Ernst Lubitsch is a American Réalisateur of German origin, born on January 29th 1892 with Berlin. He emigrated with the the United States in 1922 at the thirty years age. Prolix realizer, it turned more than one about fifty films in thirty years. He marked the history of the cinema like one of the Masters of the comedy, with films such as The Shop Around the Corner or To Be gold not to Be . He died the November 30th 1947 and was buried in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery with Glendale in California.
YouthErnst Lubitsch is the son of a Berliner tailor, Simon Lubitsch, itself resulting from a long line of Hofjuden ( Jewish of court ). This last holding in Berlin a clothes shop for men, then extremely famous. Ernst, only sons, were born on January 28th, 1892, and accepted a looked after education, which also included/understood the dramatic arts. Mow of the studies and fascinated by the theater, it leaves the school at 16 years. Simon hardly admits the true vocation of his son and takes it with the store. Six months later, this one must déchanter, so much the son is unable: " My son is a Schlemihl . It is unable to hang a costume without making some fall five other " It thus decides to place it as accountant, which will give the opportunity to him to carry out a double life: he works during the day and devotes himself to his theatrical passion the night. Indeed, via Victor Arnold, extremely known actor of the time, Lubitsch obtains various small engagements in cabarets. As it is left there extremely well, Arnold decides to present it to max Reinhardt, director of the Deutsches Theater, which integrates it in its troop, within which is already Emil Jannings. Lubitsch thus obtains supporting roles in traditional parts: he plays thus Famulus Wagner in Faust. In 1912, one of the representations of the Mirakel ( Miracle ) of Karl Gustav Vollmoeller (1887-1948) was filmed. The same year, Lubitsch becomes the odd-job man Studio Bioscop of Berlin, to round its ends of the month. The cinema is indeed in full expansion in Germany, even if it is yet only one industry of popular entertainment. In 1913, one engages it as actor, which Lubitsch accepts not by interest for the incipient cinema, but because of high wages: 20 marks per day, which is to be compared with the 100 marks per month that it gained with Reinhardt. It creates the character then, of Meyer , prototype of the comic German Jew, in a series of films, carried out most of the time by theunknown ones, but produced by Paul Davidson, directing Union-Film. " With these films, it became the comic one more for German cinema, as popular as max Linder in France and Harold Lloyd if not Chaplin in America at the same time ". In 1914, the scenario writers are with court of idea, but Lubitsch does not miss any. Also it will take from now on triples it cap of actor-realizer-author. This arrangement which decreased manpower not going without satisfying Davidson, which thus offered to Lubitsch a pay rise. During four years of war, Lubitsch will assemble many films, prompt to raise the moral one of the German population, and to forsake the first roles more and more: it is satisfied with the seconds.
German periodThis success enables him to carry out its own films as from 1916. It gives up its career of acteur.
then In 1918, it carries out its first outstanding film: Eyes of the mummy ( Die Augen der Mumie My ), a drama with Pola Negri and Emil Jannings.
La even year, it meets the recognition with Carmen . In 1919, it triumphs with the Princess with the oysters ( Die Austernprinzessin ), still a comedy. Follow historical dramas ( Mrs Of Barry , Ann Boleyn ) and comedies, which make of him a realizer of international stature. It is called even " D.W. Griffith allemand" , and in 1921, it is invited in the United States for the first time.
Hollywood periodIt leaves Germany in 1922, to join Hollywood on the invitation of Mary Pickford. She wants that it off directs it in Dorothy Vernon Haddon Hall . He refuses the project, but directs it in Rosita in 1923, its first American film, again a success. It is under contract with the Mary Pickford Company; it is a keen worker and each film seems to exceed the precedent, in quality and success (critical and commercial). One starts to speak about the " Lubitsch touch" : elegance and sophistication in the satire, direction of the rate/rhythm and the ellipse.
In 1926, it joined the Paramount and carries out its first talking film in 1929: Parade of love ( The Love Parade ) with Maurice Knight and Sleeve-board Mac Donald which obtains 6 nominations with the Oscars of which that of better film. With the appearance of the sound, brilliances dialogs come to be added to Lubitsch touch (even if it is never credited as scenario writer or dialogist, it works with the best, in particular Billy Wilder).
En 1933, he becomes American citizen. In 1935, the mode Nazi the déchoit of his German nationality. The same year, he becomes also producer for Paramount. It is the period when it will carry out its most known films, all the comedies. He will make work all large the stars of the time: Claudette Colbert, Gary Cooper, Marlene Dietrich, James Stewart, Carole Lombard, or Gene Tierney. It is him which will make for the first time hear the laughter of Greta Garbo, in Ninotchka . The films, in spite of their light character and brilliance, often approach very serious and contemporary concerns: in 1939, Ninotchka is one of first films to criticize the mode of Stalin, in 1940, The Shop Around the Corner approaches the topic of unemployment, and in 1942 unforgettable the To Be gold not to Be evokes resistance to the nazisme.
In 1947, Ernst Lubitsch receives a Oscar honor (it was only named 3 times and forever gained the statuette) and dies shortly after of an heart attack during the turning of the Lady with the coat of hermine which will be completed by Otto Preminger.
With its burial, Billy Wilder would have been afflicted: " More Lubitsch" , seeing itself answering by William Wyler: " Worse than that: more films of Lubitsch."
PosterityErnst Lubitsch is regarded as the inventor of all the codes of the modern comedy, and its posterity is thus impossible to measure.
- Beaucoup of Remake S of its films was turned, but without never equalizing the orginaux ones. One can quote:
a Prix Ernst Lubitsch was created in Germany in 1957, the Ernst-Lubitsch-Preis , prize awarded to a film by criticism.
the building of the realizers to the studios Paramount was named Ernst Lubitsch in 1987.
Lubitsch and FranceThere exist many affinities and bonds of friendship reciprocal between Ernst Lubitsch and France. Already in 1936, during the turning of the Eighth Woman of Bore-Blue, Lubitsch had been gratifié of the Legion of honor. A little less than 60 years later, in 1992, when the review of cinema Positif, tried to rule on the twenty most important films of the history of the cinema, it put to To Be gold not to Be at the 17th place (what makes the second comedy of it, behind the Mechanic of “General” the of Buster Keaton). These data being to compare with that of the anglophone site of classification of films, IMDB, which does not even put it in signal 250. More recently still, Le Monde devoted a whole page at the time of the exit of an about forgotten silent film of the German realizer.
If France likes Lubitsch, force is to note that in return, Lubitsch likes France. From 1930 (Love Parade) at 1939 (Ninotchka) the near total of its films proceed in France (two only exceptions being the lieutenant smiling and If I had a million). To also notice that one speaks much French at Lubitsch (in the sky can await, and in Sérénade to three, a whole scene occurs in the language from Molière). It is finally to note that Lubitsch used much French interpreters (Maurice Chevalier, Claudette Colbert, Charles Boyer for the first roles, but also Felix Bressart for the seconds) and French authors (the argument of lost Illusions is drawn from a part of Victorien Sardou, Divorçons ).
ScenariosLubitsch made only one film starting from an original screenplay. All others being primarily adaptations, generally very free, works theatrical. Lubitsch having a rather clear preference for the Hungarian dramatic authors: Laszlo Aladar ( Disorder in paradise ), Nickel silver Lengyel ( Angel , Ninotchka ), Nikolaus László ( The shop around the corner ) and László Goal-Feketé ( the sky can await ). Such a repertory having the advantage of being, because of distance, modifiable at will by the realizer, and Lubitsch will not be deprived any. Come then the German playwrights (Hans Müller for Monte Carlo , Leopold Jacobson and Felix Dortmann according to a novel of same Müller in the Lieutenant smiling , Lothar Schmidt in One hour close to you and Victor Leon and Leo Stein in the merry Veuve ), and French (Leon Xanrof and Jules Chancel in Parade of love , Maurice Rostand in the man which I killed and Victorien Sardou in lost Illusions ). Cluny Brown constitutes a double exception, since its argument is drawn from an English novel.
MusicThe music plays an extremely important part at Lubitsch, as deputy for the word, essentially conventional surface. The greatest use of this function is in `' Angel''. It is indeed the melody topic improvised by a violonist gypsy, the evening when Lady Barker and Anthony Halton meet, who will precipitate the action: Lady Barker plays it on her piano and the fact of passing for a personal composition near her husband, but this one intends via the telephone Anthony Halton to also interpret it.
There exists in fact several type-setters appointed of Lubitsch: first is Oscar Straus, a contemporary author of operettas of Franz Lehár. Lubitsch starts by making a cinematographic version of one of its operettas created in 1907 (`' the smiling Lieutenant''), then will again call upon him to compose the original music of `' One Hour close to you''. The second it is Friedrich Hollaender (Frederick Hollander), German type-setter then British, who will write the partition of `' Desired'' and, especially, that of `' Angel''. Lastly, Werner Richard Heymann, more obscure musician but who lent themselves extremely well to the cinematographic language, were the type-setter more used by Lubitsch with four film with his credit: `' Ninotchka'', `' The shop around the corner'', `' unquestionable That feelings'' and `' To Be gold not to Be''.
Catalog of filmscomplete Catalog of films.
- Ernst Lubitsch is initially actor then realizer.
- 1913 : Meyer auf der Alm of max Bahr, with E.L., Sophie Pagay (lost)
- 1913: Die ideal Gattin (unknown realizer), with Lyda Salmonova, Grete Shepherd, E.L., Paul Biensfelt (lost)
- 1914: Die Firma heiratet of Carl Wilhelm, with E.L., Victor Arnold (lost)
- 1914: Bedingung: keine Familie! of Stellan Rye, with Hans Wassmann, Albert Paulig, Emil Albes, E.L. (lost)
- 1914: Der Stolz der Firma of Carl Wilhelm, with E.L., Martha Kriwitz, Victor Arnold, Albert Paulig Hans Wassmann, Albert Paulig, Emil Albes
- 1914: Fräulein Piccolo of Franz Hoffer, with Dory Weixler, Franz Schweiger, Alice Hechy, E.L., max Lehmann
- 1914: Fräulein Seifenschaum of and with E.L. (lost)
- 1914: Meyer als Soldier with E.L. (doubtful participation, lost)
- 1915: Aufs Eis geführt of E.L., with E.L., Albert Paulig (lost)
- 1915: Weapon Marie of max Mack, with Hanni Weisse, E.L., Friedrich Zelnick, Felix Basch (lost)
- 1915: Zucker und Zimt of Ernst Matray and E.L., with Ernst Matray, E.L., Helene Voss, Felix Basch (lost)
- 1915: Blindekuh of E.L., with E.L., Resl Orla (lost)
- 1915: Ein verliebter Racker of Franz Hofer, with Dory Weixler, E.L. (lost)
- 1915: Robert und Bertram or Die Lustigen Vagabunden of max Mack, with Ferdinand Bonn, Eugen Burg, Wilhelm Diegelmann, E.L. (lost)
- 1915: Patient Center einziger or Patient DER erste of E.L., with E.L., Johanna Ewald (lost)
- 1915: Der Kraftmeyer (or Der Kraftmeier ) of and with E.L. (lost)
- 1915: DER letzte Anzug of and with E.L. (lost)
- 1915: DER schwarze Moritz of Georg Jacoby, with E.L., Erna Alberty, Margarete Kupfer (lost)
- 1916: Wie ich ermordet wurde of Louis Ralph, with E.L. (doubtful participation, lost)
- 1916: Als ich early war (or Wo STI mein Schatz? ) of and with E.L. (lost)
- 1916: Doktor Satansohn of Edmund Edel, with E.L., Hans Felix, Yo Larte
( As from this moment, E.L is realizer of all films, except particular mention )
1916 : Schuhpalast Pinkus with Hans Felix, Yo Larte
- 1916: DER gemischte Frauenchor with E.L. (lost)
- 1916: Das schönste Geschenk with E.L. (lost)
- 1916: DER GMBH-Tenor with E.L., OSI Oswalda, Victor Janson (lost)
- 1916: Leutnant auf Befehl with Harry Liedtke], E.L., OSI Oswalda, Victor Janson (lost)
- 1916: Keiner von beiden (lost)
- 1917: Die neue Bow net (or the Seine neue Bow net ), with E.L. (lost)
- 1917: Käsekönig Holländer , with E.L. (lost)
- 1917: Der Blusenkönig , with E.L., Käte Dorsch, Guido Herzfeld (lost)
- 1917: Ossis Tagebuch , with OSI Oswalda, Hermann Thimmig (lost)
- 1917: Wenn vier dasselbe tun , with Emil Jannings, OSI Oswalda, Margarete Kupfer, Fritz Schulz, Victor Janson
- 1917: Hans Trutz im Schlaraffenland of Paul Wegener, with Paul Wegener, Lyda Salmonova, Wilhelm Diegelmann, E.L. (lost)
- 1917: faithful Das Gefängnis (or Ein faithful Gefängnis ), with Harry Liedtke, Kitty Dewall, Agda Nilsson, Emil Jannings, according to the operetta the Bat of Johann Strauss
- 1918: Prinz Sami , with E.L., OSI Oswalda, Wilhelm Diegelmann, Margarete Kupfer (lost)
- 1918: Der Fall Rosentopf , with Ferry Sikla, Margarete Kupfer, E.L. (lost)
- 1918: Das Mädel vom Ballett , with OSI Oswalda, Ferry Sikla, Harry Liedtke, Julietta Brandt, Victor Janson, Reinhold Schünzel (lost)
- 1918: Ich möchte kein Mann center , with Ferry Sikla, OSI Oswalda, Margarete Kupfer, Victor Janson
- 1918: Eyes of the mummy (Die Augen der Mumie My) , with Pola Negri, Emil Jannings, Harry Liedtke
- 1918: Carmen , with Pola Negri, Harry Liedtke, Leopold von Ledebour (according to Mérimée and Bizet)
- 1918: Handled (1918) , with Pola Negri (lost)
- 1918: Meyer aus Berlin , with E.L., Ethel Orff, Heinz Lanzmann
- 1919: Meine Frau die Filmschauspielerin , with OSI Oswalda, Victor Janson (lost)
- 1919: the Princess with the oysters (Die Austernprinzessin) with Victor Janson, OSI Oswalda, Harry Liedtke
- 1919: Rausch , with Asta Nielsen, Alfred Abel, Carl Meinhard (lost)
- 1919: Of Barry (Mrs Of Barry) , with Pola Negri, Emil Jannings, Harry Liedtke
- 1919: Der Lustige Ehemann with Victor Janson (lost)
- 1919: the Headstock (Die Puppe) with Josefine Gilded, Victor Janson, Marga Köhler
- 1920: Die Wohnungsnot with OSI Oswalda, Marga Köhler, Victor Janson (doubtful participation, lost)
- 1920: Kohlhiesels Töchter with Jakob Tiedtke, Henny Porten
- 1920: Romeo und Julia im Schnee with Paul Biensfeldt, Josefine Gilded, Julius Falkenstein
- 1920: Sumurun with E.L., Pola Negri, Paul Wegener
- 1920: Anna Boleyn with Henny Porten, Emil Jannings, Paul Hartmann
- 1921: the She-cat of the mountains (Die Bergkatze) with Pola Negri, Victor Janson, Paul Heidemann, Wilhelm Diegelmann
- 1922: the Woman of the Pharaon (Das Weib of Pharao) with Emil Jannings, Harry Liedtke, Dagny Servaes, Paul Wegener
- 1922: Montmartre (Die Flame) with Pola Negri, Alfred Abel, Hermann Thimig
- 1923 : Rosita , Co-realizer: Raoul Walsh with Mary Pickford, Holbrook Blinn, Irene Rich
- 1924: That do you think about it? (The Marriage Circle) with Florence Vidor, Assembles Blue, Marie Prevost, Creighton Hale
- 1924: Three women or Actresses ( Three Women) with May McAvoy, Pauline Frederick, Marie Prevost
- 1925: Forbidden Paradise with Pola Negri, Rod Rocque, Adolphe Menjou
- 1925: My wife and her flirt or Embrace to me ( KIS Me Again ) with Marie Prevost, Monte Blue, John Roche
- 1925: the Range of Lady Windermere (Lady Windermere' S Fan) with Ronald Colman, May McAvoy, Irene Rich
- 1926: the surprises of the TSF (So This is Paris) with Assembles Blue, Patsy Ruth Miller, Myrna Loy
- 1926: Honeymoon Express train , Co-realizer: James Flood, with Willard Louis, Irene Rich, Holmes Herbert
- 1927: the Prince studied (Student Prince in Old Heidelberg) , Co-realizer: John Mr. Stahl, with Normalized Shearer, Ramón Novarro, Jean Hersholt
- 1928: the Patriot (film) (The Patriot) with Emil Jannings, Florence Vidor, Lewis Stone
- 1929: the Abyss (Eternal Coils) with Camilla Hor N, John Barrymore, Victor Varnoni
- 1929 : Parade of love (The Love Parade) with Maurice Knight, Sleeve-board Mac Donald, Lupino Lane, Ben Turpin (the first talking film about Lubitsch)
- 1930: Paramount one Parades Co-realizers: Frank Tuttle, Edmund Goulding, A. Edward Sutherland etc with Jean Arthur, Gary Cooper, Maurice Knight, etc
- 1930: Monte Carlo with Jack Buchanan, Sleeve-board Mac Donald, Claud Allister, Zasu Pitts
- 1931: the Lieutenant smiling (The Smiling Lieutenant) with Claudette Colbert, Maurice Knight (versions English and Frenchwoman)
- 1931: the Man that I killed (Broken Lullaby) with Lionel Barrymore, Nancy Carroll, Philips Holmes
- 1932: One hour close to you (One hour with you) Co-realizer: George Cukor, with Maurice Knight, Sleeve-board Mac Donald and Genevieve Tobin
- 1932: High Underworld (Disorder in Paradise) with Kay Francis, Miriam Hopkins and Herbert Marshall
- 1932: If I had a million (Yew I Had has Million) (contribution Scénario) with George Raft, Gary Cooper, Charles Laughton
- 1933: Serenade to three (Design for Living room) with Fredric March, Gary Cooper and Miriam Hopkins
- 1934: the merry Widow (The Merry Widow) with Sleeve-board Mac Donald and Maurice Knight (versions English and Frenchwoman)
- 1937: Angel (Angel) with Marlene Dietrich, Herbert Marshall , Douglas Melvyn
- 1938: the Eighth Woman of Bore-Blue (Blue Beard' S Eighth Wife) with Claudette Colbert, Gary Cooper and Edward Everett Horton
- 1939: Ninotchka with Greta Garbo, Douglas Melvyn and Ina Claire
- 1940: The Shop Around the Corner (Go) with Margaret Sullavan, James Stewart and Frank Morgan
- 1941: lost Illusions (That Uncertain Feeling) with Blackbird Oberon, Douglas Melvyn
- 1942: To Be gold not to Be (or dangerous Plays ) with Carole Lombard, Jack Benny, Robert Stack, Felix Bressart, Tom Dugan
- 1943: the sky can await (Heaven Can Wait) with Gene Tierney, Don Ameche, Charles Coburn
- 1945: Scandal at the court (Royal Scandal has) Co-realizer: Otto Preminger, with Tallulah Bankhead, Charles Coburn, Anne Baxter, William Eythe, Vincent Price
- 1946: Insane ingenuous the (Cluny Brown) with Jennifer Jones, Charles Boyer and Peter Lawford
- 1948: the Lady with the coat of hermine (That Lady in Ermine) Co-realizer: Otto Preminger with Betty Grable, Douglas Fairbanks, Cesar Romero
Also producing for the Twentieth Century Fox in 1946 of the the Castle of the Dragon ( Dragonwyck ) of Joseph L. Mankiewicz. it turned some scenes of Désir (Desired) , in 1936 realizer: Frank Borzage, with Marlene Dietrich, Gary Cooper
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