The word famine is attested in 1170 and is a derivative of hunger .
The famine is a situation in which the population of a given geographical area, or only part of this population, does not have enough Nourriture. That involves the Sous-alimentation and can cause the Mort Faim or of Soif (Déshydratation). The term “Disette” is employed for a less serious situation of shortage. It generally involves the Black-market and the reaction of terror of the capacity. A person suffering from Anorexie asserts a food shortage whereas the food is available.
The famine is an old problem: the Bible refers to the famine like one of the Four riders of the Apocalypse. But in spite of technological advances in the agriculture, the Transport S and the means of storage, the famine is always a current problem. The reduction of the production zones due to the urbanization and climate warming, the demographic explosion (which still reinforce the urbanization), the meat consumption (it is necessary to nourish the animals with cereals and these same animals use a ground where, theoretically, one could also plant these cereals - the wasting is thus double) and pollution are factors which oblige with a constant vigilance.
Various types of faminesThe state of famine can result is of a particular, often dryness, or biological situation Climat ic (vegetable pathology like the mildew of the potato in Ireland at the 19th century). Even if this type of famine were eliminated in many parts of the world. The destabilization of the market of food, such as for example the distribution of humanitarian Aid apart from an emergency context, can also bring to the bankruptcy of the local Agriculture and support the emergence of a famine, to endanger the Food safety country.
But the famine is more often caused by the Homme: state of Guerre or will Politique, such as for example in Ukraine in the Années 1930, which, with the weather risks, explains the space-time changes of the affected areas by the hunger, as an animated chart made by [[the United Nations for the food and agriculture shows it|FAO]] (to move the cursor of the mouse over the years in bottom of the chart).
In the past, the weapon of the famine was often used in the seat of the Ville S to obtain rendering without combat; for example the Head office of Alésia. The policy known as of the “ burned Ground ” uses same manner the famine with a defensive aim .
As showed it Amartya SEN, the famine, at our time, became rather a problem of food Distribution and Pauvreté, that of total lack of food. The green revolution with the genetic improvement of the plants made it possible to reduce the crisis of the country knowing the greatest demographic explosion like the India and in Africa to the 20th century, but the access to food is not equal for all. And a great quantity of not consumed food is destroyed annually. In the same way the rats, mice and certain insects destroy a great quantity of food badly stored in certain countries.
- In antiquity in Egypt the famines are mainly caused by the too weak or strong Crue of the the Nile.
- the Famines with the Middle Ages: the famine intervenes when harvests are bad, in particular during the welding. The weather factor is worsened by the war and the destructive passage of the soldiers in the fields (Guerre One hundred Year old). The poor always are touched. The cities organize the corn supply, come sometimes by far and at strong cost. The famine makes the bodies weaker vis-a-vis the epidemics.
- the well-read man Raoul Glaber leaves us a written testimony of the famine which prevailed in Burgundy towards 1033.
- Famines in the north of France:
- Famines in the South of France:
- the Irish Famine of the potato of the middle of the XIXe century made between 750.000 and one million deaths, that is to say one the third of the population and pushed two million Irishman to emigrate in Great Britain, with the the United States, In Canada, in Australia and New Zealand
- the famine in the USSR following the Russian Révolution.
- famines of 1922 and 1933 in Ukraine. The caused famine of 1922 made approximately five million deaths; that of 1932-1933 killed approximately six million Ukrainians, according to the black Livre of Communism . The Ukrainian Parliament voted the qualification of genocide for the great famine on November 28th, 2006. See the article Holodomor.
- of 1959 with 1961, in China, the Grand Step ahead made according to the estimates between 20 and 30 million victims.
- in North Korea since the middle of the years 1990: one to two million dead
- of 1967 with 1970 with the Biafra (Nigeria), plus 1 million deaths;
- the Sahel
- 1984, in Ethiopia
- 2004, Darfur with the Sudan
- 2005, Niger
Organizations of fight against the famine
FAO (United Nations for the food and agriculture)
- the World food program
- the ONG
See tooAccount of Jean de Léry: 1558 travel return of Brazil on the ship “the Jacques” (Wikisource): === related Articles ===
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