Edouard Joseph Louis Marie van Beneden , born with Leuwen the March 5th 1846 and died in Liege the April 28th 1910, is a zoologist and Belgian embryologist, discoverer of the Méiose.


His/her father, Pierre-Joseph van Beneden, was an eminent scientist, and its family believing, even if it forever was very influenced these choices of study. He thus could make brilliant studies, which he began by making a success of the tests of candidature for two universities of Leuwen: the natural science and sciences applied. After one short period of attraction for mathematics, it returned on the traces of his father while being interested in physiology, then with the zoology and finally with the embryology.

It kept a passion for the natural science, and helped even his father to carry out microscopic preparations. Having brilliantly made a success of its studies, it leaves in Germany in 1867 to supplement its formation, because it is interested more by the fundamental phenomena of the life than by the classification of the species.

the Origin of the species by the natural selection , published in 1859, divided the 19th century into two periods. First pre-darwinienne, and is dominated by the creationism of Linné and Cuvier, whose Pierre-Joseph van Beneden was the carry-flag in Belgium. The second period is post-darwinienne and Edouard Van Beneden became prestigious about it representing.

In 1868, the royal Académie of Belgium posed like question of contest: To make known the anatomical composition of egg in the various classes of the animal kingdom, its mode of development and the significance of the various parts which constitute it. It answers it by publishing a work titrated Recherche on the structure and the significance of the egg , which was rewarded by the Academy and was worth to him to be noticed by Theodore Schwan, then professor the university of Liege.

In 1870, it is named professor of zoology in this university, and thus has a small laboratory, which it divides with a professor of surgery. It is there that it will carry out its observations, with some pupils, and will discover in 1886 the Méiose, and in 1887 the existence of the Centrosome S.

It is to be specified that certain Boveri, researcher German with Munich, made the same discovery at the same time, and thus made it possible to confirm the theory of Edouard concerning the equal genetic contribution at the time of the reproduction and the centrosomes.

Van Beneden obtains with three recoveries the quinquennial price of sciences, in 1871,1887 and 1891.

In 1871, it is named extraordinary professor, and in 1874, he is ordinary professor for the courses of zoology, anatomy and physiology compared and finally of embryology. He refuses the vice-chancellorship twice.

In 1882, it has 36 years and wife Berthe Duquesne, a 24 year old Inhabitant of Brussels, of which it will have three girls. One of them will die of the diphteria. The same year, France decrees the price of Greenhouses to him.

In 1883, it publishes its analysis of fecundation at the ascaris, a parasitic worm of the horse. It showed that the Gamète S did not have that two Chromosome S. the two chromosomes of the male core united with the two chromosomes of the core female to form the new core of the Ovule fertilized, which becomes thus the Zygote, initial cell of a new individual. That contributed to reinforce the evolutionary theory.

Van Beneden dies one Thursday, April 28, in 1910, with old 64 years, of the continuations of a ascending paralysis of Landry. It is buried at the time of civil funeral, according to its will, with dimensions of other botanists and horticulturists, with the cemetery of Robermont, the piece 87-A-2.

He is honorary doctor of the universities of Iéna, Leipzig, Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh and Brussels. A quay bears its name to Liege. A price of 2500 € was founded in its honor for the 150 years of the royal Company of sciences of Liege. It rewards a researcher for less than 35 years in the discipline for biological sciences. This price accompanies four others by them, created at the same time: the price of Gold louis chemistry, the price of mathematics Lucien Godeaux and the price of physics pol. Swings.

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