This page relates to the year 1557 Calendrier Julien.
- January - February: The viceroy of the Peru Andres Hurtado de Mendoza sends his son Garcia de Mendoza, 21 years, with the title of governor of the Chile, 350 men, of the horses and the weapons.
- March 7th: Jean de Léry arrives in the colony of France the Antarctic (author of the Histoire of a voyage faict in the ground of Brazil ).
- April 1st: Died with the combat of the chief mapuche Lautaro.
- November 7th: Battle of Lagunilla. Garcia de Mendoza decides to take the Araucan S with reverse, unloads with Concepción and pack Araucans on the edges of the Lake Lagunilla. The chief araucans Galvarino has the hands cut before being released.
- November 30th: Garcia de Mendoza is again victorious of Caupolican in the plain of Melirupu, releasing from the pressure of the Indians Valvidia and the coast. To control Araucanie, it makes build the fortified town of Cañete and entrusts it to Alonso de Reinoso.
- the Othoman seize Massaoua, of Arkiko, then of the fortress of Débaroa in the Tigré. The pasha Özdemür besieges and takes the convent ever violated of Debra-Damo, massacre the monks, profane and plunders the church. The governor of Striped manages to surprise the Othoman troops which were going to seize the peninsula of Bour, and inflicts a hard defeat with the Moslem queen of the Mazaga, Gaéoua, allied of the Turks.
Arrived of the patriarch Andre d' Oviedo in Ethiopia.
- Food shortages and epidemics with the Morocco (1557 - 1558).
- the pasha of Algiers makes assassinate the emir Saadien Mohammed ech-Sheik who had been combined with the Spaniards of Oran.
- His/her son Moulay abd-Allah succeeds to him the Morocco and continues its policy of alliance with the Spaniards against the Turks, while trying to drive out the Portuguese of the Atlantique coast (fine in 1574).
- the Ming authorize the Portuguese of Malacca to be settled with Macao in thanks of their assistance against the pirates.
- the Uzbek take again Bukhara.
The Middle East
- Taken Nakhitchevan by the Othoman .
- January: Secret union between Filipino Welser and the archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol.
- Mars: Forwarding of François de Guise against Naples. It arrives at Rome in March and is opposed to the pile cluster, which victorious, pushes back the French of Italy. The pope Paul VI, combined France, is forced to sign peace in September.
- June 11th: Beginning of the reign of Sebastien Ier, king of the Portugal (fine in 1578). Supervision of Henri the Cardinal (fine in 1568).
- Sebastien, small son of Jean III of Portugal, is three years old. The queen Catherine, large mother of the child-king and the cardinal infant Henri, her great-uncle, dispute regency. Henri carries it, and entrusts the education of Sebastien to a Portuguese, Luis Gonçalves de Camara, known Jesuit for his narrow-mindedness. He inculcates to the young king ideas of another time: a fanatic devotion and the worship of the chivalrous spirit.
- June: Marie Tudor engages against the Valois at the sides of her husband Philippe II of Spain.
- August 10th: Battle of Saint-Quentin. Victoire of the Spaniards of Emmanuel-Philibert of Savoy on the constable of Montmorency. Saint Quentin passes to the Spaniards. The army of Philippe II, strong of 60 000 men, cannot walk on Paris for lack of supply. Own way must return from Italy to restore the situation.
- September 11th - October 8th: Ferdinand Ier convenes a conference with Worms in which Melanchthon and Canisius clashes, without result.
- December: The reformed Scottish one are linked according to the use of the Covenant (oath to defend a cause and to remain plain until death). The regent Marie de Guise refuses to reach their request, which causes a rebellion in which intervene the troops Frenchwoman and English.
- Creation of the Serb patriarchate of Pec.
- the election of the bishop of Alba Iulia for all the Transylvania takes place according to the rite Lutheran.
- Food shortage with Barcelona.
- Spain: Seizure of two barrels of prohibited books sent of Geneva by one exiled Spanish involving a hardening of repression by the State and the Enquiry.
- Henri II of France adheres to the jubilee ordered by the pope against the heresies.
- June 2nd: Edict of Compiegne (capital punishment for the heretics). Legal repression against the heresy will make a hundred victims in ten years.
- September 4th: Business of the street Saint-Jacob to Paris: women stopped during a conventicule calvinist are treated “whores” by catholic crowd. Blows are exchanged. Protestants are delivered to justice and are carried out.
- December 2nd: Believed of the the Rhone in Avignon.
Poland & Russia
- February 27th: First English embassy in Russia.
- February: Ivan IV of Russia refuses to receive an embassy livonienne.
- the king of Poland Sigismond constrained Auguste the Livonie to be linked with the Lithuania to resist to the tsar.
- December: A Russian army, partly made up of Tatars, invades and devastates the Livonie. Narva and Tartu (Dorpat) is taken and plundered. The Master of the Order Teutonique and the archbishop of Rīga call some with the Poland, the bishops of Ösel and of Reval turn to the Denmark and the Sweden, while the peasants estes raise themselves.
Sigismond Auguste of Poland grants full freedom of worship to the Lutherans of the towns of ducal Prussia by the edicts of 1557 - 1558.
Science & technology
- With the Mexico, discovered process of the amalgam for the extraction of the money.
- the equal sign (=) is used for the first time by the Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde.
- Hundreth Good Points off Husbandrie , treated agronomy of English Thomas Tusser.
- Livro da Fabrica das Naus , treated naval construction of Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.
Economy & company
- Moulay abd-Allah develops the commercial relations of the Morocco with the English.
- the crown of Spain is in suspension of payment.
- Collapse of German family capitalism (Fugger). Bankruptcies.
Births in 1557
Jean de Sponde with Mauléon.
Death in 1557
- January 2nd: The Pontormo, painter mannerist Florentin (Jacopo Carucci, born in 1494).
- June 11th: Jean III of Portugal.
- September 1st: Jacques Cartier, exploring French.
- November 19th: Bona Sforza, queen of Poland, princess and archduchess (º February 2nd 1494)
- December 13rd: Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia, Italian mathematician.
Francesco d' Ubertino known as Bachiacca, Italian painter.
Be-X-old: 1557 Map-bms: 1557 Simple: 1557
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