The elision is a type of Apocope, which is both of the phonetic Modifications arising with the Métaplasme S. It consists of the Amuïssement of the final Voyelle of a word in front of another word with initial vocalic (in other words, the obliteration of a vowel at the end of the word in front of the vowel beginning the following word); it is a possibility of resolution of the Hiatus (like the Liaison) and thus, for the blow, also a form of Synalèphe.
French elisionThe elision is obligatory in French for the Phonème/ǝ/(known as “'' E '' null and void” or “ E dumb”) at the end of the word in front of vowel; it then is sometimes noted in the orthography by an apostrophe. The elision is indeed represented graphically only for certain words, among which:
- the : the + Tree → the tree ;
- of : of + tree → of tree ;
- this (pronoun): this + was → it was , etc
In the majority of the cases, she is not written but quite marked: sings with me → chant' with me , you sing + with me → you chant' with me , they sing + with me → they chant' with me . In the poetic towards French, the elision of the “ E null and void” follows strict rules (described in the article on the worms), for reasons metric S, at the end of the word in front of vowel or the end of the worms:
- When you are quite old, at the evening, with the candle (Pierre de Ronsard)
- When you are well vieill', at the evening, with the chandell'
Other vowels can be concerned, like /i/ in if : if + it → if it . Elisions of other vowels that the E “null and void” rare and are always written, except in the spoken language, a register running: you are will be carried out, that one could transcribe are to you .
The elision thus makes it possible to avoid the Hiatus but it is not the only process available. In French always, the hiatus can also be eliminated by insertion from a euphonic consonant. For example, this , when it is determining becomes this (by imitation of female): this + tree → ce' you tree , or in gives T it .
DisjunctionCertain words begin with a vowel cannot be preceded by another elided word. One says in this case that there is disjunction. The most frequent French disjunctions are due to the presence of a '' H '' “aspired”, which prohibits any sequence between two words (Liaison or elision). For example, bean starts with such a H : one must thus say the bean /l ə aʁiko/and not *l' bean /la ʁiko/(in the familiar language, the H “aspired” is often omitted).
Others prevent the elision without starting with such a H : these are frequent and monosyllabic words which one wanted to preserve the identity: eleven , a (when it is numeral and not Article (grammar)), eight (but one makes the Liaison in the made up numbers: eighteen /diz ‿ ɥit/, twenty-eight /v ɛ̃t‿ɥit/). For example, one will say the French elevens , I count from one to three , gaining number: the eight ).
OrthographyThe apostrophizes is the typographical symbol suitable for the elision. Even if all the elisions are not marked by it, any apostrophe proceeds of the elision.
However, in some made up words, it is faulty. Presqu'île is correct, but the old C-Ws communication grand' mother , grand' street or the current C-W communication industrial tribunal are not justified. Indeed, there is étymologiquement no - E elided that the apostrophe would replace. Large in the made up words whose second term is female ( mother , street ) is old a female ( grant in Former French, written large later). Grandmother and main street is thus antiquated constructions which do not require the apostrophe. As for Industrial tribunal , it should be written either prud man or Prudhomme because it is a word made up of an antiquated form of valiant knight , namely prod , without E final (it is a masculine).
Creation of new words per elisionThe elision can be in the beginning new word resulting from a Agglutination then of a Métanalyse: Average French my + friendly → me friendly is interpreted in modern French granny , then reinterpreted by métanalyse in my + crumb .
In other languagesThe elision is not limited to French; many languages practice it, like Latin (without particular notation; the elision is discovered thanks to the Scansion of towards), the Greek (noted by an apostrophe), the Gaélique, the Italian (with written apostrophe), etc
Note that the apostrophe does not represent an elision systematically: that of English I' m “I am” is used to replace the vowel has amndt , fallen by Aphérèse, that in doesn' T (for does not ) being it by disappearance within a univerbés word group . None is a final vowel in front of initial vowel.
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