See also: Abbas
Ferhat Abbas (1899 - 1985) (in Arab: rear RTL فرحاتعباس), of its true name Ferhat Mekki Abbas , was a Algerian Politician , nationalist leader and member of FLN during the war of independence of Algeria. First president of the Provisional government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) of 1958 with 1961, it is elected, after the independence of the country, chair of the constituent National Assembly becoming thus the first Head of State of the democratic and popular Algerian République.
Childhood and education
He was born in the village from Chahna, to 10 km in the south of Taher (in current the Wilaya de Jijel), the August 24th 1899, in a country family kabyle of 12 children. Wire of Caïd, his/her father is Saïd Ben Ahmed Abbas and his mother Maga bint Ali. Its family originating in the Small Kabylie, has to leave the area after the failure of the revolt carried out in 1871 by Mohamed El Mokrani. Studying in Pharmacy with the faculty of Algiers of 1924 to 1933, he becomes the promoter of Friendly Moslem students of North Africa, of which he is vice-president in 1926 - 1927, then president of 1927 to 1931, date on which he transforms the friendly one into association. He is also elected vice-president of UNEF at the time of the Congress of Algiers of 1930.
Fight against the colonial ideology
Ferhat Abbas is initially favorable to the policy of Assimilation with a maintenance of the personal status, it militates actively with the Algerian Youth movement , which claims the equal rights within the framework of French sovereignty.
In 1931, it publishes the book “the Young Algerian”, in particular gathering his articles written in the Années 1920, and whose thesis refers to the fight against colonization to ensure the agreement between the French and Moslems, denounces in particular 100 years of French colonization , it is there thus question also of “algerianity”, object of desire of the Colons, Algerian State and Islam: We are on our premises. We cannot go elsewhere. It is this ground which nourished our ancestors, it is this ground which will nourish our children. Free or slaves, it belongs to us, we belong to him and it will not want to let to us perish. Algeria cannot live without us. We cannot live without it. That which dreams with our future as with that of the Redskins of America misleads. They are theBerber ones which fixed, fourteen centuries ago, the destiny of Algeria. This destiny will not be able to be achieved tomorrow without them .
Graduate doctor of pharmacy in 1933, it is established with Sétif where it quickly becomes an important political figure while becoming general adviser in 1934, city council man in 1935 then financial delegate. He adheres to the “Federation of the elected officials Moslems of the department of Constantine” as a journalist within his press agency, the Hebdomadaire the Agreement free-Moslem woman (commonly called the Agreement ), and very early points out himself by his president Doctor Bendjelloul who promotes it, in 1937, Editor association of the newspaper. More radical in its combat and its claims, in particular denouncing the “code of the Indigénat”, it founds its own party in 1938, the Algerian Popular union . the Agreement then becomes a true political platform for Ferhat Abbas.
Towards the nationalist cause
Volunteer in the French Army in 1939, disappointed by the mode of Pétain, the Second world war put a term at these hopes of “equality within the framework of a French sovereignty”, convainquant it that colonialism was “a racial company of domination and exploitation” in which even the French republican elites most enlightened were entirely implied.
After the allied unloading (see Opération Torch), Ferhat Abbas benefits from the new audience which gives the Provisional government of the French Republic (GPRF) to the Algerians, and publishes, the February 10th 1943, a proclamation requiring a new statute for Algeria: the “proclamation of the Algerian people”, followed by an additive in May, a “Reform project making following Proclamation of the Algerian People” referring in particular to a Algerian nation . The project is then submitted to the “Commission of the economic reforms and social Moslem” just created by the general governor Peyrouton. But its successor, the general Georges Catroux, blocks the project and rejects the initiatives taken by Ferhat Abbas which is, from September to December, assigned with residence with In Salah by the general De Gaulle.
The March 14th 1944 it creates the association of the Friends of proclamation of freedom (AML) supported by the sheik Brahimi of the Association of the oulémas and Messali Hadj. In September 1944, it creates the weekly magazine Égalité (with for subtitle Égalité of the men - Equality of the races - Equality of the people ). The shortly after the riots of Sétif of May 1945, held for person in charge, it is stopped and the AML is dissolved. Released in 1946, Ferhat Abbas founds the democratic Union of Algerian proclamation (UDMA). In June, the party obtains 11 of the 13 seats of the second college to the second constituent Assembly and Ferhat Abbas is elected appointed of Sétif.
After the refusal twice of its project on the statute of Algeria, he resigns of the assembly in 1947. He then hardens his positions, the weekly magazine the Égalité becomes, in February 1948, Égalité - Algerian Republic then Algerian République in June of the same year, the Front of national release (FLN) lance on November 1st 1954 the first armed actions and marks the beginning of the “Algerian revolution”.
He joined, initially secretly, in May 1955 the FLN, after several meetings with Abane Ramdane and Amar Ouamrane, then publicly announces his rallying and the official dissolution of the UDMA at the time of a press conference to the Cairo on April 25th 1956. As of on August 20th, 1956, at the conclusion of the Congress of Soummam, he becomes regular member of the CNRA (National council of the Algerian revolution), then enters with the CEC (Coordination committee and of execution) in 1957. Ferhat Abbas becomes then president of the first Provisional government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) to its creation on September 19th 1958, then of the second GPRA, elected by the CNRA in January 1960. In August 1961, considered as not being firm enough vis-a-vis the French government, opposing the GPRA of Ben Khedda and the political office of the FLN, Ferhat Abbas rejoins on July 16th the partisans of Ben Bella, while disapproving the principle of Sole party retained by the program of the congress of Tripoli. It succeeds Abderrahmane Farès, president of the provisional Executive, and becomes the president, elected by 155 votes against 36 white or null, of the first fixed constituent (ANC) National Assembly on September 20th. The September 25th 1962, it proclaims the birth of the democratic and popular Algerian Republic.
He leaves his functions the September 15th 1963 following his deep dissension with the policy of “sovietization” of Algeria by Ahmed Ben Bella denouncing “his adventurism and its unrestrained gauchism” which will exclude it from FLN and will imprison it with Adrar in the the Sahara the same year. It is released in May 1965, the day before the putsch of the June 19th by Houari Boumédiène.
Withdrawn of the political life, but always militant and democratic enthusiast, it writes with Ben Youcef Ben Khedda, Hocine Lahouel, general ex-secretary of the PPP - MTLD, and Mohamed Kheireddine, ex-member of the CNRA, in March 1976, a “Call to the Algerian people”, claiming urgent measures of Démocratisation and denouncing “the personal capacity” and the National Charter worked out by Boumédiène. It is then once again assigned with residence until June 13rd 1978. In 1980, it publishes its memories in Autopsie of a war then, in 1984, in confiscated Independence , virulent denunciation of the Corruption and of the Bureaucratie, which reigned then in Algeria, generated by the successive modes of Ben Bella and Boumédiène
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