football is Sport collective which opposes two team S of eleven players, of which the goal is to put a spherical balloon in the unfavourable But, without using the arms. Football is undoubtedly the sport more mediatized in the world but is not the sport of team more practiced. This sport is also called soccer on the North-American continent and in Australia, in opposition to the American football, with the Canadian Football and the Australian Football,
See also: roots of football
Well before the appearance of football under its current form in the Public school S English in the middle of the 19th century, one practiced already plays of ball to the foot, as of the Antiquité. The Greek knew various kinds of plays with a ball, which were practiced with the feet: Aporrhaxis and Phéninde with Athens and épiscyre with Sparte. The soldiers Chinese also achieved exercises with a round ball consisting to juggle and carry out master keys; no goals, not of winners, just a physical exercise of maintenance for the soldiers (促据, cuju ). With the Rebirth, in Italy, the Calcio Florentin appears, in which one can also see a distance ancestor of the contemporary football, whose championship is called besides calcio in Italy.
Football finds its roots most direct in the drunk (or choule) medieval, but it is necessary to await the first codes of English play written of the 19th century (1848) to see emerging clearly the sport, which very quickly will become universal. The English federation of football is created in 1863, and as from this period, the popularity of this sport will not cease growing.
See also: beginnings of football
The passage of the dribbling range with the passing range constitutes a true revolution. In the beginning, football is very individualistic. The players, all attackers, ruent themselves towards the goal ball with the foot, i.e. by connecting the dribbles. It is the dribbling . As Michel Platini likes to point out it, “the balloon will go always more quickly than the player”. It is on this simple principle that the passing range is built. This innovation appears at the end of the years 1860 and is essential in the years 1880. As of the end of the year 1860, matches between London and Sheffield would have introduced the passing in North. It is the version of worthy the Charles Alcock, which locates in 1883 the first true demonstration of passing in London by Blackburn Olympic. Between these two dates, the new way of playing finds refuge in Scotland.
Laws of the play
Football counts seventeen “laws of the play” controls by the International Board. The payment is the same one as it is as a professional or an amateur, a senior or in the young people. The International federation of football association (FIFA), installation in 1904, day before with the uniform application of the same laws of the play on the whole of planet.
See also: Laws of the play
17 laws of the play:
the playing field
- the balloon
- Many players
- Equipment of the players
- the referee
- the referees assistants
- duration of the match
- the kickoff and resumption of the play
- Balloon concerned and out of the play
- Goal marked
- the off-side
- Faults and antisportif behavior
- frank Blow
- Kick of repair (penalty)
- Returned of key
- Kick of goal
- Kick of corner (corner)
See also: Referee (football), Referee of football
On the ground, the application of the payment is entrusted to an arbitration body which definitively sets up in 1891. This arbitration body consists of a principal referee which moves on the ground, as of two referees assistants moving along each touchline and provided with flags. In professional environment, a fourth referee is present to ensure a replacement in the event of wound of the one of the three others; he is also used to announce the changes of players and to take care of the maintenance of law and order in the technical zones (benches of the players) and at the edge of the ground.
Football is governed by several institutions.
- On a world level, the supreme authority is FIFA, based with Zurich (Suisse), and in particular organizing of the world cup.
- At the continental level, of associations organizes the competitions inter-clubs and international in their geographical area. These associations are UEFA for the Europe, CIF for the Africa, CONMEBOL for the South America, CONCACAF for the Central America and septentrional, AFC for the Asia and the Australia, and OFC for the Oceania.
- At the national level, of the associations approved by the FIFA and continental association concerned deals of national competitions and the matches of the national team. Certain territories, for example the Faroe Islands, have a federation and thus a national team without being independent State S.
The club is the basic cell of football. It constitutes the interface between players, framing, supporters and competitions. It ensures the principal income of a player.
See also: Football in the world
the World cup is organized every four years since 1930 and brings together in its final stage 32 national teams.
- Since 1991, a equivalent competition exists for female football.
- Created in 1992, the Coupe of the Confederations takes place every four years since 2005. She opposes the winner of the World cup in title and the winner of the continental Cut of each confederation.
- continental Cuts
- Championship of Europe of the nations
- Cut of Africa of the nations (EDGE)
- Gold Cup (CONCACAF)
- Cut of Asia of the nations
- Copa America
- Olympic Games
With the Olympic Games, the professionals are allowed in the male tournament, but each team must comprise with more the three old players of more than 23 years.
Continental and world competitions
- League of the Champions (ex-Cut of Europe of the clubs champions) (C1)
- Cut of Europe of the clubs champions of female football
- Cut of Europe of the winners of cut (ex C2)
- UEFA Cup (ex-Cut of the towns of fairs) (C3)
- Cut Intertoto
- Supercoupe of the UEFA
- Copa Libertadores
- Intercontinental Cut
- World cup of the clubs
- League of the Champions of the CIF
- League of the Champions of the AFC
The majority of the countries count two types of competitions: the national championship, which constitute major national competition, and the national cuts of which the number varies according to the countries. In England, Spain and France, in particular, the national Cut was born before the championship. Also, the F Cup , the Copa del Rey or the Cut Charles Simon , have one will have particular. On the other hand, the Coppa Italia was created after the emergence of the championship of Series has, and the Coupe of Italy is not a competition very appraisal by the Italian tifosi and clubs. In South America, the idea of national cuts is far from widespread. The championships dispute rather in phase of opening and fence.
Balloon of gold '' France Football ''
- Player FIFA of the year
- Balloon of African gold
- Better South American player of the year
Practical in the worldAccording to a counting published by the FIFA in spring 2001, football is practiced by 242 million people including 22 million women. Approximately 305  is counted; 000 clubs for more than one million and half of teams and 720 000 referees.
For what is nations, the the United States are at the head with 17,9 million practitioners, of which 40 % are women. Behind the USA, one finds the Indonesia (10 million), the Mexico (7,4 million), the China (7,2 million), the Brésil (7 million), the Germany (6,2 million), the Bangladesh (5,2 million), the Italy (4 million), the Russia (3,8 million), the Japan (3,3 million), the England (3,3 million) and the France (3 million).
Tactic and team game
Football is par excellence a sport of team. It thus requires qualities of collective Intelligence. Since its origin, football saw the installation of various tactics. The attack was in particular privileged by those which adopted successively the provisions in “WM” then in “4-2-4”. Defense was definitely more with the honor in the tactics of the “Swiss bolt” or the Italian “catenaccio” in particular.
See also: tactical Devices in football
Actors and spectators
the trainer appears towards the end of the 19th century in Great Britain. It then replaces the captain in many his functions, of the selection of the players to the direction of the training sessions. Many players “recycle themselves” in a career of trainer after their sporting retirement. However, the statute of trainer from now on is framed in France and in other countries by obligations of diplomas. These diplomas and specific trainings appear in France as of the years 1920, but they become impossible to circumvent only with the beginning of the year 1970.
See also: List of famous trainers of football
Agents of players
Since 2000, the FIFA delegated at each National federation the possibility of delivering the authorizations to exert for the agents.
The agent of players must respect the laws of each country where it intervenes as regards national regulation of the trades of sporting intermediaries.
The agent does not deal officially with the money of the footballers contrary to the idea often perceived in the transfers. The agent of players is only remunerated to the maximum of the 10 % of the entire amount of the negotiated wages of the footballer. The agent should not perceive commissions on the amount of the transfers of club with club for the players.
See also: To support football
Football generates a vast movement of popular support, sometimes unconditional: supporters. The supporters of the same club can organize moving called groups or associations of supporters.
See also: Football stadium
Football, when he revêt an official character, is played in Stade S. In theory, each football club profits from a stage in which he carries out all his matches “in residence”. The greatest football stadiums of the world are able to accommodate more: 100000 spectators in the platforms.
The popular passion for football is such as, possibly in the absence of sufficient security measures, of the catastrophes can occur during a match. The player is equipped with protects tibia-sock-short-and shirt
Football in the popular culture
Football and the media always maintained the complex reports/ratios. Televisions continue since about fifteen years like a major funding source, while the written press cannot any more do without an increasingly pointed cover of the play and its asides.
See also: Football and television
Like any sport, football has a particular technical vocabulary.
See also: Lexicon of football
Derived from football
- Football and cinema
- Football Gaelic
- Video game of football
- Rollersoccer or football on rollers
- Tipp kick
- Beach soccer
- Street soccer
- Foot armchair or powerchairfootball
- Football in room or Futsal
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