The Egypt (Masr, Misr,), officially the the Arab Republic of Egypt , is a country of Africa the North-East. The north-eastern part of the country consisted the peninsula of the the Sinai is however in Asia.
During nearly 3000 years, the valley of the the Nile lives to thrive one of the most brilliant civilizations of the history. After many invasions and various occupations, the country of the Pharaons fell definitively under Arab domination at the 7th century from our era. Its culture remains today still strongly marked by the Arab identity, whose president Nasser was one of most famous pioneers the.
Nowadays Moslem Egypt lies within an means-Eastern political scope, impregnated by its many conflicts with the State of Israel.
In addition to its contemporary monumental works such as the Suez Canal or the High stopping of Aswan, it remains universally known for its archaeological richnesses present in prestigious international museums. The disappearance of many files makes however that its history remains fragmentary, although the evolution of technologies enables us to better seize the size and the range of it.
The Arab Republic of Egypt is officially a democratic republic.
The executive power is held by the president of the Republic. Since 1981 Mohammed Hosni Mubarak occupies the position of president, re-elected at the time of referendums every six years. In 2005 the election for the presidency was for the first time open to other candidates. The legislative power belongs to the Parliament of the People (members elected for one five years duration by Vote for all). Finally a Consultative Assembly, called the Choura, is consulted by the president of the Republic and the Parliament of the People on the political decisions. This assembly is made up of 264 members of which two thirds are elected, and a third named by the president of the Republic.
Islam is the religion of State but freedoms of thought and of worships are officially assured.
Organizations defending the Human rights denounce infringements of the human rights.
The Excision is still largely widespread there although in December 1997, the Egyptian Court of appeal handed down a judgment in favor of a governmental prohibition of the MGF, in which it is stipulated that the contraveners expose themselves to criminal and administrative sanctions. There exists moreover a ministerial decree which prohibits these practices. In spite of these laws and decrees, the MGF still remain in very great majority in this country and would concern more than nine women out of ten.
Leaders since 1803
Egypt is divided into twenty-seven governorships ( muhafazat , singular - muhafazah ):
- Al Bahr Al Ahmar;
- Al Buhayrah;
- Al Fayyum;
- Al Gharbiyah;
- Al Iskandariyah;
- Al Isma' iliyah;
- Al Jizah;
- Al Minufiyah;
- Al Minya;
- Al Qahirah;
- Al Qalyubiyah;
- Al Uqsur;
- Al Wadi Al Jadid;
- Ash Sharqiyah ;
- Ace Suways;
- Aswan ;
- Asyut ;
- Banished Suwayf;
- Bur Sa'id ;
- Dimyat ;
- Janub Sina' ;
- Kafr ash Shaykh ;
- Matruh ;
- Qina ;
- Shamal Sina' ;
- Suhaj .
Egypt multiplies the extremes: Arab country more populated, 90% of its population lives in a fertile strip of land which skirts the Nile (24 km in its greater width close to Fayoum, on average 10 km, but can have only one hundred meters). The remainder of the territory is desert.
- In the south, the Nile runs up against a mountainous barrier; as it moves towards north, the landscape becomes increasingly flat and desert.
- In the north of Cairo, the valley is transformed into vast a delta of 200 km broad, similar to a large plunging fertile range in the Mediterranean.
- In the east of the valley is the Arabian desert, in the west the desert of Libya, punctuated arid plate of odd geological formations and luxuriant oases.
- In the east, across the Suez Canal, extends the peninsula from the the Sinai, extension of the Arabian desert, where the Mont Holy-Catherine culminates with: 2642 Mr.
In addition to the capital, Cairo, the Egyptian big cities are the following ones: Alexandria, Aswan, Assiout, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Gizeh, Hurghada, Mansourah, Louxor, Karnak, Kôm Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Saïd, Charm el-Cheikh, Shubra-El-Khema, Suez, Zagazig.
The climate of Egypt is exceptional and is summarized with two words: heat and dryness. The air is particularly dry and salubrious there, and only the Nile makes that completely the Saharan climate there is not found. In winter, the temperature is soft and the night frosts are exceptional. Put aside January, February and March, sometimes rather cold in north, the average temperatures border 20° on the Mediterranean coast (maximum 31°) and 28° in Assouan (maximum 50°!). In the desert, the extremes are of rigor - incandescent the day, icy the night.
Become appreciably wetter since the construction of the high stopping, the High-Egypt was unaware of practically the rain in Antiquity, so much so that this one appeared as one predicts, in general disastrous, with the eyes of its inhabitants.
The Delta of the Nile and especially the offshore bar know a less great dryness. During the winter, violent heavy showers transform the area into marshes, but these precipitations remain still rather rare (the average in Cairo east six days of rain per annum). Alexandria is the Egyptian city which receives the most precipitations, approximately 19 cm/an, while Assouan receives only approximately 10 mm every five years.
In spring rather often prevails the Khamsin, a dry, hot and very dusty wind, breath burning of the deserts of south-east. At the speed of 150 km/h, it tears off the sheets of the trees and gives to the sky an orange color dark; the air takes care of dust what makes breathing oppressive. During these fifty days (from where the name of this season), Egypt knows some violent ones storms, symbolized by the god Seth.
In summer, the temperature is high, but a regular breeze of north refreshes the atmosphere, so that this dry heat is more bearable than a wet heat.
This large sun, this heat dries were not without influencing manners of the former Egyptians: the need for clothing was hardly felt, but the wig was useful to be protected from the rays of the sun; the baths and the care of the toilet refreshed the skin, while the make-ups, the cosmetics, the perfumes protected the skin and the eyes of the solar reverberation, and masked the odor of perspiration.
It is as to collect some freshness as one built out of thick bricks, that one worked under the verandas, that easy people hid their residences in the greenery of the gardens.
Flora and fauna
If Egypt is to 94% desert, it does not shelter of them less various ecosystems which adapted to particularly hostile conditions: lotus, papyrus, Palm tree S, Tamaris, Acacia S, Jacaranda S, Poinciana S, Mangrove S…
Side fauna, one counts approximately four hundred and thirty species of birds and a hundred Mammifère S, with the number of which the Dromadaire S, the ass S and the Gazelle S… One counted before an extraordinary variety of large mammals (leopards, Oryx, Hyène S, Lynx of the desert…), destroyed today by hunting. Very with their ease, on the other hand, thirty-four species of Snake S, the scorpions and some Crocodile S live side of Aswan.
The country is in prey with great economic difficulties. Formerly (towards -400) primarily agrarian, the Egyptian economy tries from now on to diversify towards fields like the Tourisme or the Industrie. The principal economic partners of Egypt (in 2004) are the the United States, the European Union, and the Japan. The economic main resources of Egypt are the Pétrole, metals, tourism, and agriculture (especially the Coton).
Religious holidays vary according to the lunar Calendrier (Baîrams, Aïd to el-Kebir, Mouled el-Nabi). The Islamic calendar being shorter than the Gregorian calendar, religious holidays move back approximately eleven days every year. The Ramadan is respected, no matter what many Egyptians try to circumvent the rule of the fast by modifying their hours of day before. The abstinence and the lack of sleep make people sometimes irritable at this period. But the Ramadan is also a magic time to make meetings and to take part in the many festivals which begin with the rupture from the fast.
Aïd el-Fitr (small Baïram), three days festival marking the end of the Ramadan;
- Aïd to el-Kebir (large Baïram), which marks the period of the hadj, or pilgrimage with Mecque;
- January 1st: New year (banks only);
- January 7th: Christmas Copte;
- in January: marathon of Louxor and Guizeh; Spring celebrates;
- February 22nd: Day of the Unit;
- Sham in-Nessim (“scent of the breeze”), Egyptian festival of Pharaonic origin, first Monday after Passover copte, celebrated by all the Egyptians (Moslem and coptes);
- April 25th: birthday of the Sinai (restitution by Israel);
- May 1st: Labor Day;
- June 18th: Republic celebrates;
- July 23rd: National Festival, festival four days, birthday of the Revolution;
- October 6th: Celebrates Armed forces, fériée national day marking the victory gained over Israel in 1973;
- October 24th: Celebrates of Suez;
- October: Rally of the Pharaons;
- October and February: Cultural festival of Abou Simbel;
- November: commemoration of discovered Pharaonic tombs;
- December 23rd: Celebrates of the Victoire.
The Moulid, mixture of fair and religious holiday celebrate the birthday of a local saint and give place to a riot of color, of food, spectacles, blessings, public circumcisions.
Cultural events inhabitants of Cairo
Arab Festival of music (at the beginning of November),
- Fair of the book (January),
- International festival of film (at the beginning of December),
- Festival of experimental theater (September).
From the Napoleonean campaigns which brought beside task forces, of many engineers, historians, Egyptologists, linguists, lawyers and doctors, Egypt accommodated an important French community. Other foreign communities existed at the same time, Italian, Greek, Jew, etc… All in common had a “lingua franca” which was French. The Egyptian elite, then the middle-class, sent his/her children to learn French. The Napoleonean code was used as a basis for the modern Egyptian institutions. Until 1956, year of the crisis of the Suez Canal, the French language played a big role in Egypt, including under the British protectorate.
With the departure of the foreign communities of Egypt, French did not disappear therefore. On the international plan, Egypt was an active member within the French-speaking community. It is Egypt which imposed the French language in all the international treaties concerning the crisis of the Middle East. It is an Egyptian high-diplomat, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, former General secretary of the the United Nations, who was even General secretary of the International organization of the Francophonie.
The teaching of French
The essential characteristic of the bilingual landscape égypto-French is his diversity. The types of establishments are different statutes (experimental schools, colleges Al Horreya, schools of investment, denominational schools).
72 schools known as “bilingual” teach French reinforced (LV1) with: 45000 pupils. The courses are ensured by approximately 2000 teachers, of which about fifty French.
Element headlight of another side of bilingualism in Egypt, the French College of Cairo provides education for, as for him, more than 1600 pupils, among whom 47% are from French nationality and 32,5% Egyptians.
He is necessary to add them to it: 10000 additional pupils divided in the five other inhabitants of Cairo establishments, like in the college of Alexandria, the college of Port Saïd, small French schools of Charm el-Sheik, Ourghada and the many institutes and schools with French courses which pursue the same goal.
Lastly, like considerable component of the Egyptian educational French-speaking landscape, one evaluates to some 1,7 million the number of pupils, framed by approximately: 10000 teachers, who study French in second living language (LV2).
With regard to the Christian private schools, they accommodate today a majority of young Moslems. A contract signed with the Egyptian State ensures in theory a control of the teaching contents.
The majority of the Egyptians claim Islam, founded at the beginning of the 7th century by Mahomet and introduced in Egypt into 642. The prayer represents an essential part of the daily life of the believer, that the Muezzin (and maintaining the loudspeakers) calls five times per day top of the minarets. The supreme religious authority is the sheikh of Al-Azhar, whose role is to define the official line of Islam on the majority of the things.
The Coptes form the principal religious minority (15%), with a strong representation in the areas of High-Egypt (Blessed-suef, El-minya, Assiout, Sohag, Qena, Louxor). Before the arrival of Islam, Christianity was the prevalent religion in the country, one of the first to have embraced this new faith. Coptes are the resultant of a scission of the orthodoxe church of the East. Dedicated a long time to the monastic life, they constitute today a cultivated elite (whose most known representative is the former General secretary of the the United Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali) and a minority economically powerful. It is interdict for a Christian to marry a Moslem woman, but the reverse is possible, and the two communities cohabit about peacefully. However, Friday October 28th 2005, with Alexandria, of the thousands of Moslems were caught some with the copte-orthodoxe church Saint-Georges by throwing stones and while shouting of the insults antichrétiennes. The police force shot at crowd in anger making three died and 80 wounded.
The bahaïs, community of approximately: 10000 people, obtained the right, by the county court of Alexandria, to register their confession on their indentity card. This confession appeared in the middle of the 19th century with like first apostle Al-Mirza Ali Mohamed Al-Chirazi, born in 1844; Hussein Ali Nourri, born in Iran in 1810, is the true founder of the Bahaïsme which counts nearly six million bahaïs in the world, mainly in Iran.
Egypt has as codes:
EG, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- EG, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- EGY, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- EGY, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- EGY, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- AND, according to the Code list international of the number plates,
- HE, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- KNOWN, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
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