European space agency
European space agency or ESA, European Space Agency , is a space agency founded May 31st, 1975. It is in charge of the coordination of the space projects of 17 European countries , of which each one holds a voice with the council .
The managing director, elected by the council every four years, is in 2006 Jean-Jacques Dordain .
The contribution of each European citizen for civil space reaches only the 1/4 of that of a citizen of the the United States. , the ESA managed the program ARIANE, which gave its space independence to Europe, after the failure of the program Europa 2: these repeated failures of the rocket Europa (7 failures in 1972 out of 7 launchings, because of a bad coordination), had discouraged the european partners, and initially only the “France gaullist” wished to continue a space program to free from the American supervision (see the North-American refusal to launch in 1972 the commercial satellite Franco-German, " Symphonie").
After delicate negotiations between France, Germany and the United Kingdom, an agreement was found fine 1973 to start again a project of satellite launcher, which will be named later ARIANE . The control of work was entrusted to the French CNES (National center of space studies), and the motorization at the French company European Société of propulsion (SEP).
This ARIANE rocket, which is with its fifth version major, is launched since the base of Kourou in Guyana: the ESA finances two thirds of the annual budget of the Guianese Space center, and also paid its modernization for the setting at the data point of the launchers ARIANE.
The ESA manages moreover program series scientists or of R & D technological, as well as application programs (telecom, navigation, observation of the Ground).
The countries participating in the ESA do not form necessarily part of the European Union and conversely: thus the Norway and the Suisse are members of the ESA; a contrario the countries having adhered in 2004 to the European Union is not members.
The Canada is an associated member, State cooperating with privileged statute.
The 17 Member States (except Canada) are:
- Greece, since March 9th, 2005;
- Luxembourg, as of on December 1st, 2005;
- the United Kingdom;
The ESA, with an aim of reinforcing the links with the European countries non-members, had concluded from the agreements (agreements of European co-operating States) allowing the limited participation of the country contracting, with:
According to the convention signed by the 17 Member States, the work meetings of the Agency proceed in French, English and German. All the official documents of the Agency are also translated in these three languages. The other documents however are published only in French and English.
Presidents of the Council of the Agency
Hubert Curien: June 1981 - July 1984
Successive managing directors
Ministerial council of the December 6th and 7th 2005
The Ministerial council with Berlin, chaired by the Dutch Minister for the Economy, Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, joined together
- the 17 Member States
- the 5 candidates
- the Canada
- as well as representatives of the European Union, Eumetsat and European Space Science Committee.
The entire amount of 8.225 M€ of contributions was then act (95% of the total requested - to compare with the 78% of the 10 Md€ obtained at the time of the preceding council from Edinburgh in 2001).
The delegations adopted 6 resolutions:
- the plan “Discovered in the long run and competitiveness” ( Discovery & Competitiveness ),
- the level of the resources,
- exploitation of the International space station (ISS),
- the sector of the launchers,
- financing of the Guianese Space center,
- evolution of the ESA.
- Observation of the Earth:
- EOEP-3 (program-envelope of observation of the Earth) (2008-2013) 1,245 Md€
- Artes (2006-2010) 0,543
- exploitation ISS, Elips, (2005-2008/9) 0,711
- Acep (ARIANE-5) (2006-2010) 0,142
- Arta (ARIANE-5) (2007-2010) 0,436
- Verta (Vega) (2006-2010) 0,244
- Resolution CSG (2006-2008) 0,253
- Observation of the Earth:
- GMES (phase 1) (2006-2008) 0,253
- Aurora/ExoMars /Clipper (2006-2009/11) 0,724
- Alphasat (2006-2010) 0,04
- Small GEO (2006-2010) 0,05
- FLPP (2006-2009) 0,283
- GSTP (2006-2008) 0,214
Siège with Paris
- European Astronaut Centers (EAC) (Center of the European astronauts) with Cologne, in Germany
- European Space Astronomy Center (ESAC) (European Center of astronomy) in Villafranca del Castillo, in Spain
- European Space Operations Centers (ESOC) (European Center of the space operations) with Darmstadt, in Germany
- ESA Center for Earth observation (ESRIN) (European Institute of space research) with Frascati, in Italy
- European Space research and Technology Centers (ESTEC) (European technology and space research Center) with Noordwijk, with the Netherlands
One of the projects of the ESA in this moment (2004) is the project Quichotte from which the goal is to protect the Earth against the collision risk by all geocroisor by deviating this one in a tiny way, but sufficiently early:
- Project '' Quichotte '' (see also Public service)
- Project Galileo, the system of European positioning. It will be civil and not soldier contrary with his American counterpart. It will be also much more precise (1m near)
- Projet Phoenix
- Project Darwin
European body of the astronauts
Members in activity
- Jean-François Clervoy (France)
- Frank De Winne (Belgium)
- Pedro Duque (Spain)
- Léopold Eyharts (France)
- Reinhold Ewald (Germany)
- Christer Fuglesang (Sweden)
- Andre Kuipers (Netherlands)
- Paolo Nespoli (Italy)
- Claude Nicollier (Swiss)
- Thomas Reiter (Germany)
- Hans Schlegel ( Germany)
- Roberto Vittori (Italy)
Actions towards the young peopleThe ESA always had a policy of information of youth by many teaching means implemented through various exposures.
It signed, in 1986, a partnership convention with the Association PARSEC which disseminates the scientific information on the Riviera. It was renewed on June 23rd, 2001, by Jean-Jacques Dordain, managing director of the Agency.
Notes and references of the article
European space Projects:
- Rocket ARIANE
- Launcher Vega
- International space station (in intercontinental collaboration)
- Probe Cassini-Huygens (in collaboration with the American JPL)
- Mars Express
- Probe Rosetta
- Venus Express
- Hermes (abandoned)
- Corot: detection of Exoplanète S by transit (launching envisaged in 2006)
- Darwin: planet extrasolaires observation in order to determine the atmospheric composition.
- ExoMars : rover on the planet Mars to detect the presence of living organisms.
- Probe Giotto
- Probe SMART-1: technological demonstrator and study of the the Moon
- Satellite Planck envisaged in 2007
- Satellite GOCE envisaged fine 2007
- Satellite weather ADM-Aeolus envisaged in 2008
- educational Projects:
External bonds and documents
- Official site of the ESA
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