The fantasy (of English : imagination - not to confuse with the French-speaking Imagination ) or fantacie - is a literary kind presenting in its account an irrational element which generally shows a mythical aspect and is often incarnated by the irruption or the use of magic. In that, it can be seen like a modern incarnation and the prolongation of the literary kind of the Merveilleux, of which it takes again many topics.
The common point of the novels of fantasy is the existence of parallel worlds, with their imaginary creatures, their Mythe S, their epopees and their magic. It is thus more specific than the kind of the Fantastique, which results in the irruption of supernatural in a familiar world, but perhaps considered as a sub-genus of fantastic, a typically French literary designation. The fantasy thereafter extended its influence on art, the music and the cinema.
The fantasy mixture in a particular way of the elements like the mythological references, the opening towards the unconscious one, with its anguishes, its fears, fights between the Good and Evil.
One also speaks about Médiéval - Fantastique or about fantasy Médiévale for the accounts presenting of the mythical universes of type Médiéval or antique where generally cohabit Héros, Super-héros, Guerrier S, magic and Sorcellerie, old cultures and supernatural elements. The Medieval-fantastic term is sometimes compacted in “ med-fan ”.
History of the fantasyOne can make go up the birth of the fantasy to the mythological accounts of the Antiquité (such as the Odyssée ) or to the marvellous novels of the Moyen-âge (like the legends arthuriennes).
Nevertheless, the officially recognized origin of the fantasy modern date of the 19th century, with the Scottish author George MacDonald and her novels such as " The Princess and the Goblin" (1872) or " Phantastes" (1858). But it will be necessary to wait the 20th century so that this style touches a larger audience, with enter others the girl of the king of the Elves ( The King off Elfland' S Daughter ) of Lord Dunsany (1924) or the news of the cycle of Conan the Barbarian of Robert E. Howard. Many American authors will devote themselves to it, thus creating on paper a astonishing Moyen-âge that the America will not have known. This explains in particular the success of the fantasy to the the United States and in the Anglo-Saxon countries S. It is in the Fifties that this popular but confidential kind is a true critical and public success with the Lord of the Rings of J.R.R. Tolkien (1954 - 1955), which becomes the prototype of reference of the medieval-fantastic novel.
The fantasy division with the Science fiction its nonmimetic character. These two kinds do not seek to imitate the world such as we know it. In SF, this element of divergence compared to reality is allotted to science and the technological changes. In fantasy, on the other hand, this marvellous element and its character must be accepted by the reader without an explanation being necessary. The reader agrees to be taken along in new worlds, imaginary and different from the world such as we know it.
In literature, one does not count any more the number of novels, news, sagas published, of unequal quality, but undoubtedly tinted imaginary exotic. Moreover, the fantasy conquered the public reticent ones following the many film adaptations.
Sub-genera of the fantasy
See also: Sub-genera of the fantasy
See also: List of fantastic creatures
Novels and cycles
See also: List of novels of fantasy
Fantasy with the cinema
See also: Fantasy with the cinema
Fantasy on the small screen
See also: Fantasy and television
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