See also: Castro
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz , born the August 13rd 1926, is the current Dirigeant of the island of Cuba, following the cuban revolution of 1958 - 1959 which reversed the dictatorship Pro-American E directed by the Général Fulgencio Batista.
Fidel Castro, Dr. Ernesto Guevara (known as “Che”) and his/her brother the lieutenant Raúl gave thereafter to the Révolution, Nationaliste at the beginning, an orientation pro-Soviet and “Marxist-Leninist” at the beginning of the Années 1960, at the time of its confrontation with the successive American administrations of the time. Following the revolution, Castro gradually founded a mode qualified of dictatorial by some or State socialism by the official discourse, mode strongly official and directed by a Sole party, with a Freedom of the press very limited.
He initially occupied the load of Prime Minister of the République of Cuba of 1959 with 1976 then assumes, since December 2nd 1976, that of president of the Council of State (Head of the State) and of president of the Council of Ministers (Chef of the government) of this State. He is also the first secretary of the cuban Communist party since his recasting in 1965. Life president, Castro will have known ten presidents of the United States: Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Casing, Reagan, G.H. Bush, Clinton and G.W. Bush.
Born in Birán, close to Mayarí, in the province of Holguín (in the past called Provincia de Oriente), on August 13rd, 1926, Fidel Castro spent her very first years in the farm of an easy but extremely complicated family. Wire of Ángel Castro there Argiz, immigrating Galician illiterate, become rich landowner, and of his creole cooker, Lina Ruz González, whereas Don Angel is still married and the impossible divorce with his forsaken wife. Four children are born except marriage, Fidel is 3rd and Raul 4th. Fidel, illegitimate child, are placed at the 5 years age with Santiago of Cuba, and will not be baptized, of unknown father, that in January 1935. He will not be recognized officially by his father, and will take the name of Castro, that in December 1943. Raul, 4 years younger, is in fact itself a half-brother, the mother of Fidel having had it of a sergeant, having métissé Chinese and mulatto, that Angel Castro Ruz recognized nevertheless, after the pronunciation of the divorce of with his first wife.
Studies and recruitment by the Soviet secret services
Fidel follows its studies among Jesuits and in particular with the Belén college of Havana. It enters in 1945 to the university of Havana and in graduate fate in right in 1950. A disputed theory puts forth the assumption that it would have become towards 1948 an agent remunerated by the KGB during its student's period. It takes part in bands of armed students whose political opinions are not Communists, and is on several occasions mingled with murders, at the time of settlings of score between rival bands or personalities. In April 1948, it takes part in the Bogotazo, riots of Bogota which made: 3000 died, orchestrated by mobilities of extreme left against the creation of the OAS, the Organization of the American States of which the congress founder was held in this city. The extent of the role of Fidel Castro in these events is prone to debate.
Marriage and opposition to Batista
In October 1948, he marries his first wife, Mirta Diaz Balart, of middle-class family of Oriente, like Batista and Castro, and whose brother will be… Minister of Interior Department of Batista. They pass their honeymoon to New York. The marriage will last only a few years. From 1950 with 1952, it is devoted to the right, then is submitted to the Parliament for the “orthodoxe Party”. But the coup d'etat of the general Fulgencio Batista, who reverses the government of Carlos Prío Socarrás, cancels these elections. Castro attacks Batista in justice, showing it to have violated the constitution, but its request is considered to be inadmissible.
Organization of the armed struggle and exile
Castro then organizes a reaction armed by attacking the Caserne with Moncada the July 26th 1953, but this one is a disaster. Eighty of the attackers are killed, and Castro is stopped and condemned to 15 years of prison. It is on this occasion that it writes “the History will discharge to me” impassioned speech defending its action and clarifying its political theses. Released at the time of a wave of amnesty in May 1955, it is exiled with the Mexico then with the the United States with his/her Raúl brother, from where it reorganizes resistance to Batista. They are called the Mouvement of July 26th. At that time, Castro is defined as a follower of philosophy jeffersonienne and adheres to the formula Lincoln of co-operation between capital and labor. In 1959, he affirms with U.S. News and World Report that he for nationalizing any industry.
The chief of the guerilla
December 2nd, 1956, it returns clandestinely to Cuba, with 82 others exiled of which Che Guevara, on the yacht Granma in the Eastern Province (in the south-east of Cuba). At the time when Castro and his men unload, the army of Batista awaited them. After a few days of engagements, only 12 of the 82 committed men survived. They take refuge in the Maestra Sierra from where they carry out a Guérilla against the army of Batista. They are then supported by the US government which provides them money and weapons. This last makes a strategic error by not pushing back them with the sea: he declares that nobody survives in the Sierra Maestra , but Castro and his men contradict it in the facts. Among the survivors are Che Guevara, Raul Castro and Camilo Cienfuegos.
Support of the United States and seizure of power
Gaining the popular support, the movement gathers soon 800 men. The revolutionary movement is very popular besides in the United States, NewYork Times and CBS send their reporters, Castro then seems a hero of the Démocratie. The Government of the United States, obstructed by the brutality of the mode of Batista, withdraws the American military aid that it brought to him and starts to see as a Castro an alternative to Batista. The May 24th 1958, Batista sends seventeen battalions more (: 10000 men) against Castro at the time of the Operation Verano. Although in numerical inferiority, Castro gains victories, helped in that by massive desertions in the army from Batista. During the counter-offensive of the autumn 1958, the revolutionary forces take Santiago of Cuba, the second city of the country, and Santa Clara. The December 31st 1958, whereas the situation is very dubious, Batista flees the country with 40 million dollars towards the Dominican Republic, then the Spain of Franco. At January 1st 1959, Castro and the president elected Carlos Rivero Agüero fly over the country and the forces castrists take Havana on January 8th, 1959. The credit of Castro near the cuban population is enormous; at that time it still passes for moderate and a democrat. A first temporary government is set up, associating all the forces of opposition to Batista. This government has the role of preparing elections in the 18 months. Cuba will have however to face the increasing opposition of the United States with the nationalist reforms that Castro wants to bring of which nationalization of key industries in order to give again with the Cubain people the essential resources with his development. Quickly he will be confronted with a determining choice, that is to say to give up the desired nationalist reforms or to direct themselves towards the complete nationalization of industry and the banks and socialism. Refusing to give up the release of its country of the supervision of the great financial and industrial groups American, the government of Castro will be directed towards socialism.
Introduction of the Communist regime
Castro is before a whole man of being able, very quickly, it understands that the only force organized in Cuba, which survives in the chaos of the Revolution, is the Communist party. He passes at once an alliance with him, which accepts all the more quickly as this one had shown much passivity while Castro carried out his guerilla. Castro immediately gives serious pledges to the PC: nationalization of the sector-keys of the economy, energy and sugar industry, while organizing fast lawsuits followed by executions of former partisans of Batista, agents of the armed forces or police force as well as oligarchy.
Castro with the capacity
The United States recognizes the new mode very quickly, and Fidel Castro becomes Prime Minister in February. But a tension develops whereas it starts with exproprier of American industries such as United Fruit , proposing a compensation only founded on the real estate tax which these last had been arranged to maintain artificially low. In April 1959, Castro meets the vice-president Richard Nixon with the White House. It is told that Eisenhower avoided Castro, pretexting part of golf, to let Nixon discuss with him and to determine if it were communist. The economic policy of Castro had worried Washington, which thought that it had made allegiance with the Soviet Union. Following this meeting, Nixon explained why Castro was naive but not inevitably communist. It is not whereas a humanistic reformer and explains: “ capitalism sacrifices the man… Communism sacrifices the human rights . ”
It is not that in 1960 qu' it approaches Mikoyan and starts a Net turn towards the Russian mode. In February 1960, Castro signs an agreement with the USSR for the purchase of oil following the refusal of the expropriées American refineries established in Cuba to provide it to him. The United States suspends shortly after the diplomatic relations with the island. With great concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba gradually reinforces the links with the Soviet Union. Many conventions are signed between Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrouchtchev concerning a substantial help out of economic material and soldier.
Lider MaximoOnly its detractors (and the French press) use this expression which is never employed in Cuba. The nickname of Fidel Castro used by her partisans in Cuba and in all the Latin America is “El Ordering” or more simply “Fidel”.
The missed unloading of Bay of the pigs
See also: Unloading of Bay of the Pigs
The United States supports in material and drive exiled the cuban antiones which prepare an unloading in Cuba.
A war of the information carried out with the KGB, the services cuban and of the double agents within exiled makes it possible the mode castrist to be informed a long time in advance of the preparation of this unloading. Whereas the unloading is imminent, Fidel Castro declares the April 17th 1961 nature “Socialiste” of her revolution.
the unloading of the Brigade 2506, made up of: 1400 exiled cuban financed and pulled by the CIA, under the direction of the agents Grayston Lynch and William Robertson takes place on the southern part of Cuba, with the beach Girón called the Baie of the Pigs.
The CIA thinks that the unloading will cause a popular rising against Castro. However, it of it is nothing, and the unloaded forces are captured, whereas the President Kennedy withdraws at the last time its support for the operation. Two ships of the American navy, come in support, are run by cuban aviation and nine people are carried out following this failure.
Castro, present personally on the battle field, gains there an additional popularity near the Cubans.
The December 2nd of this same year, at the time of a televised intervention, Castro is defined as a “Marxist-Leninist” and announces that Cuba adopts the Communisme. During the the Sixties, several other attempts at less width are carried out. The exiled cuban ones, financed and equipped by the CIA, try to imitate the revolution castrist, formant of the guerillas who operate in particular in the Sierra of Escambray an area close to Trinidad. But the cuban mode from now on is equipped out of heavy weapons come from the Eastern bloc, the guerilla is squared by the revolutionary forces castrists and even if a low level of the population of the area gave a support for this " war of bandit" , they were finally stopped. It is undeniable that the ordering always profited from an important popular support, this explaining why the population will never be raised.
In its memories, Khrouchtchev tells that it was on vacation in the Crimea the April 17th, 1961 when it had the idea to place missiles at Cuba in order to dissuade the United States to attack the island or directly the USSR. Having consulted the Soviet Staff, it met in July a cuban delegation led by Raul Castro in order to specify the methods of them. ballistic missiles with average carried R-12 were to be deployed on the cuban ground, but the United States discovered the construction of the installations lance-missile the October 15th 1962, before the deployment of the weapons. The US government, regarding the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons to 90 miles of Miami as an aggression and a direct threat against the safety of the United States, announced their discovery publicly and reflect in place forty around Cuba, likely to adopt any ship bound for the island. In a letter that Castro addressed to Khrouchtchev the October 27th 1962, he asked him to react by the nuclear force if Cuba had suddenly been invaded. But the first secretary rejected the idea. The Soviet soldiers present at Cuba were however authorized to use nuclear tactical weapons in the event of American attack.
Khrouchtchev finally agreed to withdraw the missile launchers in exchange of an American promise not to invade Cuba and withdrawal of their missiles Jupiter of Turkey. Following this event, the United States did not try any more an invasion of Cuba, but their relations remained tended, in particular via the embargo, and the CIA would have continued to support many projects of assassination (638 according to the general Fabian Escalante, former cuban chief of the secret services) during the years which followed.
At the time of a conference with Havana in January 1992, Robert McNamara, the former secretary with American Defense, “asked Castro if it knew that there were Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, if, in these circumstances, it would nevertheless have started an attack in the event of American invasion, and if he were conscious of what would occur then for Havana. Castro answered " oui" with the first two questions by adding that it had understood that Cuba would have in this case disappeared from the chart”.
External military interventions
As of the Years 1960, Cuba supported in a more or less discrete way of the movements of Guérilla S Communists in Latin America, in the the Caribbean and in Africa but as from 1975, the cuban Armée intervened in a direct way in conflicts on this last continent.
In November, in answer to the South-African military intervention on the Angolan ground, of the regular units are deployed: there will be until: 50000 men permanently, and: 300000 Soldat S cuban will have been present in 13 years of conflict. This military aid of Cuba in Angola is known like l'" Operación Carlota".
The cuban army had its own staff and constituted in fact the military main force of the MPLA with regiments of Artillerie and engaged armoured tanks, while the forces of the MPLA constituted the infantry in charge of rakings, etc the USSR had taken care of the airlift, and also provided planes Mig-21 with pilots to the cuban army.
The cuban presence in Angola had in fact two times, the first was immediately after the independence of Angola (makes of them the first men, equipped as tourists, arrived a little front) and was decisive to beat the militia supported by Zaire, the United States and South Africa which tried to drive out the MPLA as of the independence of the country. The column which attacked by north was quickly beaten and Zaire preferred to withdraw conflict. In the south the progression was slower, but the Angolan army and the Cubans ended up recovering the invaded ground. Peace talks took place then, where Cuba was not present, which recognized the independence of Angola, South Africa compromised itself not to support subversive movements in Angola any more, and the Cubans withdrew themselves gradually.
The second time takes place when the cuban forces were almost entirely withdrawn, the South-African army thinks of being able to benefit from the occasion and lance an offensive from great width starting from Namibia. The Cubans return of number again, and succeed in pushing back the South-African army and inflicting heavy defeats to him, including one very important in Cuito Canavale; cuban aviation crosses also the Namibian border (Namibia is then militarily occupied by South Africa) and carries out a raid on a South-African advanced basis, obliging the South-African army to withdraw itself. New peace talks are held, where this Cuba time is present at the table of the negotiations; the results of these talks will be the withdrawal of South Africa of Namibia, which will consequently become independent, and in South Africa even the beginning of the process which will put an end to the mode Apartheid. This role of Cuba in the end of Apartheid will be recognized by Nelson Mandela, first black president of South Africa, at the time of its taking of, and explains why the first country where it will go in official visit is Cuba.
In the years 1980, several thousands of military advisers were sent to support the government Sandinista of the Nicaragua.
Relations with Canada and Trudeau
In 1976, Pierre Elliott Trudeau (P.E.T), then Prime Minister of Canada did in Cuba one first visits of State of a Western leader during the embargo imposed by the United States. What is strange because of the ideological disagreements of the two men. It brought 4 million dollars of Canadian assistance and offered a loan of 10 additional million. In its speech, Trudeau declared: “Long life with the commander-in-chief Fidel Castro. Long life with the cubano-Canadian friendship. ” The friendship between the two men continued after the withdrawal of the Prime Minister of its functions and Trudeau went to many recoveries on the island in the Années 1980 and 1990. Castro made displacement in Canada in 2000 to witness his funeral. It was besides one of the very rare times where Castro did not cover his traditional green military uniform for an official function.
Problems of request asylums
The March 28th 1980, a bus of request asylums was crushed against the doors of the Peruvian Ambassade with Havana. More: 10000 Cubans entered the embassy in 48 hours. April 20th, Castro announced that all those which wished it could leave the country via the port of Mariel with Havana. The exiled cuban ones are reflected to sail towards forming Mariel what was called the “flotilla of freedom”. According to the American coastguards: 124776 Cubans had left the country when Castro closed the valves on September 26th.
Although the majority of the Cubans who left the island for this period were real request asylums, Castro benefitted from it to expel: 20000 citizens criminal S. This episode inspired a young American scenario writer, Oliver Stone, for a remake with success, Scarface, realized by Brian De Palma in 1983 according to a film of Howard Hawks of 1932.
Criticisms against the United StatesFidel Castro devotes himself to virulent criticisms against the American policy of embargo and the frequent attempts at inversion of her government. He condemns also the seizure of the American companies on the countries in the process of development and even the public health policy of the United States. Recently, he also severely criticized the migratory policy of his neighbor who prevents the cuban emigrants from returning visit to their family in the island. He is also opposed to the attitude of the countries developed with respect to the countries in the process of development, regretting the weight growing of the external debt servicing. He shows the United States to have organized themselves the Attentats of September 11th and affirms that the Pentagon was touched with a missile and not with a diverted plane.
Many are the charges whose United States is the object. During the Cold war, they caused many secret attacks and mortals against Cuba in order to weaken the country and consequently, to make fall the Castro government. In 1971, an epidemic of African swine fever was imported by anti-castristes organizations supported by the CIA, which was revealed by the American press in 1977. The Cubans last euthanasier half of their pigs to stop the disease. In 1981, an epidemic of dengue killed 188 people what an international survey, control a little later allotted to the Americans. In 1988, the lawsuit of the leader of Omega 7, Eduardo Arocena, for the murder of the cuban diplomat Felix García brought new evidence from there. Other pathologies such as the mycète of the tobacco or the smut of the cane with sugar were allotted to them, just like the repeated attempts at assassination of cuban leaders, who would be 638 according to the book of Fabian Escalante, old of the cuban services.
After the end of the cold warIn 1989, Castro openly takes party against the evolution of the “socialist” countries towards the market economy and the liberal democracy. This year there is also organized a lawsuit against the general Ochoa, hero of the War of Angola shown drug trafficking. Obviously, this lawsuit was faked: the charges hold only if Castro were itself with the current and closed the eyes on an important source of currencies; in addition, American DEA projected to remove the general Abrantès, Minister of Interior Department to translate it into justice, because it was also marked of drug trafficking. Castro preferred to shoot the first at the end of the lawsuit while the other is death in prison one year after it had started to purge his sorrow in nonclear circumstances. The true problem is political, because the Ochoa general was favorable to the reforms of Gorbatchev and was in position to try a military coup d'etat.
Alternative bolivarienne for Americas
Hugo Chávez, president of the Venezuela, and Castro, started, in April 2005, the implementation of the Alternative bolivarienne for Americas (ALBA), strengthening the co-operation between the two countries.
Health issues and the question of the succession
The July 31st 2006, following an acute intestinal crisis, Castro temporarily yields his capacities to his/her brother Raúl Castro. It recently appeared on television cuban, obviously weakened, affirming that its recovery of surgical operation that it had undergone passed well. Doubts persist nevertheless as for the true health condition of the cuban leader. According to reports/ratios of the American intelligence services, Castro would be reached of a cancer in final phase. However, the January 30th 2007, television vénézuélienne diffuses a video in contradiction with the American declarations, video which would have been turned three days before. One sees Castro there upright, discussing with Hugo Chavez. On this video, it seems in renewal of form and appears to have begun again weight compared to last the video of October 2006.
The April 20th 2007, after several months of distance of its functions, Fidel Castro received with Havana a high level Chinese official delegation. The duration of the meeting (one hour) as well as the photographs published in the local press seem to confirm the positive development of the health condition of the cuban leader.
The June 6th 2007, Fidel Castro made her great reappearance, after more than one year of absence, during cuban interview a 52 minutes on television national. " All that I then to say to my compatriots, it is that I now do what I must do and nothing moreover, it does not have no secret" there; , the leader declared cuban who had done itself of his health a " secrecy of État" in its official statement the shortly after the advertisement of its first operation. " There is no secrecy of État" , he repeated, before aiming " the espionnage" American by ensuring qu'" with their satellites, they check any person who presents to the entry (my) porte". Whereas the cuban persons in charge have repeated for several months that it will return soon to the businesses, the Head of the cuban State did not make any allusion to the question, devoting the essence of maintenance to pay homage to Vietnam, a " country-frère" combined of Cuba.
Since the March 29th 2007, Fidel Castro signs political articles published in the cuban official press. Its ally the president Venezuelan Hugo Chavez affirms regularly that the health condition of the cuban leader is good and lunatic speculations on its death. Lastly, the September 21st 2007, more than three months after its last televised service, Fidel Castro reappears on the small screen to contradict these rumors. " Eh well, I am there. He is dying man, he died, he will die the day after tomorrow. Eh well, nobody knows which day it goes mourir" the cuban leader at the end of the one hour joked maintenance.
Nevertheless, the majority of the political analysts agree to say that the possibilities of a return to the capacity of Fidel are extremely mean and that it is much more probable than it takes a role of " patriarche" vigilant and that Raúl presents to its place with the presidency of the country at the time of the elections of 2008. Fidel Castro made it clear itself which he intended to be consulted on " any decision importante" by his/her brother.
The economic policy
Castro consolidated his control on the country by nationalizing industries and by expropriant as well the Cubans as the not-Cubans and by setting up industrial relations policies. Many Cubans, because of expropriations, left the island, the majority for Miami, in Florida, where they constituted an important anti-castriste community. Because of the policy of the blocks during the cold war, and because of the embargo established by the United States, Cuba became increasingly depend on the commercial exchanges with the USSR and the Eastern bloc, which accounted for approximately 50% of sound real GNP, of which an important assistance in the form of overestimated prices. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 had severe effects on the economy of the country.
The economic sanctions against Cuba, prohibiting in particular to the American tourists to go there, are presented by the castrists like a major factor in the economic disorders of the island. A contrario , the defenders of the embargo answers that this one is not the fact that of the United States and that Cuba remains free to trade with the other countries. However, the United States tries to prevent the foreign subsidiary companies of the American companies from trading with Cuba and imposes sanctions on the alien companies which make benefit on properties nationalized without compensation. They also restrict their own exchanges with the small countries which treat with Cuba.
Cuba is the second tourist destination of the Caribbean more the appraisal (behind the Dominican Republic) what brings vital foreign currencies to him. The island also receives important subsidies (one estimates them at 850 million dollars) on behalf of exiled Cubans who send some to their family or their friends. In exchange of medical personnel, Cuba also receives oil coming from the Venezuela, following the removal of the feeder canal of Eastern Europe.
These last years, Castro encouraged the development of biotechnology to support the cuban economy and to find substitutes with the cuban external dependence as regards health products. This policy made fear a development of biological weapons by Cuba. Also, in 2002, one of the objectives of the visit of the former president Carter was it to visit the sites of genetic engineering. Since, the island profited from exports of medical technology and the growth of tourism with medical goal.
Systems of education and health Cubans
The communication of the mode castrist in connection with the economic and social achievements accentuates strong two headlights fields: education and health. Cuba, each one can reach the care and education. During the period castrist, these two fields show the very good official statistics, among best of Latin America and in the group of tail of the developed countries. In 2000, after a half century of Castroism, the cuban official rates improved so much for the elimination of illiteracy (96%) that for infant mortality (0,9%). The GNP per capita, him, became poor and places Cuba among the poor countries or relatively the poor.
According to the statistics of UNESCO, the rate of basic instruction in Cuba east one of highest of Latin America. The cuban rate of elimination of illiteracy increased by 76% to 96% in 1961. The literacy campaign engaged by Fidel Castro was concentrated on the campaigns, in particular those of the Oriente province where the level of education was about 50% with a strong rate of immigrants coming in particular from Haiti. At the time of a speech to the autumn 1960 front the the United Nations, Fidel Castro announced that Cuba would be “the only country which will be able to say, after a few months, which it does not have only one any more illiterate”. Close to: 270000 professors and students were sent through the country to learn how to read and write with those which wished it. The people who finished their academic cycle were encouraged to send a letter to Fidel Castro like test. The national museum of the cuban instruction preserves: 700000 of these mails. Diffuse cuban television, in addition to the programs of entertainment, the courses of the second degree for the adult population.
The cuban opponent Jacobo Machover relativizes the successes of the cuban education system. According to him, “massifiée education, free and accessible to all, holds more of the endoctrination acquisition of the knowledge. And the pupils contribute themselves to their own maintenance, obliged which they are to take part in agricultural work not remunerated by accomplishing stays prolonged by " the school of the campagne". The system castrist founded a teaching at several speeds, with the existence of vocacionales , reserved in theory with the best pupils, in practice with the children of the leaders of the Parti. As for the university, it is prohibited with all those which do not have a revolutionary file with any test. Meetings of criticisms and public self-criticisms, after which the students marked " attitudes; déviantes" or of " diversionnism idéologique" are the subject of an immediate exclusion, are currency. For all, privileged or not, the training of the " dialectic Materialism and historical " is of rule”.
The Health system posts excellent quality. In recognition of her efforts, Fidel Castro was the first Head of State to receive the medal of Health For All decreed by the the World Health Organization (WHO). Infant mortality is lowest of the area, with however a strong rate of abortions, in particular for medical reason. The major part of the work carried out by Cuba as regards health concerned childhood. The media cuban put frequently ahead the difference between the cuban children and those of Bogotá, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, the “pueblos jóvenes” of the Peru, or the favelas of the Brésil. All the cuban children have the right to buy one liter of milk per day at an affordable price until the 7 years age. The life expectancy in Cuba is officially hardly lower than that of the United States in 2002, and is highest of all the Latin America. The life expectancy passed from less than 60 years in 1959 to 73 years in 2004, showing the improvement of the living conditions since the beginning of the 20th century.
Approximately: 20000 doctors were sent by Cuba near 60 countries of the Tiers-monde.
A popular image
Contrary to many Heads of State, it was represented only twice on a stamp. The first time in 1974, commemoration of the visit of Leonid Brejnev, then in 1999, on a stamp commemorating the 40e birthday of the Revolution. The mode rather encouraged admiration towards the hero of independence, Jose Martí or the martyrs of the revolution such as Camilo Cienfuegos and especially Che Guevara. Seldom appearing in public without his military uniform, Castro is known for his speeches - rivers which often last several hours and contain number of data and references historical. He has as a tradition to enclose his speeches by his slogan “the Fatherland or death, we will overcome!”.
Its nickname of “líder máximo”, which is hardly any more used in Cuba, is a contraction of “líder máximo of Revolución Cubana”. The Cubans prefer the nickname to him of “Ordering”.
Its image nevertheless is tarnished abroad by the number of: 30000 political opponents who died imprisoned in the jails cuban, among which most famous Pedro Luis Boitel is the catholic poet. Many writers were also persecuted their life lasting without being able to leave Cuba freely, as Reinaldo Arenas (which managed to flee as homosexual but committed suicide in the United States), Jose Lezama Lima or Virgilio Piñera.
More than one million Cubans left the country since its come to power, for political reasons and/or economic. Several thousands of them engaged in organizations more or less helped by the government of the United States, in order to reverse it or at least to dispute its mode, the violent actions of the Années 1960 having failed.
Cuban dissidents deposited a request in front of the national Audience, more the high authority of Spanish justice the Friday October 14th 2005 to ask for the inculpation of Fidel Castro for Génocide, crimes against humanity, tortures and terrorism.
Since 1959, certain Cubans opposed to the revolutionary process entered clandestinity and founded a climate of terror with attacks and sabotages which cost the life nearly 4000 people, knew the prison. One of most famous is Armando Valladares which told its experiment in “Against All Hope”. It proves that Valladares, which was condemned for terrorism and which had been done passed for a paralytic poet, was actually in perfect health. It will obtain nationality étasunienne thereafter and will become ambassador of Ronald Reagan at the United Nations. Progressively of the total influence of the revolutionary capacity on Cuba, the number of political prisoners decreased. The situation of permanent war that Cuba underwent also explains these precautions of the mode in order to guarantee its safety. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the mode castrist reduced his political repression considerably (the cold war being finished) to concentrate on the economic problems and to obtain Western countries including the the United States of America of financial aids and humanitarians.
According to a report/ratio published on January 10th, 2005 by the cuban Commission on the human rights and national reconciliation (CCDHRN), 294 political prisoners are still locked up in Cuba, against 317 at the beginning of 2004. According to this report/ratio, in 2004, at least 21 people were imprisoned for political reasons. He also recalls that the cuban government continues to refuse the access to the prisons at the International committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and at the Commission of the human rights of UNO.
In 2003, the American magazine Forbes estimates the fortune of Fidel Castro at " at least 110 million dollars. In 2004 to 150 million; then, in 2005, to 550 million USD. And finally in 2006, to 900 million American dollars, but this calculation raises “more art that science”. Until 2003, the magazine was satisfied to allot, in an arbitrary way, part of the cuban GDP, approximately 10%, in Fidel Castro. For the year 2006, the value of the government enterprises was entered like concerning its personal fortune. This one contradicted these revelations and affirms that it gains only the equivalent of 40 USD per month, it was in addition committed leaving its functions if the proof is brought that it has such a fortune. It is to be announced that Castro rolls in a Mercedes old woman of the Années 1980 and its " jet" deprived is a viel iliouchine which is not any more in manufacture since the Années 1970. If it is as rich as the Forbes magazine declares it, it hardly shows it.
On the whole, at least five members of its family settled with Little Havana , the cuban district of this city: two of his/her daughters and three of its grandchildren, who in general carry out a life far from the media.
Fidel Castro maintains a relation with Marita Lorenz, American of German origin, with which it had a son still-born child. It was charged by the CIA poisoning it with but renonça with its project by love for the dictator. In its memories, Marita Lorenz indicates: I could not support his admiration for Adolf Hitler. He acknowledged me one day that he had read Mein Kampf and wished that I help it to acquire a comparable ideological determination.
Distinctions1961 Lénine Price of Peace
1963 Hero of the Soviet Union
1976 Somali Order
1977 Order of Jamaica
1980 Price Dimitrov (Bulgaria)
1982 Star of gold (Vietnam)
1986 Order of the Revolution of October
In 2004, it receives the Order of Saint Andre of the hands of the patriarch Bartholomée Ier of the orthodoxe church of Constantinople, the highest distinction of its patriarchate, “as a sign of blessing and symbol of justice and firmness”
In 2007, it is decorated with the Medal Amilcar Cabral, higher distinction of the Republic of Guinea Bissau, by the president João Bernardo Vieira, in recognition of solidarity and the cuban contribution with the African country
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