciences of the education which it names the teaching triangle . This triangle, composed of three poles:
- has : the pupil or learning it;
- B : knowledge;
- C : the teacher or the trainer;
- when axis BC is prevalent in the teaching situation, one is located in the process to teach , the professor dialogs with the knowledge and raises/learning is returned so that Jean Houssaye names the “place of death”;
- when the axis AC prevails in the situation, one is located in the process to form , here it is the knowledge which is put at the place of death;
- when axis AB prevails, one is located in process to learn and the teacher or the trainer is returned in the place of death.
- uproar and other shapes of rebellion of the pupils in the process to teach;
- wanderings and seduction in the process to form;
- loneliness and abandonment in the process to learn.
If a rather broad point of view is adopted, of existential type, one can say that to be formed, it is the act of that which obtains its own form, by a “setting in direction” of sound “being in the world”. Any formation acts on my system of representation of the world and the formation that I recognize myself, it is that where I built myself in the meeting of the other, of me even and the world.
Design of a formation
In the traditional companies, the formation is ensured by the parents - a person occupying the same trade as his/her parents - or by the social group: family, village,… the formation then is often conceived in an empirical way.
The complexification of the knowledge to be transmitted forces to have recourse to trainers of trade, with Professor S, with school S. the formation then becomes an activity with whole share and either “diluted” in the life of the every day: learning (the pupil, the trainee) and the trainer (teacher) specifically devote part of their time to the transmission of a knowledge, know-how (competence practical) or knowledge-being (attitude, competence in human relations). In addition to the control of the material taught, the trainer must have competences in Pédagogie, which it can itself acquire by formation.
Of an accompaniment throughout the day by the entourage, the formation becomes a built process distinct from the daily activity of the family.
The formation must then be conceived before being carried out. The design answers the basic question: “to form which, with what, with a which aim? ”
- Former which: which are they learning them, how are selected, which are the pre necessary ones (which must it know before beginning the formation)?
- With what: which are the knowledge and competences with transmetttre?
- In which goal: which activity that does it enable them to exert, how will use this knowledge and competences? It is the Objectif of formation.
The formation comprises one preparatory period: the trainer creates itself (initial training, to take note of the reference frames, to maintain up to date knowledge) and prepares his courses (notes of course, supports teaching, exercises). The transmission comprises a face-to-face discussion between the trainer and learning it - the course itself - but also possibly a personal work or groups some except face-to-face discussion - work with the house, project,… the transmission is done according to three types of activity:
- activity of discovered: learning discovers what it knows or does not know;
- activity of demonstration: the trainer delivers his knowledge;
- activity of application: learning implements what he learned.
The formation thus follows a teaching scenario having for goal to achieve the general goal. This scenario is cut out in teaching parts, of which the goal is to achieve an intermediate goal. The teaching parts itself are cut out in teaching sequences, with specific objectives. Cutting depends obviously on the total volume of the formation, the short formations (a few hours) can have less “hierarchical levels” while the long formations can have more subdivisions. To fix the spirits:
- a teaching sequence lasts a few tens of minutes to a few hours, and is intended to acquire a knowledge or a competence; it is a course or part of course;
- the teaching sequences are a series of course dealing with the same topic.
- evaluation of the formation itself to see whether she answers the objectives of formation;
- evaluation of the trainer, to see whether it is effective in his role;
- evaluation of learning, to be able to adapt the formation to its progression, to show the traversed way to him and to traverse (motivation), and possibly to sanction it: validation of the formation, delivery of a diploma, authorization to exert a trade, a function.
The main difficulty in the training of the children consists in collecting and maintaining their attention. In addition, it is necessary to know to adapt to their cognitive and psychomotor development.
The Pédagogie - which litéralement means “to carry out the child” - comprises many plays and activities of discovery. Only it is not a question to transmit a knowledge to them, but also to wake up their curiosity, their capacity of reflection, the confrontation of their ideas to reality.
Training of the adults
Work of Malcom Knowles, psychopédagogue American made it possible to release a certain number of assumptions constituting a model for the approach of the pedagogy of the adults that this author with renamed “Andragogie”:
- an adult in formation adheres to the project which is proposed to him if this one clearly is identified and negotiated with him;
- the adult has his own design of the life and wants to be responsible for its decisions;
- the adult, during his life, accumulated experiments different in quantity and quality from those of the children and teenagers;
- the adult is likely to enter positively a situation of training if it is convinced that this one will enable him to improve its life or to solve its problems;
- if the centers of interest of the adult can be given, they will be different from those of the children and the teenagers;
- the orientation of the adult must be based on the fact that he wants to make his life easier and more profitable. It will be all the more likely to be interested if the formation is based on concrete elements of the real life;
- the motivation must come from the adult, his formation thus raises more of the techniques employed contents. The trainer will have to thus be regarded the nobody-resource charged to facilitate the training and either as the “Master”.
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