The concept of ethnicity or ethnicity is used in Sociologie and different other disciplines, this concept is with being differentiated well from that of Ethnie, used by the Ethnologue S.
Ethnicity, ethnicity and ethnos groupFor the German sociologist max Weber, the ethnicities are " human groups which nourish a subjective belief at a community of origin based on similarities of the external habitus or manners, or of both, or on memories of colonization or migration" (Economy and company, 1922). Contrary to the concept of Ethnos group (or ethnos ), which is especially used by the Ethnologie to indicate isolated and not urbanized social groups, and of which applicability is not relevant in urbanized companies where social groups of origins and various cultures are in contact, that of ethnicity is usually used in Sociologie.
In a case as in the other, it is essential to distinguish between the categories determined by the researchers in social sciences and/or the political authorities on the one hand, and the social groups as named and delimited by the individuals who estimate to form part of it.
IndiaThere exists a debate between sociologists and orientalists specialists in the India when with the applicability of the concept of ethnicity to the Caste S. Some developed the thesis of an ethnic origin of the various castes, who would have initially been of the ethnicities laminated by the political domination of some, which would have set up as higher castes, but this thesis is very discussed .
Soviet UnionThe Soviet Union, following the example others colonial powers, handled the concepts of ethnos group/ethnos and ethnicity in the application of the right of the nations to lay out of themselves by creating ethnicities ( narod ) fictitious to divide more important groups, like the Adyghés, by allotting to each sub-group an autonomous territorial entity to avoid allotting a republic federated to them as such (the case of the Tatars and the Bachkirs is rather similar). Another handling consisted in setting up distinct republics by nationality ethnic instead of the old States (khanats of Khiva and Bukhara in Central Asia) pre-Russian or pre-Soviet who was pluriethnic.
CanadaWith the Canada, the ethnicities term indicates the social groups resulting from the immigration which form part neither of the two people founders, English and French, nor of the people autochtones (Amerindian S, Inuit, Métis). Another term was introduced in 1995 into the Canadian legislation, that of Visible minority.
HungaryIn Hungary, ethnic nationality, distinct from official nationality, is called.
IndonesiaIn Indonesia, the term suku indicates a group of men bound by the conscience of an cultural identity possibly reinforced by the language (and sometimes the religion). He is opposed to bangsa , which indicates the nation. In fact, these terms are useful before very describing reality indonésienne, made up of groups of languages, habits and different religions which, at one time, underwent the same Dutch colonial yoke and were released some together to build a nation.
IsraelIn Israel, two terms exist to indicate an ethnicity,
- eda (pl. edot ) for the various Jewish ethnicities (sometimes qualified " tribus" , shevatim , following the example biblical Jewish tribes) grouped by national origin (for example Geruzim , Jews originating in Georgia, Sefardim, originating in Spain, Ashkenazim originating in Central and Eastern Europe) or infranationale ( Urfalim , Jews originating in the Turkish area around the town of Urfa).
- le' om , nationality ethnic (Jew, Arab, Druze, Circassien, Armenian etc), which differs from the Israeli citizenship, in the same way that the Soviet Union distinguished between narodnost (nationality ethnic) and pripadnost (Soviet citizenship).
FranceTo date, the ethnic statistics are not authorized there. However, on the initiative of the Africagora, as well as two deputies of UMP members of the CNIL, an amendment with the bill on immigration, adoptee Thursday, September 13, 2007 by the commission of the laws of the National Assembly, proposes to authorize it.
The interethnic processes of Intégration have different denominations according to the countries, Melting pot in the United States, in Canada, mizzoug galouyot (integration of only the immigrant Jews) in Israel.
There is no unanimity as for the qualifier indicating ethnic plurality: pluriethnic, multiethnic, polyethnic, even multicultural.
Related terminologiesImmigrant - Ethnos group - Visible minority - Race
External bonds and references
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