See also: Cape Finisterre, PEN-rear-Bed (homonymy)
It was called “Finistere, by evocation of the Benedictine abbey of Loc Mazé known as in Latin “of fine” or “finibus terræ”” (either of the end of the ground ), or more probably, seen the time, of the course to which it gave its name.
Historydetailed Article: History of Finistere
The department was created with the French revolution, the March 4th 1790 pursuant to the law of the December 22nd 1789, starting from part of old the province of Brittany. It also corresponds to the West of the évêché of Cornwall, to the entirety of the Leon and the western third of the Trégor, as well as end of the Broërec or Vannetais: seneschalsy of Gourin.
With the ancient time Finistere was inhabited by the people Gallic Armorican of the Osismes (Celtes). After the Roman conquest the territory raised of the Lyons province of Gaulle. The chief town of Osismes was installed in Vorgium (current the Carhaix). At the end of the 3rd century was built with Brest a " castrum" to protect from the pirates Scots, Saxon & Clippings. One century later, it will belong to the defense system and control of the English Channel installed by the imperial government, the " Tract Armoricanus and Nervicanus".
The territory of Osismes would have been conceded with Breton by the Maximus emperor at the end of IVe century. Increased that of Coriosolites, it will form the " Létavie" , called soon " Bretagne" news; or " Small Bretagne". This cradle of continental Brittany was divided into two kingdoms, Cornwall and Domnonée which had their insular correspondents. These double kingdoms from one side to another of the English Channel were probably governed by the same dynasties in the beginning. Broërec (the current department of Morbihan) was detached from Cornwall and the Leon was detached from the kingdom of Domnonée.
The Leon will remain under the authority of its Viscounts, though extremely chipped by the dukes Pierre Mauclerc and Jean the russet-red. The Rohan will inherit the Leon by marriage. The title of prince of Leon is still carried today by the son of the current duke Josselin de Rohan (it is of course a title of courtesy).
Policydetailed Article: Political of Finistere
List of the deputies of Finistere
- List of the senators of Finistere
- List of the general advisers of Finistere
- List of the prefects of Finistere
- Sub-prefectures: Brest, Châteaulin, Morlaix.
- Common of Finistere.
- Old communes of Finistere.
Historical division between the north and the south of the department, which had resulted in different zip codes (29N and 29S) is always apparent in the organization of various public entities (Health insurance, Family benefits, Assurance unemployment, etc), mixed or private.
Geographydetailed Article: Geography of Finistere
Finistere is located at the western end of Brittany. It is bordered in north, the west and the south by the Manche and the Atlantic Ocean.
First coastal department of France, it counts 118 littoral communes out of 283, either more than one tenth of the French littoral communes, and 1250 km of coasts, or nearly a quarter of the Littoral French.
Climatedetailed Article: Climate of Finistere
Economydetailed Article: Economy of Finistere
Demographydetailed Article: Demography of Finistere
The inhabitants of Finistere are the Finistériens .
Finistériens go down for the greatest number of the Celts which they inherited the Breton language. Finistere was already populated with the Neolithic as attests of them the presence of many megaliths and menhirs. Between IVe and VIIee century there were several migrating waves of the Breton islanders towards Armorique following the disorganization of the Roman Empire and with the invasions of Saxon and of the Angles. They mixed with the local populations present on the spot. Thereafter the population of Finistere remained isolated from the other populations because of its linguistic particularism and from the position of Finistere at the end of a peninsula. The Francization of Finistériens and the opening-up of the peninsula thanks to the modern means of transport will contribute to facilitate ethnic mixing with the inhabitants of other areas.
Much Finistériens was obliged expatrier to find a work as from the years 1850. The Paris region as well as the big cities of the West of Rennes and Nantes and the ports of the Harbor and Toulon constituted the favorite destinations. Today Finistériens tend to want to more and more often return in their department of origin. The Paris region where the prices of the real estate are high attracts less and less.
The major part of the population lives in the cities. The rate of urbanization of the population reaches 73% indeed. Brest counts approximately 210.000 inhabitants for his agglomeration and Quimper approximately 80.000 inhabitants. The population concentrates in the zones close to the littoral while the interior of the grounds (areas of the mounts of Arrées and the black Mountains) saw its population declining and suffers from a certain depopulation. The department exceeds the 800.000 inhabitants. It one of is populated France and is classified with the 24e place for the number of inhabitants.
Culturedetailed Article: Culture in Finistere
LanguageFinistere (PEN-rear-Bed in Breton) is the department more nant Breton of Brittany. Balanced manpower that provides the investigation Étude of the family history carried out by INSEE into 1999 are of more than 132 000 Breton-speaking of more than 18 years for this only department. In particular manpower of the bilingual schools are added to it which are assembled to 4 333 pupils with the re-entry 2005, or the pupils following of the courses of Breton in the public corporations of the primary education (more than 7.600 into 2002/2003) or of the secondary (more than 1.800 in 2002/2003).
Tourismdetailed Article: Tourism in Finistere
Transportdetailed Article: PEN-rear-Bed (network)
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