The Fed Cup (in the past Cut of the Federation ) is a world tournament of female Tennis disputed by national teams, considered as the female equivalent of the Coupe Davis. It is organized by the International federation of Tennis.
It is in 1962 that the idea of such a competition was concretized.
Already, in 1919, the American Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman, quadruple gaining International of the United States, presents a project of female competition by teams and nations. Without success. Tough, it founds a competition bearing its name putting at the catches the the United States and the Great Britain ( Wightman Cup ).
Forty year later, Mary Hardwick Hare, a British residing at the the United States, and Nell Hall Hopman submits in their turn the project of a test by national female teams with the International federation of tennis. Persuaded of the interest of such an event, the international authority decides to create the Cut of the Federation ( Federation Cup ) in 1963 to celebrate the 50e birthday of the creation of the the FIT.
The test quickly becomes a popular success, the best compétitrices of the time there fascinating share, like the American Billie Jean King and the Australia Margaret Court which clashed finally first edition on the grass of Queen' S to London.
FormatUntil 1994, the sixteen best world nations taking part in the Cut of the Federation were gathered in the same place, over one week, as for a tournament.
Starting from 1995, this group world is restricted with eight nations. Especially, the competition (become Fed Cup ) proceeds from now on by direct elimination in three turns, on as many weekends during the season. As for the Coupe Davis, one of the two teams receives in residence : each meeting consists of five matches exploited two days: two simple the 1st day, follow-ups of two simple and a decisive double 2. The committed teams count four players, which can indifferently align themselves for the simple ones and/or the double.
These last years, the test often changed formula:
- In 2000, the Fed Cup was held in two phases: one qualificative (three hens), the other known as final , gathering the three best teams of hens and the holding country of the title. The world group comprised thirteen teams.
- In 2001, two preliminary rounds opposed the nations classified of 5th to the 16th world position in meetings with direct elimination to best of the five matches. The gaining teams then met the countries classified of 1st in the 4th place in a final stage, according to the method of hens with meetings with best of the three matches; of two hens (of four teams) were resulting the finalists teams.
- In 2002 and 2003, the meetings held on the two first turns were held over one weekend (four simple, a double) in the indicated country. On the other hand, the semi-finals and the final were organized on the same place, in November. This formula was preserved in 2004, but it again changed starting from 2005 for a traditional format Coupe Davis of the first tower to the finale.
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