The République of the islands Fiji is a Pays of Oceania, member of the the Commonwealth (suspended since December 8th, 2006), in the east of the Vanuatu, the west of the Tonga and the south of the Tuvalu.
See also: History of Fiji
The first inhabitants of the Fiji islands, of the Austronésien S arrived of the South-East Asia a long time before the islands were discovered by the explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman at the 17th century. There is 5 000 years (3 000 front J. - C), of the inhabitants of the littoral of the China of the South, farmers of millet and rice, start to cross the strait to settle in Taiwan. Towards 2 000 before J. - C., of the migrations take place of Taiwan towards the Filipino . New migrations start soon of Philippines towards Célèbes and Timor and from there, the other islands of the archipelago Indonesia N. Towards 1 500 av. J. - C., another movement carries out Filipino in New Guinea and beyond that, the islands of the Pacifique. The Austronésiens are probably the first navigators of the history of humanity.
However it is only at the 19th century that Europeans colonized these islands to occupy them in a permanent way. In 1874, the islands were under British control . Independence was granted in 1970. The democratic mode was stopped by two military coups d'etat in 1987, because the government was perceived as dominated by the Indian community .
The constitution of 1990 supported control by the Indigène S mélanésiens of the Fiji but caused an important emigration of the Indian population. The loss of population had like consequence of the economic difficulties, but ensured the majority Mélanésiens. The amendments issued in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. The free elections and peaceful of 1999 made it possible to constitute a government carried out by a Indo-Fijian. The Fiji were on several occasions an important member of the maintenance missions of the peace of the United Nations in various areas of the world. A new military coup d'etat, on December 5th 2006, sees the accession with the capacity of the chief of the armed forces, the rear-admiral Frank Bainimarama and the inversion of the democratic institutions, judged by the junta incompetents to decrease the racial hate between the ethnic communities.
See also: Political of the Fiji, List of the presidents of the Fiji
The Head of State of the Fiji is the president, who is elected by the large Council of the chiefs for one five years duration. The president names a Prime Minister and a cabinet of the room of the representatives, which has 71 seats. A certain number of seats of the Parliament is reserved for the ethnic principal groups of the Fiji, whereas the remainder is open. The higher room of the Parliament, the senate, has 34 seats.
See also: Fijian Administrative organization
Leitartikel: Divisions of the islands Fiji --> The Fiji are divided into four parts, called divisions . Those are simply called division of the center , division of north , Eastern division and Western division . The island of Rotuma, in the north of the principal archipelago, has the statute of dependence.
See also: Geography of the Fiji, List of the islands Fiji
The Fiji are composed of 322 islands, from which approximately thirds are inhabited. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. Viti Levu accommodates the capital Suva and almost the three quarters of the population lives there. Other important cities are Savusavu and Lautoka. The principal international airport is located at Nadi (Nandi delivery), on the Western side of Viti Levu, contrary to Suva.
The islands are Montagne use, with tops up to 1200 m, and covered with tropical forests.
See also: Economy of the Fiji
The Fiji, equipped with Forest S, of Ore S and resources Poisson S, have one of the most developed economies islands of the Pacifique, in spite of an always great sector of saving in subsistence. Exports of Sugar and an industry of the Tourism in growth (approximately 300 000 with 400 000 tourists annually) are the independent sources of foreign currencies. The treatment of the Sucre composes a third of the industrial activity. The long-term problems are, inter alia, the low levels of investment and the rather dubious property rights. The political agitation in the Fiji had a serious impact: its economy decreased by 2,8% in 2000 and increased only by 1% in 2001. The office of tourism of the Fiji expects that the arrivals of visitors reach a level comparable with that of before the Coup d'etat in 2002. The capacity of the government to control its budget (forecast of a deficit Net of 6% for 2002) will depend on the return of the political stability and the confidence of the savers. An international airport serves the Fiji, with Nadi.
See also: Demography of the Fiji, Indian of Fiji
The indigenous population was defined like Mélanésie nne by Jules Dumont d' Urville, because of the black color of its skin. This categorization remained, although these Mélanésiens are close relatives of the other populations austronésiennes, like the Polynésie NS. The Mélanésiens compose approximately half of the population of the Fiji, this population being made up to a total value of 40% of descendants of the Indian emigrants freely come in the islands at the 19th century, at the request of the British authorities, to cultivate the Sucre. The individuals of Indian origin were a long time victims of discriminations, constant or tolerated by certain governments having limited their civic rights. These discriminations persist still résiduellement today.
SportThe national sport is Rugby.
Rugby with XVThe Équipe of Fiji of Rugby to XV took part in five recoveries with the world cup, the first in 1987 where the team carried out her best performance while arriving in quarterfinal, just like in 2007.
Rugby with 7The team of Rugby to seven of the Fiji east one of best in the world and gained twice the world cup.
- Vijay Singh, one of best the golfer in the world. It was born in Lautoka.
- Waisale Serevi, the best player of Rugby to seven in the world.
- Lote Tuqiri, player of Rugby to XV, it plays in Australian national team.
- Joe Rokocoko, player of Rugby to XV, it plays in New Zealand national team.
- Rupeni Caucaunibuca, player of Rugby to XV, it plays in France, with KNOWN Agen.
Culturedetailed Article: Culture of the islands Fiji
Population: 844.330 inhabitants (in 2001). 0-14 years: 32,92%; 15-64 years: 63,52%; +65 years: 3,56%
Surface: 18.270 km ²
Density: 46 hab./km²
Land borders: 0 km
Littoral: 1129 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > +1324 m
Life expectancy of the men: 66 years (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the women: 71 years (in 2001)
Growth rate of the population: 1,41% (in 2001)
Birth rate: 23,33 ‰ (in 2001)
Death rate: 5,75 ‰ (in 2001)
infantile Death rate: 14,08 ‰ (in 2001)
Fertility rate: 2,9 children/woman (in 2001)
Rate of migration: -3,45 ‰ (in 2001)
Independence: October 10th 1970 (old British colony)
Telephone lines: 72000 (in 1997)
Cellphones: 5200 (in 1997)
Radios: 500000 (in 1997)
Television stations: 21000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 7500 (in 2000)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 2 (in 2000)
Roads: 3440 km (including 1692 tarred km) (in 1996)
Railways: 597 km (in 1995)
inland Waterways: 203 km
Many airports: 27 (including 3 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
National language: Anglais
national Currency: Fijian Dollar
- Air Pacific, the airline company.
Official site of gourvernement of tourist Fiji
- Official site of Fiji
- '' LAPITA '' Préhistoire of Oceania
Beats-smg: Fėdžis Be-X-old: Фіджы Simple: Fiji Zh-min-nan: Fiji
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