The farming rotation (or rotation of crops ) is a farming technical in Agriculture (and in Jardinage). It is an important component of the maintenance or improvement of the fertility of the ground S and thus an asset for the increase in the Rendement S.
One speaks about farming rotation when in a farming system, cultures are followed in a certain order on the same piece, the same succession of cultures reproducing in the regular cycle time. One can thus have rotations biennial, triennial, four-year…
- year 1 - corn
- year 2 - corn
- year 3 - corn
AdvantagesRotation has several avantages :
- it contributes to break the vital cycle of the harmful organizations to the cultures ;
- in particular, the succession of plants of different families (for example Graminaceous S and oleiferous plants, standard alternation of Corn and Colza) makes it possible to break with the cycle of some Adventice s
- thanks to the different systems racinaires, the profile of the ground is explored better, which results in an improvement of the physics characteristics soil and in particular its structure (by limiting the compaction and the Impoverishment of the soil), and thus of the nutrition of the plants ;
- the use of Légumineuse S allows the symbiotic addition of Azote in the ground. Generally, the composition of the various residues of cultures takes part in the quality of the organic matter of the ground.
Another advantage of rotation can be a better distribution of the workload during the introduction of meadow S or Jachère into rotation.
Agricultural rotation before was very practiced within framework of systems of Polyculture - breeding, but the Intensive agriculture is at the origin of the installation of practices of Monoculture (the same species is cultivated year after year, for example the corn). The durable Agriculture seeks to reintroduce this old practice.
Basic principles of the rotation of crops
The choice of the cultures is done according to the needs and of the objectives of the farmer but also by taking account of the cultivation methods, such as work of the ground and control of the Mauvaises grass by Sarclage or Herbicide S.
It is possible to make alternate different families, such as Céréale S, Légumineuse S, Oléagineux… It is also to alternate species sown with the autumn and others in spring.
The choice is often made according to the transmission risks of the diseases and the pressure of the Insecte S ravageurs. Thus, it is disadvised making follow a Maïs by Blé because of the risks of Fusariose. The Soja should not be cultivated two years of continuation to avoid the diseases. It is preferable to be attentive also with the groups of Herbicide S used for each successive culture, in order to avoid the overuse of certain chemical families, and thus the selection of Mauvaises resistant grasses.
The choice can also take account of the effect of the farming precedent as symbiotic source of nitrogen as it is the case with the Légumineuse S. For example, the Soja is often a good precedent for the Blé. The culture of the Colza before the Blé would increase the outputs of this last from approximately 10 qx/ha.
The humic assessment can also be used in order to establish the differences between carbon losses by mineralization of the Organic matter and contributions by the farming Fumier or residues.
Lastly, farming rotation can suppose a certain balance of the surfaces (plates) devoted to each culture, as well as a stability during the years of the share devoted to each speculation, which the markets always do not allow, certain cultures being able to know phases of development or contrary to regression.
Inciting financial levers exist in certain countries (such as the Quebec) supporting the diversification of the cultures, like the application of the concept of the ecoconditionnality.
Examples of rotation
Potatoes - > Radish - > Salad/corn/corn/beet
- Rotation of Norfolk, developed during the English agricultural revolution of the XVII-18th century: Corn/fodder turnip/Barley/Clover. This rotation with the advantage of removing the Fallow, of allowing the development of the breeding (turnip, clover) and the replenishment of the resources in Nitrogen (clover) at the end of the cycle.
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