BiographyBorn in 1864 in a family from millers and millers with the doors of Clermont, Etienne Clémentel is very early orphan of father. It is raised by his mother in a suburb of Riom. After studies at the Marists, it obtains licenses of Droit and Lettres. Pushed by the need, he undertakes a career of supernumerary (nontitular employee) in the recording, then buys a load of notary to Riom. He launches out in the political career after the death of his first wife. Initially elected the Municipal council of Riom, it reaches, in September 1900, at the time of partial, at the station of Député to " Riom-plaine" , seat which it will preserve until in 1919. It becomes Maire of Riom in 1904; it will remain with the head of its city until its death, in 1936. It is also Senator Puy-de-Dôme of 1920 with 1935. Elected official general adviser in 1910, he will be president of the departmental Parliament of 1911 with 1935.
Etienne Clémentel belongs to cabinets which have to make crucial decisions in the France of pre-war period. Its first functions are those of Minister for the Colonies in the government Rouvier (January 1905 - March 1906) which must regulate the problem of the Separation of the Church and the State. In 1913, it takes part, as Minister for the Agriculture, with the cabinet Barthou, which launches the process of vote of Three Years the military law (after having been one two years period since 1905, the Military service passes by again at one three years duration starting from 1913). Lastly, during 3 days, of the 9 to the June 13rd, in full political crisis, it is Minister for Finance in the transitory ministry Ribot.
A national role of very first plan
During the First World War, one finds it minister only in 1915. In the five Gouvernement S which will follow one another, Etienne Clémentel is the only minister to preserve his load also a long time, since there remains member of the national management of October 1915 to November 1919.
In addition to this exceptional longevity, it does not cease increasing its ministerial functions. He inherits in 1915 the wallet the Commerce, the Industrie and the Postes and Télégraphes. In December 1916, it temporarily associates with these functions the load of the Agriculture and the Travail, gathering the responsibility for all de facto the economy civil main road. Clemenceau even extends, with its request, its functions with the significant field of the Maritime transport and the Merchant navy, thus giving him the upper hand on the supply of the country.
It is at that time that him the creation of the 17 " is owed; groupings of interests régionaux" (ministerial decree of April 5th 1919) founded on the framework of the Chambers of commerce and which are, to some extent, at the origin of the French areas current.
In 1924, Herriot calls it as Minister for Finance in the cabinet formed after the victory of the Cartel of the lefts. It quickly encounters difficulties which lead it to regulate the movements of capital with the foreigner (law of the June 30th 1924 on the export of the capital and the importation of the titles and transferable securities), of requesting an advance of the Banque de France (convention of the December 22nd 1924), of issuing a loan of 100 million dollars to the the United States and of creating, to improve the tax re-entries, accounts - checks - contribution (Décret of the March 11th 1925). It creates in addition, with the decree of the January 16th 1925, an economic national council but this reform of structure remains, for the time being, without a future.
Etienne Clémentel accompanies Herriot with the Conference by London on Repairs, from which the Plan Dawes will result. But a dissension between him, the President of the Council and SFIO appears on several questions and the conduit to be resigned in 1925. It is the beginning of the anguish of the Trust.
Etienne Clémentel will not return any more to the government. However, in October 1929, it is had a presentiment of as president of the Council by his former colleague Gaston Doumergue, become President of the Republic. It fails to form a government supported by a majority.
Returned of the loads of the capacity in 1920, Etienne Clémentel remains until his final failure, in 1935, an active senator. It reaches the eminent post of president of the Commission of the Finances of 1927 with 1935. It benefits from its seat to the Senate to impel the political projects to which it had been solved during the war, in spite of the fall of activity to which the constrained one since 1930 a serious disease.
A heart of artistIts tastes impassioned for the Painting, the Literature, the Poetry and the Musique make of him an atypical politician. Since its passage to the School of the Art schools of Clermont in its youth, there remains fascinated by art and the artists. He attends the " mardis" of Mallarmé, then many living rooms Paris iens. He plays a decisive part in creation, in 1916, of the Musée Rodin in Paris. Painter at his hours, it decorates his notes of portraits of the politicians that it côtoie. He proves also skilful Photographe, using this technique at artistic ends. The humanistic ideal and its religious belief will remain always the engines of its action.
It launches as of 1919 near Clemenceau the idea of an industrial sphere of modernization, known as plane Clémentel. It concentrates also its action on the professional organizations and plays a decisive part in the birth of the General confederation of the French Production, ancestor remote of the CNPF. In the same way, he intends to support the birth of an organization of the Artisanat and receives for his action in 1920 the title of " father of the artisanat". One created even in Paris a city of the craft industry, said quoted Etienne-Clémentel in 1933. After having sponsored the birth of the CPC (Accounts Accounts - Postal checks) in 1918, it plays, as a senator, a function of promoter of the Loi leading to the birth of the national structure of the Agricultural credit. Not having led in the maintenance of a economic Co-operation to the level of the States in 1919, it defers its hopes on the organization of a international Chamber of commerce of which it is, in 1920, the first president.
A passion for its area and its cityAlthough born with Clermont, its personal past deeply attaches it to the area riomoise where it passes its childhood and its earliest youth. He attends the company of gymnastics Riomoise and forges many durable and useful friendships. He lives between Riom and Combronde where he has a family residence. In 1919, it settles in the village of Prompsat. Pushed by its Emmanuel Master of Essarts, it wrote in 1898 the texts of two conferences on " The Celtic heart " and on " Michelet ". President of the general advice of 1911 with 1935, it seems one of the Masters of the local political life at the sides of Doctor Chassaing, Alexandre Varenne or Philippe Marcombes. In 1935, the will of establishment of Pierre Laval causes his ultimate failure with the senatorial ones.
Its most durable action appears with Riom. Entered the municipality as of 1892, become assistant in 1896, it chairs the Municipal council 1904 its death. Attentive with the economic activity, it contributes to the creation of a news Bibliothèque, modern slaughter-houses, with the refitting of a news Gare, with the installation of the Dumoulin park and village hall. Certain districts are rehabilitated. It is concentrated on the problems of water provision of the city. In 1926, it sells, with the profit Hôpital of Riom, its tables and drawings in the large Berheim gallery, which brings back 250000F to the institution riomoise.
But its contribution the most present remainder the embellishment of the city. It is responsible for the transfer to Riom of the Desaix fountain, inaugurated in 1906. Regularly, it decorates its town of new statues like the Marseillaise or the Gallic chief dying . At the end of its mandate, it makes move, to protect it, the Virgin with the Bird of Marthuret (1932). After having made classify the Town hall in 1908, it makes it restore in 1920, not hesitating to take part with its own paintings in the decoration of the rooms, as well as the Dumoulin room. After the Great War, it makes set up the triumphal arch dedicated to the victims of the conflict and installs a sculpture of Rodin, Gallia Victrix , in the court of the town hall. It is precisely there that one finds the bust of Etienne Clémentel, last works of Rodin.
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