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Among the Angiosperme S or Plant S with flowers, the monocotylédones include/understand plants whose typical seedling presents one Cotylédon on the embryo, which evolves/moves by giving a préfeuille.
To this principal characteristic are added the following characteristics:
Stems: no secondary formation of Wood and absence of a true trunk; even if some monocotylédones (Palmier S) have an arborescent port one does not meet in this class of truths trees.
- Sheets: sometimes pennate, presenting Vein S principal parallels.
- Flowers: basically trimères: 3 sepals, 3 petals, 2x3 cheesecloths, 3 carpelles; symmetry which one finds the trace even at flowers evolved/moved like those of the Orchidacée S
The monocotylédones constitute a relatively recent evolution of the vegetable kingdom, compared to the Dicotylédones which were very a long time only representing plants with flowers. This characteristic can thus be included/understood like an irreversible evolution, resulting from a genetic variability of a plant dicotylédone. One raises among these plants in particular the herbaceous ones, the orchises, palm trees, graminaceous.
Traditional classificationIn traditional classification of Cronquist, 1981, the monocotylédones are the class Liliopsida (in divisions Magnoliophyta angiospermes. They are divided into 5 subclasses:
ThorneIn traditional classification classification of Thorne (1992), the monocotylédones are the subclass Liliidae classifies Magnoliopsida of it. They are divided into 8 superordres.
Classification APGIn phylogenetic classification APG II (2003), the monocotylédones are the Clade monocots (English), located in the clade angiosperms (English; in French angiospermes). They are divided into 10 orders (and two families)
clade of the Monocotylédones (English):
* Not gathered under-clade, for the moment:
* under-clade Commelinidées (English):
NB. In the first phylogenetic classification APG (1998), the English name " commelinoids" (Commélinoïdes) was used for the " commelinids" APG II (2003).
- the complete tree of Angiospermes in Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 6, May 2005 (continuously updated since)
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