See also: England
The England is one of the four nations which compose the the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, it extends on a surface from 131760 km2, for a population of: 49140000 inhabitants, the official language is the English and the currency is the Pound sterling (£). The political system rests on a parliamentary monarchy.
The modern English nation was constituted starting from elements Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Norman and Scandinavian by a combination mixed with cultural assets. During the years of the important colonial power of Great Britain, people moved throughout the world leaving small but connect mark of the English culture in the various colonies as those had in their turn of the influence in England. It is one of the more hurdy-gurdy monarchy in the world, existing since 1066.
See also: History of England
The name “ England ”, which replaced that of Brittany , car its origin of the invasion between 5th and 7th centuries of the island of Brittany by the Anglo-Saxon which, after the withdrawal of the army and the administration of the Roman Empire, conquered the major part of the Great Britain. The Brittons (Celtic Brittonique S) were formerly the former inhabitants of the island of Brittany. They populated the totality of the country which became from England. They were established there since fifth century BC
Starting from the middle of the 5th century, the Germanic invaders Anglo-Saxon pushed back Breton south gradually and is towards the west of the island of Brittany while the Irish carried out raids on the west coast of Brittany (it is besides on this occasion that Saint Patrick, which was Breton, was captured by the Irishmen). The Irishmen ended up basing true principalities on the Welsh and Scottish coasts. If the first were finally crushed, the seconds gave rise to the Scotland by the fusion of Dal Riada with the British kingdoms of north. During this period on which the reliable sources are lacking (they are the “dark ages” or Dark Ages of English historiography), of the little romanized Breton populations established many Breton kingdoms in the island of Brittany, in particular in Wales and others migrated to Ireland. In the same way, there probably the main cause of a mass emigration is the Breton ones towards the Armorican peninsula, this one taking the name of Brittany then.
However, in spite of these defeats, part of the Breton, unconquered people by the English, succeeds in being maintained throughout the centuries, until our days, in Great Britain, in the Principality of the Wales and in Cornouailles. Until recently, one believed that the Anglo-Saxons had supplanted the Breton populations, or that the areas of Brittany occupied by the Anglo-Saxons were uninhabited, or although the Breton ones had escaped in front of their projection. Recent genetic studies are in disagreement with all these old historical beliefs, from now on obsolete, suggesting that the Anglo-Saxons established their political and cultural domination on the Breton ones and contracted mixed marriages with them.
Indeed, these genetic studies prove that the English did not eliminate the first Breton inhabitants and that many tribes remained in what was going to become England (C. Capelli and alii. a census of Y chromosomes of British Isles , Current Biology 13). The results of Capelli reinforce the search for Steven Bassett of the University of Birmingham; Its work during the Années 1990 suggests that most of the Western the Midlands only was very slightly colonized by the Angles and the Saxons.
Results of these research coincide with those of Pr Evans, and prove that major part of Breton are remained in what was going to become England and that they thus anglicized and mixed to the Anglo-Saxons (especially the girls and the women, captured in great number, moreover seems it, if one believes the researcher of it) and thus contributed to give to the English people its original aspect, much Celtic than Germanic.
Others, in particular the Cornouaillais and Combriens are connected with the Breton ones, from where a certain claim cornouaillaise not to be English but cornouaillais. A new group of English was influenced by the Scandinavian culture, in particular in the north of England. It is pronounced more with York, formerly under the Danish jurisdiction of Jorvik. These groups had an apparent impact on English, for example the modern significance of the word “dream” is of Scandinavian origin. Downtown more the place names which include the thwaite and are of origin Scandinavian.
The principal legacy left in England by the Breton language is located especially in the toponyms. Several of the place names in England and to a less degree in Scotland are derived from the Breton place names of origin, including London, Dumbarton, York, Dorchester, Dover and Colchester. One thinks that several of the elements of the place names English are in all or partly of Breton origin, in particular “bre”, “ball” for the hills, “carr” for a high rock place, “coomb” for a small deep valley.
See also: Kingdom of England
England - English England - it is the “ground of the Angles”. Initially parcelled out between the seven kingdoms of the Heptarchie: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercie, Northumbrie, Sussex, Wessex, etc Whose reunification was the fact of Edouard Old the, king de Wessex, assisted his/her sister Æthelflæd, queen of Mercie in the years 902 - 920: the East Anglia is conquered in 917, the kingdom of York in 918 but again lost in 919, Northumbrie in 918. And in 919 Mercie is annexed to Wessex.
The English Civil war (1135-1154) was spread in the territories of on the other side of the channel.
The Glorieuse Revolution of 1688 had confirmed Protestant monarchy in England.
England had a crown distinct from that of Scotland until in 1707. The monarchs of Scotland having been also monarchs of England starting from 1603, two monarchies were amalgamated in 1707 with the Acte of Union, and the queen Anne Stuart became the first queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
The modern English nation was constituted starting from elements Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Norman and Scandinavian by a combination mixed with cultural assets. During the years of the important colonial power of Great Britain, people moved throughout the world leaving small but connect mark of the English culture in the various colonies as those had in their turn of the influence in England.
See also: Geography of England
The law known as of 1746 had established that “England” would include/understand the Wales. But this law was reiterated in 1967 by the law known as and, since this date, legal “England” does not include/understand any more Wales. Legal England was established definitively in 1974 consequently of the effect of the law known as of 1972 which attached the town of Berwick to England and the county of Monmouthshire in Wales.
the English flag is the Red Cross of holy Georges (owner of England) on white zone.
the floral emblem is the pink red and white, known as Pink Tudor, symbolizing the end of the Guerre of the Pinks (1455 - 1485) between the houses of York and Lancaster with the victory of Henri Tudor (future Henri VII) over Richard III, at the time of the Bataille of Bosworth. In theory, one should always see represented the Tudor pink, but the flower is often of color red, such as for example on the shirt of the team of England of Rugby.
the armorial bearings of England are “of Gueules to three leopards of gold”, i.e. red with three yellow lions looking at the spectator. The origin of this blazon of kings d' Angleterre remains without final explanation: according to a disputed theory, it is about the union of the Héraldique of the Duché of Normandy (“of mouths with two gold leopards”) and of the Aquitaine (“of mouths to a gold leopard”).
See: Armorial of England.
Presentation of England
- England, art and history: Of William the Conqueror with Tony Blair by Jean-Pierre Wytteman, historian.
- France-diplomacy, presentation of the United Kingdom
Beats-smg: Onglėjė Be-X-old: Англія Nds-nl: Engelaand (regio) Roa-rup: Anglia Simple: England Zh-classical: 英格蘭 Zh-min-nan: Eng-tē
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