The play of failures opposes two players clashing on a plate made up of sixty-four boxes alternatively clear and dark, called chess-board , and on which evolve/move eight clear parts and eight pawns (called “white”) like eight dark parts and eight pawns (“blacks”). The goal of the play is to create a situation which returns the catch of the unfavourable king imparable ( failure and chechmate ).
The play enjoys a particular prestige in the world where it is called “the king of the plays” or “the noble play”.
From the point of view of the Game theory, it is about a combinative Strategy game abstracted from pure reflection, finished, without cycle and with complete information.
The world of the failures comprises two very independent fields:
- the field of the left , which is the set of failures itself and in which the final Mat results from the confrontation between two players;
- the field of the problem , which is a field of artistic creation in which there is no confrontation and where the final chechmate results only from the will of the type-setter presented in an initial position which has nothing to do with a position of part.
HistoryMany myths and theories exist on the origin of the play.
The myth of the Sissa BrahmanThe most famous legend on the origin of the set of failures tells the history of king Belkib (the Indies, 3.000 years before our era) which sought at all costs to mislead its trouble. He thus promised an exceptional reward with which would propose a distraction to him which would satisfy it. When wise Sissa, wire of the Brahmanee Dahir, presented the set of failures to him, the sovereign, enthusiastic, requested from Sissa what this one wished in exchange of this extraordinary gift. Humbly, Sissa required of the prince to deposit a corn grain on the first box, two on the second, four on the third, and so on to fill the chess-board by doubling the quantity with grain to each box. The prince granted this seemingly modest reward immediately, but its adviser explained to him that it had just signed the death of the kingdom because harvests of the year would not be enough to discharge price of the play. Indeed, on the last box of the chess-board, it would be necessary to deposit 263 seeds, that is to say more than nine billion billion grains (9 223.372.036 854.775.808 grains precisely), and to add to it the total of the grains deposited on the preceding boxes, which makes a total of 18.446.744 073.709.551 615 grains (the formula of computation is then 264-1)!
Alternatives of this legend exist, one suggesting that the king accepted provided that the wise account the seeds itself, another affirming that Sissa had the head sliced for such an insolence. Certain versions say that Sissa did not require anything exchanges some but that the insistent king, Sissa would then have decided to make fun of the king by asking him for a reward which it could not give.
Greek legendAnother legend places the invention of the play during the Trojan War. Palamède, one of the Greek heroes, would have invented the play to go up moral troops during the seat of the city in 1240 av. J. - C. It is this origin which will lead the creators of the first review échiquéenne to name it Palamède . Other characters of the Greek world saw themselves allotting the invention of the failures. One can in particular quote Pyrrhus.
The historical research
The origin of the set of failures remains a discussed subject. Indeed, like Richard Eales in his book CHESS, The history writes it off has range , the research of the origins of the failures is similar to the research of the " link manquant" in the human evolution.
One generally admits that his known ancestor oldest is an Indian play , the Chaturanga. Its oldest traces are located between. Two passages of texts Sanskrits mention the existence of the play without giving other information. It is about Vasavadatta , written into 600 by Subandhu which evokes players of failures, and especially of Harshascharita , written by Bana towards 625. It describes The Aashtapada, a chess-board of 64 boxes, which makes it possible to learn Chaturanga, the name Sanskrit of the failures.
These books, follow-ups of two other works written into 850 by Ratnakara and Rudrata at the end of the ninth century, make it possible to take note of the parts of the play which are those of an army: riding infantrymen, , tanks and elephants.
The origin of these two authors in the North-West of the kingdom of the Cashmere thus suggests a possible transmission of the central basin of Gange towards the Iran (the Perse).
Beyond this time, some suppose that the play evolved/moved starting from sets of Indian courses, others lend to him an external ancestor in China or Central Asia. A very similar play is also known in Chinese civilization, the Xiangqi, of which the oldest traces would go up with 569 (there is a controversy on this subject); its existence is attested in 800. For more information, the Königstein group gathers various assumptions on the origins of the set of failures.
DiffusionThe play is propagated until in Perse in the neighborhoods of the year 600 where it becomes the chatrang . When the Arab invade the Perse, they adopt it under the name of shatranj . The failures experience a remarkable development then. It is during 9th and 10th centuries that the first champions and the first treaties appear. The parts are stylized because of prohibition to represent animated beings. Alors  is found;:
- the king ( Shâh , it is him which gives its name to the play) moves of a step.
- the adviser ( Firzan or Vizier), whose movement is limited to only one box in diagonal.
- the elephant ( Al-wire ), with a displacement corresponding to a jump of two boxes in diagonal.
- the horse ( Faras ), identical to the modern rider.
- it ( Roukh ), similar to the current tower.
- the soldier ( Baidaq ), the equivalent of the pawn, but deprived of the double initial step.
A tempting theory gives the origin of the mode of displacement of the parts by the various possible elementary ways since the center of a space of five boxes out of five boxes. It gives a good explanation to displacement curious about the rider (F = Faras ), the only one with being remained “jumping” and short range. It leaves to the king (S = Shâh ) a displacement more limited (four boxes) but which corresponds to the displacement of its Chinese counterpart (the “general”). It as gives to think as the tank (R = Roukh ) was to be originally a “short” part like the others and moved by jump of two boxes according to column or line.
Arrival in Europe and evolutionThe arrival of the failures in Europe is undoubtedly made by the Moslem Spain in the neighborhoods of the year millet, even the Italy of the south. (It is shown that the play that Charlemagne would have received on behalf of the caliph Haroun Al-Rachid, preserved at the National library of France, was in fact manufactured close to Naples at the end of the 11th century). In 1010, its first mention written in Occident was found in a will of the count d' Urgel, in Catalogne. As of its arrival in Christendom, the chess-board and the parts are occidentalized: the plate becomes two-tone with the red and black boxes (which will become later white and black), the vizier becomes fierge (or virgin ), then queen and/or lady (it is difficult to determine which of the two terms prevailed - without doubts they were used indifferently); the elephant ( Al wire in Arabic, which remains alfil in Spanish today) becomes aufin , then insane ( bishop , English bishop); the Arab roukh becomes rock (this name will give rook in English, the verb “roquer” in French and will indicate the tower of failures in Héraldique), then turn towards the end of the 17th century. In certain areas of Europe, the double initial step of the pawn is practiced. Lastly, of the rules allow the king or the queen/lady to carry out a jump with two boxes (without catch) with their first movement. This last point is the principal difference with the rules of Shatranj of the Moslem countries.
But the most important evolution takes place at the end of the Moyen-âge, towards 1475 in Spain when the limited movements of the queen/lady and insane are replaced by those which we currently know. The play becomes so fast that one considers it preferable to announce “Failure with the king” and “Keep the queen”.
The players of this time name these new rules: “eschés of the lady” or “play of the mad lady”.
To avoid the devastators effects of these parts to the reinforced capacities, the Roque is invented about 1560 and, gradually, it replaces the initial jump of the king or the queen/lady who become obsolete. Towards 1650, one can consider that the rules of the game modern are about laid down. If the first books treating of the failures go up at the time Arabic, the stabilization of the rules in Europe gives rise to a very rich theoretical literature and one observes in particular the development of the first systems of opening.
Modern failuresThe aspect of the parts more running today, the Staunton style, date of 1850. It is also during second half of the 19th century that emergent the modern failures. The first international competitions take place, theoretical progress of the art of defense put a term at the romantic era.
The 20th century, the the USSR ensures a very active promotion of it, regarding it as an excellent tool for intellectual formation. It is, moreover, a window of the Soviet intellectual formation which enables them to largely dominate a prestigious discipline.
During the Cold war, the appearance of Bobby Fischer, the first Westerner to defy the Soviets with the more high level, gives to the championships of the world a true political dimension. Later, the tensions between conservatives Russian and in favor of the Perestroïka will crystallize around the confrontation between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov.
At the end of the 20th century, confusion concerning the championship of the world (see low) leads the media attention to concentrate on the opposition between the man and the machine, as testifies some the media repercussion to the matches between Kasparov and Deep Blue. The women also make their appearance in a field considered a long time quasi-exclusivement male. Thus, since April 2003, Judit Polgár it appears regularly among the ten best world players in the prize list of the International federation of the failures.
Since August 2000, the failures became, in France, a sport recognized by the Ministry for Youth and the Sport. Many sporting events are organized in the whole world. Let us note that, recently, the entry of this play to the Olympic Games is strongly discussed.
Rules of the game
See also: Rules of the game of failures
Starting from the starting position, the players play alternatively; white playing the first blow. Each part of the play has a specific mode of displacement, the parts which are on an accessible box in a blow can be prises : they are known as threatened . A part which is taken is withdrawn from the play, the part which carried out the catch then takes its place on the chess-board.
When the king is threatened of catch, it is said that it is in failure . If this camp cannot avoid the catch (by displacement of the king on a not threatened box, by interposition of a part or capture of the part giving failure), there is failure and chechmate and the part finishes, the player having this king lost.
There exists moreover of the special rules of displacement ( Roque , taken while passing ) and the possibility for a pawn reaching the opposite edge of the chess-board to transform itself into another part (promotion).
The term failure and chechmate comes from Säh Mäta (in Persan, sheykh Arab chechmate شيخمات in is ), “the king died”, to indicate the defeat of the king (incidentally, the word sheykh is at the origin of the word failure and of the name of the failures in a great number of languages and the word Säh is at the origin of the word Shah ).
Notation of the blows
See also: algebraic Notation
Each column of a chess-board is indicated by a letter (a-h), and each line by a figure (1-8) as the diagram shows it above. Thus, each box perhaps indicated by a letter and a figure. For example, the box where the white king at the beginning of the part is the box e1. These coordinates make it possible to employ the algebraic notation blows, below detailed. The other modes of notations are now abandoned.
Algebraic notation of the blowsOne notes the blows of part of failures by mentioning the number of the blow, the initial one of the part which moves (which differs according to the language; in French one uses the P (used very seldom, in general for a pawn which is on the box a2 and which goes in a4 one says a2-a4 or a2a4) for Pion, T for Tour, C for Cavalier, F for Fou, D for Dame, R for King) then one mentions the starting box then the box of arrival. For example 1. Cg1f3 indicates that with the first blow, the white moved their rider of the box g1 to the box f3. For the black blows, one makes precede the blow by three points of suspension (for example 1. … Pe7e5). If one notes successively the white blow and the black blow, one marks only once the number (1. Cg1f3 Pe7e5).
When the part which moves captures an unfavourable part , one mentions it by a cross. For example 2. Pe4xd5 means that with the second blow, the white captured with their pawn, located in e4, the black part which was in d5.
The Roque is noted in a special way: the king-side castling notes 0-0, and the queen-side castling 0-0-0.
The Prise while passing is noted like a normal catch, one mentions the box of arrival of the pawn (attention, it is well the box where the pawn stops that one notes, not the box where is the captured unfavourable pawn). One must normally add e.p. following the blow to indicate the catch while passing, but this information is generally omitted.
The Promotion of a pawn in part is noted by indicating the type of part in which the pawn is promoted at the end of the blow (example: e8D)
When the unfavourable king is in situation of failure after the blow, one adds the symbol + at the end of the blow (Dh4e2+ example). If the unfavourable king is failure and chechmate , it + by one # is replaced (or sometimes by ++).
Shortened notation of the blowsThe practice shows that part of information contained in the algebraic notation is often superfluous. It thus was set up a more concise notation, called shortened algebraic notation. It is this notation which is used almost systematically nowadays. It differs from the algebraic notation on the following points:
When the part which moves is a Pion, one does not mark P at the beginning of the blow.
- One does not mention the starting box of the part because, in the large majority of the cases, there is only one part of the type indicated which can go on the box. Example: the blow given in algebraic notation previously notes 1. Ce5 in shortened algebraic notation.
- In the event of ambiguity on the part which moves, one marks the letter of the column where the good part (example is: a riding white in f3, a white rider in g4. The rider in f3 moves in e5. Noter Ce5 is insufficient, one notes Cfe5 then).
- If there is still ambiguity, one replaces the letter of the column by the number of the line (changes the preceding example, takes a white rider in f3 and a white rider in f7. Ce5 or Cfe5 is both insufficient to identify the part, one must note C3e5).
Notation of the evaluation of a blowAt the time of a Analysis of part, the commentator often needs to deliver his opinion on a played blow. One thus integrated into the marking system of the symbols, inserted just after the blow, allowing to deliver in a simple way an opinion on the blow. These symbols are the following:
- !! Very skilled
- ! Skilled
- !? interesting blow
- ?! doubtful blow
- ? bad blow
- ?? very bad blow
Notation of the evaluation of a positionIn the same way, it is often useful, at the end of the Analyze of a Variante, to deliver an opinion on the position resulting from this continuation of blows. There too, of the symbols were integrated into the notation to facilitate this task:
- + failure
- ++ double failure
- + - favors decisive with the white
- += light advantage with the white
- = balanced position
- =+ light advantage with the blacks
- - + favors decisive with the blacks
- ~ dubious position
- =~ with compensation for a disadvantage matériel'
Problems of failures
See also: Problem of failures
The composition échiquéenne form a world completely with share in the universe of the failures. The Problème of failures is certainly founded on the tactical exploitation of a position but it does not have anything to see, if not by accident, with a combination of a real part. Here, the esthetic criteria take precedence over the force of play. It is a completely conventional universe: for example the White always gain, the first blow should not be a catch or a failure, etc As opposed to what one could think, the échiquéenne composition is an extremely recent discipline, at least with the modern direction of the term (19th century).
If the most frequent problems are the chechmates in 2 blows, there is a very large variety of the types of problems. There are orthodoxe problems, problems hétérodoxes (helped chechmates and chechmates opposite), fairy-like problems (where the rules and the parts concerned can be different from the usual play), problems of Analyze retrogresses, etc
As in the field of the part, there are competitions, they are of two kinds:
- of the contests of composition which consist in creating a problem of a given type;
- of the competitions of solution to problem (the candidates are called Solutionniste S).
Rare are the strong players of failures which are interested in the problems of failures, the two universes are too different. When they do it, it is usually as solutionnists (John Nunn, Karpov, Smyslov) or in the composition of studies (Réti).
See also: Studies of failures
The studies are artistic compositions which show possibilities of profit or rescue of a part. It is a particular type of Problèmes of failures.
Opposite, an example of a made up study of A. Troitzky in 1898. The position seems a priori easily gaining for the blacks. But a continuation precise (and difficult to find) blows of the white enables them to obtain null part, whatever the blows of the blacks.
The solution is the following one: 1.Re1 chechmate by Fb6 1… Da7 2.Fb6+ Dxb6 3.Cxb6 f4 for the White to prevent promotion 4.Cd5 f3 5.Cf4 f2+ 6.Rd2 Rf1 because after 6… f1=D the White subdue with 7. Ch3 while after 6… f1=C+ 7.Re1 the Blacks cannot prevent 8.Ch3 chechmate 7.Cd5! interesting because if the Blacks ram with g1, the White subdue with Ce3. 7… Rg1 8.Cf4 Rf1 9.Cd5 left is thus null.
Other uses of the word “problem” in the failuresThe word problem is a very general term, which exceeds the context of the problem of failures. Blow, it is often and logically used for all “problem” using the material of the set of failures, even if it were not composed with an artistic aim. Such problems are however not problems of failures within the meaning of the échiquéenne composition.
Here are some examples:
Exercises of chechmateThey are positions of part comprising a chechmate with counted blows. These positions thus have like captions: “the white (or blacks) play and subdue out of N blows”, like the orthodoxe problems of chechmate. They are not problems within the meaning of the échiquéenne composition, because they do not have anything artistic and were not made up.
Ends of partThey are positions of end of part, in which one of the two camps plays and gains or forces the null one. The statement is thus the same one as that of a study, but there still, there no was artistic composition. They are thus exercises of end of part and not of the artistic studies.
- the “problem” of the eight ladies which consists in placing eight ladies on the chess-board so that none is on the trajectory of another.
- the “problem” of the rider which consists in traversing all the chess-board without twice passing consequently box.
Principles of play
See also: Strategy échiquéenne
The Stratégie échiquéenne is art to think the set of failures in a total way and to acquire an overall vision of it.
See also: Tactical échiquéenne
The Tactique with the set of failures is the capacity to conduct an attack or a defense in some blows in order to obtain a tangible advantage (material or positional).
To include/understand the difference between strategy and tactic, it is said that the strategy is art to set up a general plan of which one hopes for positive effects on the long run, while the tactics aim at obtaining by precise operations an immediate concrete advantage.
See also: Psychology échiquéenne
The Psychologie échiquéenne is the study of the cognitive processes necessary to the player of failures.
Phases of a partFrom a theoretical point of view, part of failures can be divided into three great phases:
- Medium of Final
See also: Opening (failures)
The opening is the name given to the first blows of the part. Since the advent of the modern failures and the development of the theory, it is an extremely codified phase. The players often by heart know sequences of blows allowing to reach a given position (the blows which a player chooses to study form its repertory of opening). There is then obviously conflict of interests between the two players, each one seeking to impose its diagram .
The principal stakes of the opening are in general the development parts (their setting in motion) and space (in particular center of the chess-board) controls it. Although the transition between the opening and the medium from part is not clearly established, it is generally considered that the end of the development or the connection of the turns is reasonable indicators.
Medium of partThe medium of part (or medium of play) is the least codified phase play. It is often that which calls more upon the creativity of the player who seeks to obtain positional or material advantages.
See also: Final (set of failures)
The finales were for a long time the subject of precise theoretical studies. These studies, which relate in particular to situations in which it remains little of parts on the chess-board, undoubtedly make it possible to force the victory or the null part (in condition of course of not making an error). One speaks about chechmates or null techniques. The ends of part are frequently shortened, the players knowing by advance the theoretical exit of the part. In the parts between Masters, the decision is made even upstream, the player estimating more not to be likely to restore a situation which is unfavourable gives up for him without awaiting the show of force of its adversary.
The sheet of partIn competition, each player is held to note his blows and those of his adversary on his sheet of part. This one comprises the names of the players, as well as the competition and rate. It makes it possible to control the blows carried out and their number, and collects the signatures of the two players at the end of the part, making it possible the referee to validate the result of it.
See also: Pendulum of failures
The duration of part of failures being able to be important, it proved to be necessary to limit the time of reflection of each player.
At the beginning, each blow was to be played in an assigned time (5 minutes per blow, for example). Then, the use of a Pendule ad hoc made it possible to allot a total time of reflection for the duration of the part, or for a given number of blows, for example 40 blows in two hours.
The clockThe traditional Pendule mechanical is a case juxtaposing two identical clocks ordered by two buttons connected by a rocker.
After having played his blow and having checked that its last blow was noted on its sheet of part, a player presses (with the same hand as that which played) on the button raised located on his side. This action blocks its clock, raises the button of its adversary, which starts its Horloge.
The dial of each clock is equipped with a flag , small mobile free metal or plastic part around an axis placed at the left of the figure twelve. This flag is gradually raised when the needle of the minutes approaches the “12” of the clock, then falls down abruptly when it reaches it precisely. If the fall of the flag occurs before the player did not carry out the number of blows requested, this one loses the part immediately (except if the adversary has an insufficient material for subduing - isolated king for example - in which case the part is concluded by no one).
There has existed for several years of the electronic pendulums which allow a highher degree of accuracy at the time of the phases of Zeitnot (see low) and authorize other rates of play, in particular those with increment (rates “Fischer”, or “Bronstein”). The fickleness of the electronic pendulums also enables them to be used in other plays, like the Shogi, the Jeu of go or Scrabble, etc
The referee chooses to place the clock on the side of the chess-board which is appropriate to him. It is common that the player who has the blacks can choose the side of the table where it settles. Nevertheless, the final decision is allocated to the referee.
Give rhythm playA “rate of play” is made up of one or more periods. A “period” is defined by a minimal number of blows to play in a certain time. The one period end is called “control-time”.
The usual rate of the parts of tournament is the “40 blows/2 hours, 1 hour KB”. The first period (“40 blows/2 hours”) gives two hours to each player so that he plays at least forty blows, if not he loses the part. The second period (“1 hour KB”) adds one hour to him to finish the part. In light, each player has three hours to play his part. However, so after two hours it did not carry out forty blows, it loses.
The time assigned with each player makes it possible to distribute the parts in big classes:
- blitz (of German “flash”): part of less than 15 minutes per fast player
- left : started from 15 to 60 minutes per player
- in France, as from 61 minutes per player, the part is regarded as long , and counts for the Classement Elo national.
- in Suisse, it is as from 90 minutes per player that the part can be taken into account for the Elo classification.
- international Elo FIDE, as for him, is entered by a rate minimal of 1:30 + 30 seconds by blows (fischer gives rhythm.)
- the unbounded parts of time or for which the time of reflection amounts in days are generally reserved for the failures by correspondence (the rate generally adopted by the ICCF is 10 blows/50 days.);
ZeitnotA player is in zeitnot (of German Zeit = time and Not = urgency) if, near to next “control-time”, it must play much of blows in little time (less than five minutes). The situations of zeitnot put the players under pressure and can involve hasty decisions and approximate blows. A player in Zeitnot is not constrained any more to note his blows on his sheet of part. However, if rate allows it and that it leaves Zeitnot, it must catch up with those in its turn of play.
ZugzwangA player is vis-a-vis a Zugzwang (of German Zug = “blow” and zwang of the verb zwingen = “to force”, “to force”) when any of its next blows is désavantageux for him, and thus when best would be “to pass its turn”, which is impossible. Indeed, in certain situations (which arrive in general finally), any blow played by a player is “a bad” blow. Forced to play ( Zugzwang ), it is thus led to the fault.
The competition échiquéenne
International federation of the failuresFIDE is in particular occupied to enact the rules of plays like managing the Classement Elo international. The players by correspondence depend on a federation (ICCF) which takes again the rules of the FIDE but of which the Elo classification is independent.
The arbitrationAs in any sport, it is necessary in the competitions to have an arbitration guaranteeing a certain correction.
One can classify the referees in two main categories:
- referees of national level with several gradations according to their advance.
- referees recognized by the FIDE. First of all, referees FIDE ( FIDEA ), then international referees ( IA ).
In France, there exist 4 levels (simpler AF4, with the highest AF1). There exists also a title of Federal Referee Young for the 12-16 years. The site of the French federation of the Failures, proposes an Arbitrage heading: behavior by Stephan Escafre, International Referee.
The systems of decides betweenWith the end of open, one often confronts oneself with equalities of points from where the importance of a system of decides between.
Sonneborn-Shepherd : the sum of the points of the adversaries against which the player gained, and the half the sum of the points of those against which it made null.
- the Buchholz (in the past Solkoff or Solkov ): this system of decides between makes the sum of the scores of the adversaries of the player.
- Brazilian or Buchholz truncated : Identical to Buchholz with the difference close which one withdraws the score of weakest of the series.
- Harkness or median Buchholz : This time, one withdraws the score of weakest and most extremely of the series.
- Cumulative : corresponds to the sum of the cumulated points of round in round. For example, if a player gains his first part, fact null with the second and gains with the third it has, at the end of rounds 1,2 and 3, respectively 1,1.5 and 2.5 points, its decides between cumulative is thus equal to 1 + 1.5 + 2.5 = 5 points. This system avoids the submarines (people which lose at the beginning of a tournament to play against weaker and thus to gain points easily).
- Kashdan : it makes it possible to avoid null living room because it counts 4 points for the victory, 2 for the null ones and 1 for the defeats. Thus, two players having 1 points will be decided between differently if they make the null ones or not: 4+1=5 points for that which gained and lost, against 2+2=4 points for that which made two null. That supports nevertheless the submarines.
- Performance : decide between according to the performance élo.
- direct Confrontation : If the two players played one against the other, the result of the part decides between them.
See also: Championship of the world of failures
- Emanuel Lasker (1894 - 1921)
- Jose Raúl Capablanca (1921 - 1927)
- Alexandre Alekhine (1927 - 1935)
- max Euwe (1935 - 1937)
- Alexandre Alekhine (1937 - 1946) (Death of the World champion)
Between 1946 and 1948, there was no world champion. FIDE organized the new championships of the world as from 1948.
- Vassily Smyslov (1957 - 1958)
- Mikhaïl Botvinnik (1958 - 1960)
- Mikhaïl Tal (1960 - 1961)
- Mikhaïl Botvinnik (1961 - 1963)
- Tigran Petrossian (1963 - 1969)
- Boris Spassky (1969 - 1972)
- Bobby Fischer (1972 - 1975)
- Anatoly Karpov ( 1975 - 1985)
- Garry Kasparov (1985 - 1993)
In 1993, Garry Kasparov caused a scission with FIDE and created its own federation, the PCA ( Professional Chess Association ). There were then two World champions, one known as “traditional” in the line of the matches started by Steinitz, the other says victorious “FIDE” of the “Championship of the World FIDE”, but of which holding them were, for certain, of the players of second category (they could not be essential at the time of the great Mondiaux tournaments following their title).
“Traditional” world champions:
World champions “FIDE”:
- Anatoly Karpov (1993 - 1999)
- Alexander Khalifman (1999 - 2000)
- Viswanathan Anand (2000 - 2002)
- Ruslan Ponomariov (2002 - 2004)
- Rustam Kasimdzhanov (2004 - 2005)
- Veselin Topalov (2005 - 2006)
As from 2006, “unified” World champion:
Great world tournaments
- Tournament Corsica Masters (France)
- Chess tournament Corus (Netherlands)
- Tournament of Linares (Spain)
- Chess tournament of Dortmund (Germany)
- Chess tournament of Sofia (Bulgaria)
- Tournament of Aeroflot (Russia)
- Festival of failures of Bienne (Swiss)
More the world great events from now on are gathered since season 2004-05 within the ACP Turn , installation by the ACP STATE.
Remarkable partsSee also : Category: Remarkable part of failures
- Lasker - Bauer, played by Emanuel Lasker and Johann Bauer in 1889
- Maróczy - Tartakover, played by Géza Maróczy and Xavier Tartakover in 1922
- Left the century, played by Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer in 1956
- Left the opera, played by Paul Morphy (white), the duke of Brunswick (blacks) and the count Isouard (blacks) in 1858
- Left immortal, played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky in 1851
- the Always Young person, played by Adolf Anderssen and Jean Dufresne in 1852
A miniature is part of failures which finishes in less than 20 blows. Here are some.
The blow of the shepherd
The chechmate of the shepherd consists in exploiting the weakness of the pawn in f7 (or f2) which is defended only by the king. The legend says that he would have been invented by a shepherd having been defied by a king.
The blow of the shepherd makes it possible to very quickly beat an not-informed player beginning. For this reason, one also calls it “Chechmate of the schoolboy” (see diagram Ci against):
- e4 e5
- Fc4 Cc6
- Dh5 Cf6??
- Dxf7# 1-0
The order of the blows according to seems however closer to the logic of the beginner… and leaves less chance than the 2nd black blow, is Cf6 (which would prevent 3. Dh5):
- e4 e5
- Dh5 Cc6
- Fc4 Cf6??
- Dxf7# 1-0
Chechmate of stupid, the lion, the schoolboy or the imbecile
See also: Chechmate of the lion
The shortest part that it is possible to make with the failures is a black profit in two blows.
- g4 e5 (or e6)
- f3?? (or f4??) Dh4# 0-1
This sequence very seldom occurs, because it supposes a perfect ignorance by the White of the principles of opening and defense of the weak diagonals.
See also: fairy-like Failures
The popularity and the prestige of the play of failures encouraged the appearance of many alternatives, sometimes also called “fairy-like failures”. Being based on a material (part and chess-board) and/or rules different or complementary, they have as an ambition to renew the play or to propose amusing variations.
Failures and data processing
See also: Program of failures
The failures constituted one of the first challenges for the data-processing developers.
In 1995, IBM does not hesitate to invest very heavily in the project Deep Blue, whose second grinding (called Deeper Blue) will be the first machine to beat a world champion in a match calling upon a control of traditional time (at that time, the computers are already frightening adversaries partly fast). Kasparov will dispute nevertheless the value of this victory by stressing that, contrary to the conditions of a match of championship of the world against human, it did not have access to the parts disputed by the computer before (the reciprocal one being false), which complicates the preparation. It raises moreover than one human intervention was necessary in the course of match so that the machine does not reproduce certain errors produced in the first parts. Kasparov required a revenge that IBM refused to grant to him. Since, the confrontations between the best world players and the machines (Kasparov vs. Deep Junior, Kramnik vs. Deep Fritz, Kasparov vs. X3D) took over championship of the failing world in the media. One can notice on this subject that, contrary to Deep Blue , the computer programs opposed to human are commercial programs running on standard microcomputers (whereas Deep Blue was considerably more cumbersome!).
Since the victory of Deep Blue , the statute of the failures as a challenge was reduced, and the attention of the programmers referred on the go. Indeed, in this case, the pure capacity of calculation which makes the force of the machines plays a minor importance vis-a-vis the strategy and the capacity of evaluation of a position which are much more complex to model.
However the exception Hydra remade to speak about the Superordinateur S dedicated to the set of failures in June 2005, by beating the international large-Master and 7th world Michael Adams, on a score without call of 5,5 points against 0,5.
In December 2006, the Kramnik world champion was made beat by the new software Deep fritz 2006 4 to 2 (2 defeats, 4 null).
Programmes of solution to problem of failuresMany programs also were born to check the correction of a Problème of failures. When a problem was checked by computer, that is mentioned on the diagram by the symbol " C+".
Symbolic system of the failures
Very quickly after their arrival in Europe, the failures acquire a particular status. Entertainment of the elite, they represent a noble activity during which the spirits of the participants clash. The quasi-infinite possibilities offered by the play fascinate and give rise to many esoteric interpretations . Some consider it in particular as a representation of the world where each situation can be modelled in a position which can find its solution on the chess-board.
The failures are called “the king of the plays”, and this particular status returns any attempt at extraordinary mechanization. If the first automats players of failures as the Turkish mechanics are mystifications, the capacity to be played failures will be one of the primary goals of the originators of Ordinateur S and one of the first testimonys of the appearance of what is then regarded as Artificial intelligence. It is this perception of the set of failures as expression of the human intelligence which will dramatize the confrontations between Gary Kasparov and the machine Deep Blue. The defeat of the champion of the mankind then marks strongly the spirits.
The set of failures frequently symbolizes the confrontation of two psychés, two intellectual abilities. This dimension will encourage the Soviet Union to obtain a school of failures which trained during one half-century all the world champions. It is also an aspect which is frequently used in the popular Art to appear the opposition (and sometimes the seduction) between two characters.
Arts and culture
Tables having for subject the failures
This so subtle strategy game fascine and inspired certain authors:
- the Player of failures of Stefan Zweig
- Defense Loujine of Vladimir Nabokov
- the Table of the Flemish Master of Arturo Pérez-Reverte
- The Public gardens off the City (1965, the City is a chess-board ), John Brunner
- The Eight (1990, the Eight ), Katherine Neville
- Carrion Comfort (1989, the Chess-board of the evil ), daN Simmons
- the gambit of stars (1958), Gerard Klein
- Insane of failures of Serge Rezvani
- a Combat of Patrick Süskind, news reporting a part where gaining is not that one thinks, illustrating the importance of psychology in the play.
- Zeitnot of ED Tourriol and Eckyo, French manga being held in the medium of the clubs of failures high-school pupils.
The set of failures is also mentioned for its evocative capacity in many books:
- Alice with the country of the wonders : Alice takes part in a part “life size”;
- the Nephew of Branch of Diderot: in the incipit, Diderot refers to the Coffee of Regency and at its players of failures of the time, in particular Légal (known for its chechmate) and Philidor (known for the defense of the same name)
- Isaac Asimov put in scene the failures in several of its novels and news, in particular Cailloux in the sky where this play is presented as one of the rare things which did not change during the millenia.
Several films were also carried out around the set of themes of the set of failures:
- the Fever of the failures of Vsevolod Pudovkin, 1925
- Players of failures (Shatranj Ke Khiladi), of Satyajit Ray, with Amjad Khan, Sanjeev KUMAR, Saeed Jaffrey, 1977
- the Chess-board of passion of Wolfgang Petersen with Bruno Ganz, 1979
- To play its life of Gilles Carle, 1982
- the Diagonal of insane the of Richard Dembo, 1984
- Face to face ( Knight Moves ), thriller of Carl Shenkel with Christophe Lambert, 1991
- In the search of Bobby Fischer with Laurence Fishburne, 1993
- the Part of failures with Catherine Deneuve and Pierre Richard, 1994
- Defense Loujine of Marleen Gorris with John Turturro and Emily Watson, 2001
- Geri' S Range , short-measuring of animation produced and realized by the studios Pixar, 1997
One can also note many appearances of the set of failures in films where its presence is not a dramatic spring but rather about the symbol:
- K , of Alexandre Arcady with Patrick Bruel, Isabella Ferrari (1996)
- Blade Runner of Ridley Scott: the retorting puts its creator failure and chechmate;
- the Seventh Seal of Ingmar Bergman: a character plays with death;
- Visitors of the evening of Flesh-colored Marcel;
- the Business Thomas Crown of Norman Jewison: the suspect and that which tracks it face and are allured during a part.
- 2001, the odyssey of space of Stanley Kubrick, large amateur of failures, in which the supercomputer CARL (Hall 9000) overrides the astronaut David Bowman.
- Harry Potter at the school of the wizards of Chris Colombus, Large Amateur of failures, Ronald Weasley Rupert Grint, plays with Harry with the failures version wizard, parts animated by magic, and must direct part of failures life size, which is one of the tests guardian of the philosopher stone.
- Revolver of Guy Ritchie, sets of failures and swindle (2005)
- the ballet Checkmate ( Failure and chechmate ) was written by the British type-setter Arthur Bliss in 1937 and puts in scene the parts échiquéennes until the final attack of the black king.
- the Musical comedy Chess (1986) on a music of Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson (former members of ABBA) and words of Tim Rice puts in scene a triangle in love between two participants in a championship with the world of failures and a woman which tries to allure one and fall in love with the different one.
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