The elder trees , shrubs and herbaceous plants of the kind Sambucus , belonged to the family of the Caprifoliacées. Recent work into systematic now locates this kind in the Adoxacées.
The woody elder trees are shrubs with white flowers or of cream-coloured color which are transformed then into small bouquets of red, blue or black bays. These bays are very appreciated birds.
There exists in Europe three species of elder trees:
- Sambucus will nigra , the black Sureau , with black bays, is the most widespread species in Europe;
- Sambucus racemosa subsp. racemosa , under European and Asian species of Sambucus racemosa , with red bays;
- Sambucus ebulus , the Elder tree hièble , is the third species in the coldest parts of the Europe of the west. It is a rhizomateux herbaceous elder tree whose black bays are toxic.
In North America, one finds:
- Sambucus canadensis , the Elder tree of Canada to blue bays, the east;
- Sambucus glauca , the glaucous Elder tree also with blue bays, in the west;
- Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens (= Sambucus callicarpa ), North-American subspecies of Sambucus racemosa , with red bays are in the coldest parts of North America.
- Sambucus mexicana
In the food
As well the fruits as the flowers can be transformed into Vin of elder tree which is a traditional drink in the Scandinavian countries, in Sirop (Sirop of elder tree) or into Limonade (Limonade with the elder tree). The consumption of raw bays is not advised, because they are slightly toxic and can cause vomiting especially when they are immature. The Toxicité is destroyed during cooking. The Sambuca is in particular produced starting from the sureau.
A especially not to confuse!
- the black elder tree is a shrub of 2m with 5m top. The edible berries of the black elder tree are appeared as suspended umbrellas. Their taste is connected with blackberry or with the raisin.
- the elder tree hièble is herbaceous of 1m top which disappears in winter . The baies toxiques of the elder tree hièble is located at the top of the bouquets of sheets, in the shape of reversed umbrella.
For the therapeutic virtues
Properties: urinary elimination, facilitates digestion, as a food complement, the elder tree would allow the reduction of the effects of the Grippe according to a thesis of doctorate deposited by the Virologue free-Israeli Madeleine Mumcuoglu.
For the writingThe bays produce Encre whose color varies blue with purple according to the receipts.
To make ink, it is necessary to crush bays in water then to let them macerate during one day so that the fruits dégorgent.
During the maceration, to associate two sachets of The. The is rich in Tanin and this last fixes the couleurs.
very well To filter the decoction and to make it reduce by making it boil. To add reduced Alum out of powder and Gum arabic finely broyée.
To mix and start again to make reduce so that the liquid is very concentrated.
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