See also: Fleur (homonymy)
The flower is consisted the whole of the bodies of the reproduction and the envelopes which surround them at the Angiosperme S (also called plants with flowers). After the Pollination, the flower is fertilized and is transformed into Fruit containing the Graine S. the flowers is very often gravitational by the colors more or less sharp of their Corolle and is often scented. They often produce nectar, butiné by many Insecte S, in particular the Abeille S. the blossoming of the flowers, or Floraison, is often very transitory. The flowers sometimes solitary, but are often gathered in Inflorescence S.
Very early, the flowers drew the attention of the man who uses them and cultivates them for the interior ornamentation (cut flowers, bouquets, Ikebana) and external (gardens, plat bands…). The culture of the flowers is the Floriculture. The flowers often inspired the artists, painters, poets…
The flower in botany
Which is the function of the flower?It is the apparatus which allows the reproduction. The flower facilitates the Pollinisation, the crossing with other seedlings of the same species. The exchange of pollen from one flower to another is generally done thanks to Insecte S butineurs. The latter manage to locate the flower thanks to the " panels of signalisation" that are the coloured petals. For its work of Pollination, certainly involuntary, the insect is " récompensé" by the nectar sweetened which is at the bottom of the flower, or by Pollen like source of food.
The bees use this nectar to manufacture the Miel.
Pollination makes it possible the flower to give Graine S, which after germination will give a new plant.
See also: Pollination
The flower consists of floral parts inserted on a floral Réceptacle. When the flower is complete, it includes/understands four Verticille S of floral parts. Outside towards the interior, one meets:
- the chalice, formed by the whole of the Sepal S,
- the Corolla, formed by the whole of the Petal S.
- the Androcée, i.e. the whole of the cheesecloth S (left male), which produce the Pollen.
- the gynécée or Pistil, formed by the whole of the Carpelle S (left female).
This theoretical plan of the flower, which one typically finds at the Bouton of gold (Renonculacée S) is prone to many variations. For example one meets flowers without petals, or apétales . A mixed flower is a flower having at the same time cheesecloths and pistil.
See also: floral Part
Why certain flowers they are closed the evening?This phenomenon is called the Nyctinastie; it is the result of a reaction of the flower to an external stimulation. The temperature and the luminosity dropping with fallen the day, moisture increases and certain flowers are closed again. This movement is due to the cells of the base of the Corolle. From night, it inflate moisture, which involves the closing of the petals.
The oldest flowerThe oldest plant with flower never discovered is Archeofructus , coming from China and probably watery. It would go back to -125 million years (beginning of the Crétacé). One notes the absence of Pétale and of Sépale but one identified Carpelle S, and cheesecloth S, dispersed along a stem, and not anchored on the same point.
It would be thus about the first Angiosperme.
Some big families of flowers
Renonculacées (international current Name Ranunculaceae )
- Crucifères (international current Name Cruciferae or Brassicaceae )
- Papilionacées (international current Name Papilionaceae , Papilionoideae or Faboideae )
- Labiées (international current Name Labiatae or Lamiaceae )
- Orchises (international current Name Orchidaceae )
- Rose S
To have the whole of the families in the course of revision to see Classification APG.
Examples of plants with flower
It will be noticed that flowers having a name which is clean for them are rare. Let us quote the pink , flower of the Rosier or the wild rose, flower of the wild rose.
- floral Induction
- Perianth, ovary, Carpelle S, Pistil, Anthère, floral Part, floral Rate/rhythm, the Inflorescence S
- Hanami, Japanese habit of contemplation of the flowers
- Symbolic system of the flowers
- exotic Fleur
- See a detailed diagram of the structure of a flower.
- Pixiflore: interactive and ludic lessons of botany on the flower
- the flowers images
Nds-nl: Bloeme Simple: Flower Zh-min-nan: Hoe
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