The food is the field of all that refers to the contribution Nourriture making it possible a Living organism to function.
By extrapolation one defines as food any secondary system, which ensures the contribution of basic elements and energy a principal system depend on the first for its operation. In the technical field one thus speaks for example about Power supply or supply Carburant of a thermal Moteur. This acceptance will not be developed in this article devoted to with the food function in the field of the alive one.
Biological approachThe chemical reactions necessary to the life are dependant on contributions in Nutriment S. At the organizations higher those either are synthesized by photosynthesis (plants), or drawn from organic compounds (animal and mushrooms). There exist other energy sources for the micro-organisms, for example some Archéobactérie S draw their energy by producing Méthane or by oxidizing sulphuretted compounds .
The vegetable are organizations Autotrophe S. They are able to synthesize the organic components starting from Rock salt and of solar energy thanks to the chlorophyllian function .
Animal feedsThe animals are dependant on one or more other species for their food. The food is transformed into nutrients by the Digestion. The food Régime, that it is carnivorous or Herbivore has a dominating influence on the behavior of the animals. It determines in particular their statute of Prédateur or Proie in the Food chain. They can have a food Omnivore or more specific practice Insectivore, Piscivore, Charognard, Saprophage…
Like the other animals, the man is dependant on his environment to ensure his fundamental needs in food. The study of the human requirements in food, that it is in quantity (Obésité or Sous-alimentation) or in quality (Malnutrition) is the Nutrition.
Food and health at the ManFor all the living beings (vegetable, animal, human beings), the quality of the food has an impact on health.
Healthy foodFor the Man, a healthy food consists in respecting food balance, i.e. to consume neither too much nor not enough Nutriment S essential such as the Vitamine S and the Oligo-élément S, Protéine S, Fruit S, Légume S and to preferably hold its meals at regular hours.
Certain traditional food modes have a favorable impact on health. The inhabitants of the Japanese island of Okinawa have the the longest Life expectancy in the world. Their food has many common points with that of the “mode crétois”: use of Oil, few animal greases, consumption of Vegetable S and Poisson S, frugal mode.
Recent evolutions in the developed companiesCurrent lifestyle in the companies developed threat to put at evil the principles of a healthy food.
The Obésité has increased regularly in the world, including in France for 30 years. It relates to there today 8% of the adults and 10% of the children: an increasingly important and young fringe of the population. Harmful dietary habits for health develop:
- consumption of sodas, ice creams, desserts and products containing of simple sugars;
- slimming modes unbalanced on the nutritional level, and generally against-productive bus followed later from periods of food even richer;
- nibbling of fatty and sweetened food (60% of the teenagers would concern), which cuts the hunger for useful food;
- flat prepared including/understanding too much salt (what very strongly increases arterial hypertension and encourages to eat increasingly salted), and little fresh food (thus less vitamins in particular).
The the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a vast campaign of promotion of a healthier food. In France, the National plan Nutrition Health (PNS, Ministry for health) encourages in particular a more important consumption of fruit and vegetables (slogan: 5 fruit and vegetables per day).
However, in XXIe century, a share of the population of the developed countries knows problems of malnutrition which are related to the difficulty of this population of having incomes sufficient for good to nourish itself.
Situation in the countries in the process of development and the LDCS
- quantitative Improvement:
However, the signs of an improvement are visible: the food insecurity has moved back for one half-century. Only 13% of the inhabitants of planet are underfed against 37% with the beginning of the year 1970. For the others the quantity of food available for each inhabitant reaches the limit fixed by FAO, i.e. 2500 kilogram calories per day.
However, the malnutrition relates to 854 more million people in the world. However, the specialists agree to say that world agriculture can probably nourish 12 billion men. The only question which installation is then that of the distribution of food.
The malnutrition is due to a food shortage being able to be caused by:
- an political instability or with an armed conflict. Let us take the example of the Darfur.
- a natural disaster (for example of the drynesses in Mauritania or floods in India).
The food shortage involves a fast and important rise prices of the foodstuffs, depriving the access to the food for the poorest populations. Africa, the Southeast Asia and the Middle East are the principal areas where the lack of food is most important.
The food of the traditional companies is based on a principal product (a cereal like rice, the corn, the corn), from where a certain monotony in the meals. The majority of the countries know or knew what one calls the food transition, which is characterized by more balanced improvement, where vegetables, the dairy produces and the meat progress.
Cultural approachThe food is, with can be the reproduction, one of the only basic physiological activities to have stimulated the various human cultures as much. The human being thus invented a specific practice to decorate as well as possible the Aliment S: kitchen. More recently, he sought to rationalize his practice, creating the Diététique to meet best his needs Nutrition nels.
Food practicesThe human being developed, according to the cultures, of many food taboos. However, except practices as the coprophagie which have an direct impact on health, none of them seems universal. Even the Cannibalism, was thus ritualisé in certain companies.
Many people seek to control their food, that it is in an esthetic concern, of health or because of more philosophical motivations. In addition to the Vegetarianism or the Végétalisme one can quote practical food like the dissociated Alimentation or the Instinctonutrition for example.
When these practices become pathological, one speaks about Troubles of the food behavior. They are for example the Anorexie, the Boulimie or the food Compulsion. They can be extremely invalidating.
MealsThe Repas are moments devoted to the food.
They are taken in deprived or public. Some are taken in parts designed for the meals such as the Dining room or the room of Restaurant. The large majority of the cultures distinguishes several types of meal according to the moment of the day and the quantity of been useful food.
Agribusiness industry, economy and policy
The Agribusiness industry is a prevalent component of the international economy.
The tendencies of the last decades noted in the food, in particular in the developed countries (fast and not diversified food, nibbling at any hour, too sweetened, salted and fatty products, little consumption of fruit and vegetables, few fibers, etc), are criticized by the majority of the ecologists under the name of Malbouffe , just as the influence of certain agro-alimentary multinationals, criticized by certain altermondialists. Together, they recommend in particular the development of the biological food and a great vigilance compared to behaviors which can pose very serious problems of health (cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis for example), except when these food behaviors remain exceptional.
- List of manufacturers of agricultural machinery
- List of manufacturers of inputs
- List of manufacturers of seeds
- List of fruit producers and vegetables
- List of great breedings
- List of agroalimentary companies
- List of great restaurants
Treating museum of the foodLibrary and Musée of Greediness
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