See also: Edinburgh (homonymy)
Edinburgh ( Edinburgh in English, Dùn Èideann in Gaelic, Edinburrie in Scots, Latin Aneda in ) is a city of the east coast of the Scotland, and its capital since 1437. It is the seat of the Scottish Parlement, which was restored in 1999. Its population was of 448.624 inhabitants to the census of 2001 (it is the second town of Scotland behind Glasgow). Since 1329, Edinburgh has officially the statute of city.
The city is dominated by the castle whose foundations go back to the 7th century but it is as from the 11th century that this royal residence before becoming was built a frightening fortress at the 16th century. Edinburgh was freed in 1329 and was surrounded by walls at the 15th century. After the demolished of Flodden (1513) against the English, the middle-class men of the city decided to build with preventive measure one second baptized enclosure the wall of Flodden . After the unification of the Parliaments of Scotland and England (1707), the city lost of its political importance but remained an important economic and cultural center. In addition to the Castle, Edinburgh counts many interesting places like Royal Botanical garden, the cathedral St Gilles, the National Gallery, Charlotte Square, the Scott monument or the Royal Museum off Scotland. The Palais of Holyrood (Holyrood De luxe hotel) is the official residence of the queen when it remains in the city. The districts of the old city and the new city are classified World heritage by UNESCO since 1995.
Edinburgh is famous for its the festival, largest of the world, which lasts three weeks in August and proposes many spectacles of quality in all the disciplines.
The city accommodates one of the most prestigious universities of Europe and the world, the university of Edinburgh, pionnière in data processing and management. At Edinburgh is also located the national library of Scotland (National Library off Scotland) which is the most important library of Scotland (and one of largest of the United Kingdom).
See also: Chronology of Edinburgh
Origins of the name of the cityThe origin of the name of the city would come from the Brittonique DIN Eidyn (the fort of Eydin), the city not being whereas a fort at the top of a hill. Roman sources of, speak about the Votadini, like the Breton tribe reigning on the area (Brittany being the name of the Great Britain given by the Romains). This origin is confirmed by, the poem Y Gododdin, written with approximately of 600, which describes warriors extremely feasting in the large of Eidin .
After the seat of the Angles of Bernicie, the city becomes Edin-burh , which could come from the Anglo-Saxon Edwin' S strong (the fort of Edwin). This fort would draw itself its name from Edwin king of Northumbrie at the 7th century, but the possible appearance of the name before the existence even of the king would tend to contradict this thesis. The part burgh means fortress or group of buildings, and thus by extension city. This word is to be brought closer to German Burg , Latin parcus , the Greek pyrgos , etc One can make go up this word until the Chaldée N perach meaning growth, city being a group of buildings which grows since the ground. The proof of the existence of a city as a separate entity of the fort appears in a charter of the beginning of the 12th century, probably 1124. The king David Ier then grants grounds to the church of Holyrood of Edinburgh. That lets think that the city really started to develop between 1018 (when the king Malcolm II made safe the area of Lothians against the attacks of Northumbriens) and 1124.
The recipient of the charter is the Ecclisie Sancte Crucis Edwinesburgensi (Church Holy Cross of Latin Edinburgh), which could mean that those which wrote this charter thought that Edwin was the original source of the name of the city and would thus have decided to Latinize it. But another assumption is that the word would have changed during the 600 previous years to integrate a W into it. In all the cases, that went was to change quickly again; in 1170, King Guillaume the Lion uses Edenesburch in a charter (in Latin again) confirming the granting of ground by David I.
Documents of the 14th century mention the city under its current form. Although one finds sometimes the orthographies " Edynburgh" and " Edynburghe" , they are only of simple alternatives of the current orthography.
Other namesThe city is affectionately called Auld reekie , the smoked out old in Scots, because of the black smoke which escaped from the many chimneys, forming a cloud around the city.
It is also called the Athens of North for various reasons. The first similarity between these two east cities them Topography, the old city of Edinburgh playing the part of the Acropolis. The two cities have fertile arable lands going down towards a port located at several kilometers from those. If this provision is common for a certain number of cities of the south of Europe, it is on the other hand rather rare in north.
The 18th century, period of the Scottish Lights, played much in the attribution of this nickname. Figures headlights such as David Hume and Adam Smith made radiate the city in this time. Having lost of its political importance, some hoped that Edinburgh could one day compete with arts centres such as London, like Athens or Rome before. Another factor of resemblance is the neo-classic presence of Architecture, particularly that of the buildings of William Henry Playfair. But Athens name of north is discredited since a writer facetiously called Edinburgh the Reykjavik of the South .
Edinburgh was also known under the name of Dunedin , drifting of its name Gaelic Dùn Eideann . Dunedin, in New Zealand, was in the named beginning New-Edinburgh and is always called Edinburgh of the south.
The poets Robert Burns and Robert Fergusson call sometimes the " city; Edina" in their works. Ben Jonson describes it like " the other eye of Great Britain " ( Britain' S other eye ), and Sir Walter Scott calls it " Empress of Nord".
Some Écossais call the town of abstract way " Embra".
The centerThe historical center of Edinburgh is divided into two parts by the Gardens of Princes Street. In the south of these gardens is the old city (district of Old Town ), dominated by the castle, perched at the top of old a volcanic Crag. The major axis of the old city, the Royal Mile, follows stops it crag while slowly going down towards the Palais from Holyrood in the east. In the north of the gardens, the New city is (district of New Town ). These gardens are with the old site of marshes and the river Nor' Loch formerly being used as ditches with the castle.
In the west of the castle is the financial district, sheltering many banks and insurance companies. The construction which undoubtedly attracts more the eye is the circular building built out of sandstone and which shelters the International Center of Conference.
Old TownThe Topographie of the city is marked by the " crag and its tail " , which was formed during the glacial era when the Glacier S eroded the tender ground around a block of volcanic rocks harder. The hill which resulted from it was the oldest part of the city to be developed, while being first of all strengthened then while becoming the castle which one can see today. The city then extended while going down along the edge which leaves the castle. This site was easy to defend, surrounded by marshes in the south and a lake, the NOR Log in north. The access to the main road was barred by means of walls almost disappeared today.
The old city preserved its medieval aspect as well as many buildings dating from the Réforme. It is delimited on a side by the castle, from where the principal artery (the Royal Mile) goes down. Lanes (called closed or wynds ), and which start from Royal Mile go down on both sides from the hill. Broad places mark the site of the markets or surround the principal public buildings, as around the Cathédrale Saint Gilles or the law courts for example. The other places worthy of interest close relations of the Royal Mile are the Royal Museum off Scotland, the royal college of surgery, the university of Edinburgh… the design of the city, typical of old workings of much of cities of Northern Europe, is particularly picturesque in Edinburgh, because of its castle perched at the top of the crag.
The restrictions imposed by the lack of space due to the narrowness of the edge on which the old city is built did of Edinburgh one of the first cities to build genuine tower blocks. The multistage residences are the standard since the 16th century. With 18th, there was approximately 80 000 inhabitants in Old Town, and as the population was reticent for a long time to settle out of the walls of the city, the requirement in housing was done increasingly important and the buildings increased. However, much of those were destroyed in the large fire of 1824 and then rebuilt on the foundations of origin. But that caused changes on the level of the ground with the creation of many passages under the old city. Since, the population of Old Town did not decrease considerably, not reaching any more but 2000 to 4000 people according to the sources. There are currently 8.000 inhabitants in the old city.
New TownThe new city appeared at the 18th century as solution with the problems of overpopulation in the old city. Hitherto the city had developed on the downward hillside of the castle. In 1766, a contest, launched in order to trace the new city, was gained by James Craig, a 22 year old architect. Its idea was to create a plan ordered and rigid, which corresponded to the ideas of rationality of the time of the lights. The principal artery was George Street, who follows the natural peak to the north of the old city. On each side of George Street one finds two other arteries important: Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street became since the principal commercial street of Edinburgh and some buildings of Architecture géorgienne remain there. Connecting these three axes between them, a whole series of perpendicular streets were traced. In the east and the west of George Street, one finds respectively the places of St Andrew' S public garden and Charlotte public garden. The latter at summer drawn by Robert Adam and is regarded as one of the more good examples of Architecture géorgienne of Great Britain. The official residence of the Prime Minister of Scotland, Butts House, is visible on the northern side of Charlotte public garden. Between Old Town and New Town was Nor' Loch which was useful formerly, of water provision and discharge. It was drained in the years 1820. Certain plans show that a channel would have been considered, but one created in the place the gardens of Princes Street. The ground excess resulting from the construction of the buildings filled part of the small valley formed by the river, thus creating The Mound , which is the esplanade where are from now on the National Gallery off Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy. The tunnels leading to the very close station of Waverley, pass under Mound.
The success of the new city was such as it largely increased. The very structured plan was however not maintained and a more picturesque provision of the streets settled in the districts created thereafter.
The Topographie of the city offers several hills making it possible to have broad panoramas on Edinburgh and its surroundings.
In the south-east of the downtown area, Arthur' S seat dominates (the seat of Arthur or sometimes the seat of the archer ). It overhangs the Palais of Holyrood as well as the old city (Old Town) near. This Crag, is a whole of volcanic chimneys of the main thing Volcan on which Edinburgh is built. The volcano crumbled and rocked on the side, leaving these hills like the highest sites with kilometers with the round. Arthur' S seat is part from now on of the park of Holyrood , at the origin property of the monarch as a part of the Palais of Holyrood. It belongs to the sites of scientific interest as regards geology of the United Kingdom ( Site off special scientific interest , or SSSI in English). Arthur' S Seat and the park of Holyrood offer a panorama on all the area of Edinburgh as well as a place of relaxation particularly appreciated of the inhabitants of the city.
In the North-East, overhanging the downtown area, Calton Hill is. At its top various buildings are built, including two observatories, a tower in the memory of Horatio Nelson, Royal High School (which would have to shelter the Parliament at one time), and the National Monument, whose model is the Parthenon of Athens, but which remains unfinished. The nickname Athens of North given to Edinburgh comes inter alia this monument. Calton Hill accommodates the festivities of Beltane each May 1st.
Blackford Hill is the third and more in the south heights of the city.
LeithLeith is the wearing of Edinburgh. Leith is always regarded as a separate entity of Edinburgh, and its fusion with Edinburgh in 1920 at summer at the origin of a strong resentment. Still today the parliamentary seat is that of the district d'" Northern Edinburgh and Leith". With the development of Leith, Edinburgh attracted many maritime companies which offer from now on cruisings towards Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Leith accommodates the Royal Yacht Britannia (the old yacht of the queen from now on to the retirement), moored behind the great shopping mall of Final Ocean .
PopulationThe General Office of the Registers (General Register Office for Scotland) estimated the population of Edinburgh in 2005 at 457 830 inhabitants. An increase if one refers to the figures of the census of 2001 which established the population of Edinburgh with 448 624 inhabitants. The population would be divided between 218 008 men and 235 662 women. Whereas the population of Edinburgh ages, the broad proportion of young students in the universities of the city to some extent makes it possible to mitigate this demographic problem. The number of inhabitants of the city should grow in the twenty next years to reach 500 000 inhabitants from here 2024. Edinburgh has as one of the most qualified populations Europe, with more graduates of university per capita as any other European city.
ClimateThe time is very unforeseeable in Edinburgh. The sunny days of be sometimes quickly become wet and rainy or vice versa. The weather is generally nice during the summer, with soft Température S and sun, although there is often Brouillard the morning. The Hiver S are long and wet with many days of Givre. December, January and February are the most rainy months, but the remainder of the year is not saved since it rains on average 240 days per annum. On the other hand the Neige in winter is little attends.
EconomyEdinburgh was always one of the most prosperous cities of Great Britain. Since 1999 and the establishment of the Scottish Parliament in the city, Edinburgh has an economic good health thanks to the effects of this decentralization and with the increase in the recruitings due on arrival of governmental services which attracted a great number of companies. The Unemployment rate are among low of the United Kingdom (in the neighborhoods of 2,4%) and the rates of job creation among highest. The population of Edinburgh grows quickly, mainly thanks to immigration, mainly coming from the remainder of the the United Kingdom. This strong growth however brings a strong pressure on the green Ceinture, in particular in the west of the city where the development of companies and the dwellings is intense. The budget of the city for 2006 is of 847,7 million pounds sterling, while the annual expenditure represents surroundings billion pounds sterling. The budget of the city comes from gouvernment central to a total value of 55%, for 25% of the local taxes (Council Tax) and for 20% of the taxes on the companies.
The saving in Edinburgh is largely based on the sector of the service S, mainly around the Tourisme, of the finance departments, education and research in high technology. The Bank off Scotland (Bank of Scotland), founded in 1695 by an act of the Parliament and which is part from now on of group HBOS, preserved its seat at Edinburgh. The Royal Bank off Scotland (Royal Bank of Scotland) was it founded in 1747 and is from now on the 5th World Bank by Market cap. In 2005, she moved in her new seat in the west of the city. Edinburgh is the larger second centers financial of the United Kingdom after London and the fifth in Europe.
New Town and the center town traditionally always sheltered the head offices of many companies. However, with the modern needs, much moved. Immediately at the west of the downtown area the district of the purse ( Exchange business district ) is located, which accommodates from now on the seats of the companies employing a great number of people in the city such as Scottish Widows , Standard Life , Clydesdale Bank … Edinburgh Park is a park of activity in the west of the city, close to the airport. With the opening of the seat of the Royal Bank off Scotland, it is nearly 20 thousand people who work in the western suburbs of Edinburgh.
Nowadays the shopping malls are important. The St James Centers and the Princes Mall opened the way in the part is center town in the years 1970, then the Cameron Toll in the years 1980. More recently, of great shopping malls developed outside the center town and in the suburbs of the city, such as Final Ocean with Leith or Gyle close to Edinburgh Park .
The Brassage of the Bière is a traditional industry of the city. With the closing of the Fountainbridge brewery in 2005, the Caledonian Brewery is from now on largest Brasserie of Edinburgh. The brewery of Scottish and Newcatle also has its head office in Edinburgh.
The sector of the Tourisme is one of the principal supports of the economy of the city. Edinburgh is the principal destination of the tourists in Scotland and the second in the United Kingdom after London, and its importance grows a little more each year, supported by the growth of the airport of Edinburgh and a railway network connecting the city well to the remainder of the kingdom. The International festival of Edinburgh attracts each year a big number of visitors as well as the festival of Hogmanay at the New year. The festivals of Edinburgh of August alone generate an income of 135 million pounds sterling in the economy of the city.
Another element of the industry of tourism is tourism of businesses which is another major contributor with the economy of the city.
March 12th, 2004, Edinburgh was seen allotting the statute of Fairtrade City , for its engagement in the promotion of the Equitable trade.
PolicyAs a capital of the Scotland, Edinburgh shelters the seat of the Scottish Parliament, but also accommodates international tops such as tops of the heads of government of the the Commonwealth (in 1997) or of the tops of the Council of Europe.
With the national plan, the town of Edinburgh is represented at the same time with the Scottish Parlement and the Parlement of the United Kingdom.
With the Scottish Parliament, the city is represented by 6 members of the Scottish Parliament ( Members off the scottish Parliament , MSPs ) resulting from the districts of northern Edinburgh and Leith, Edinburgh center, Edinburgh is and Musselburgh, Edinburgh Pentlands, southern Edinburgh, western Edinburgh. Because of the mode of election of the members of the Parliament in Scotland, the area of Lothians to which belonged Edinburgh elects 9 representatives, whose 7 represent the only town of Edinburgh. Consequently, 13 MSPs (6+7) represent the town of Edinburgh.
With the House of Commons, the city is represented by the 5 districts of southern Edinburgh, western Edinburgh, south-western Edinburgh, northern Edinburgh and Leith, and Edinburgh is. With the redefinition of the districts in 2005, the head office of Edinburgh Pentlands became more largely that of south-western Edinburgh. Edinburgh centers was divided between the other districts. Of each district is resulting a member from the Parlement of the United Kingdom.
At the municipal level, there exists a City Council (equivalent of the Municipal council). The residents elect in their Circonscription S of the citizens of the city as advisers. These advisers represent the various districts and meet monthly to make decisions on the way in which the city must be managed.
The town of Edinburgh has 58 advisers who are elected for 4 years and which represent the inhabitants of Edinburgh. Currently, the distribution of the advisers is the following one:
- 29 advisers of the Workers party
- 13 advisers of the Conservative party
- 15 Democratic liberals
- 1 to advise Left National Scot
The next elections must be held in 2007.
The 58 advisers form the council of the city (city council), chaired by the Lord Provost Lesley Hinds (Workers party).
Higher educationThe university of Edinburgh was rested by a royal charter in 1583, and is thus the fourth older university of Scotland. The Old College built on South Bridge, date of the years 1820. But the institution continuing to grow of many pupils, of new buildings were built around George Square where the university remains; these expansions are always in hand in 2006.
The royal College of surgery ( Royal College off Suckers ) and the Royal College of medicine ( Royal College off Physicians ) were also created by royal charters, respectively in 1506 and 1681. Trustees Drawing Academy off Edinburgh was founded in 1760, before becoming in 1907 Edinburgh College off Art (school of art). Queen Margaret University, founded in 1875 as a school for girls is specialized today in the medical care, the media and the businesses.
In the years 1960, the university Heriot-Watt and Napier Technical College appear. The history of Heriot-Watt goes back to 1821, when a school of technical education for the working class was open. Heriot-Watt, located at Riccarton in the west of the city, has a solid reputation in the field of engineering. Napier College was famous Napier Polytechnic in the years 1980, and obtained the statute of university in 1992. The university Napier ( Napier University ) has from now on several campuses in the southern and western districts of the city. One finds other schools offering an higher education to Edinburgh. Those are inter alia, Telford College, open in 1968, Stevenson College, open in 1970. The Scottish School of agriculture ( Agricultural Scottish College ) also has a campus in the south of the city.
Secondary educationEdinburgh shelters prestigious Colleges, of which Royal High School, considered as oldest of the city, and Donaldson' S College, intended for the deaf children. Among private establishments, one can announce Edinburgh Academy, Fettes College, George Heriot' S (founded in 1628), George Watson' S College, Stewart' S Melville College and Merchiston Castle School.
Edinburgh is particularly famous for its festival of theater, operated, music and dance which takes place every summer in August and which gathers nearly a million people. But actually, a certain number of other festivals are held at the same time and do not count for little in the multitude which the city knows. It is in particular about the Fringe, festival of festive arts which attracts from now on more world than the original festival, festival of film, that of the book and Edinburgh Military Tattoo, great competition of military music.
MuseumsEdinburgh has three museums of great importance:
- the National Gallery off Scotland which gathers the most important collection of Scotland of sculptures and European paintings energy of the Rebirth to the Post-impressionism, with in particular of works of Gauguin, Cézanne, Monet, Velazquez, etc
- the royal Musée of Scotland which him specializes in geology, archeology, the natural history, science, technology and Article One finds there in particular the ewe Dolly, first mammal clone in the world.
- the Museum of Scotland which is a modern museum devoted to the history, the people and the culture of Scotland.
See also: Airport of Edinburgh
The airport of Edinburgh, located in the district of Turnhouse, with 8km in the west of the city, is the principal international main door of the city. The airport is managed BAA plc, which also manages the airports of Heathrow, of Gatwick, of Stansted (all three in the area of London), of Glasgow, Aberdeen and Southampton. The airport serves many national and international destinations and sees passing more than 8 million passengers per annum. The forecasts estimate that this figure could be 26 million from here 2030. A development plan to accompany the growth by the traffic was published in May 2005 indicating that the terminal of Edinburgh should be increased. The possibility of the creation of a third landing strip is being studied.
TramIn 2006, Edinburgh does not have a line of Tramway. As much of other towns of Great Britain, Edinburgh had a tram at the beginning of the 20th century, circulating until in the districts of Leith and Portobello. The service lasted until November 16th 1956. In 2004, two bills were presented in front of the Scottish Parlement. The two projects were approved in March/April 2006 and wait from now on to receive the royal agreement (probably during 2006), which should make it possible work to start in 2007. Edinburgh should inaugurate its network of tram in 2011, composed of 3 lines. They will connect the international airport being located at the west of the city, Princes Street in the center, the districts of Leith, Granton and Western Harbor.
BusEdinburgh has a broad network of drunk, serving all the districts of the city and its suburbs. In order to unchoke the downtown area of circulation, of many carparks to the periphery of the city are placed at the disposal of the motorists to incite them to take the bus.
The Lothian Buses is the principal company of bus of Edinburgh. It serves also certain parts of the East Lothian and the Midlothian. Lothian tubes is the only public company of bus of Scotland, held to 91% by the town of Edinburgh and the 9% remainder by the areas of the East Lothian, the Midlothian, and the West Lothian.
A shuttle makes it possible to connect the international airport to the center town.
TrainThe station of Waverley is the principal station of Edinburgh. Located in the downtown area, very close to the gardens of Princes Street, it is used by 13 million travellers per annum. It is the principal station on the East Coast Main Line between London and Aberdeen, and the starting point or the terminus of many lines in Scotland. GNER and the Virgin Trains serve the main roads from Edinburgh to London; the First ScotRail ensuring the connections in Scotland.
Edinburgh is equipped with limited an enough urban railway network. The Edinburgh Cross-country race-City Line traverses the city of is in west connecting the stations of Edinburgh Park to the west with those of Haymarket and Wayverley in the center and Brunstane and Newcraighall to the east.
RoadsThe A720 , also called Edinburgh City Bypass is one of the most important trunk roads of Scotland. Being used as Ring road, it surrounds the city only by the south, Edinburgh being located at the seaside. Leave A720:
- A1, which connects the city to the North-East of the England.
- A702, which goes towards the North-West of the England.
- A8 (driving in M9) in direction of Stirling and Forth Road Bridge.
- M8, on the basis of Edinburgh City Bypass and which is the road connecting Edinburgh to Glasgow (and until the Firth off Clyde). It is the most borrowed road of Scotland.
Edinburgh City Bypass is a 2x2 ways all length, and is equipped with hard shoulders.
SportsEdinburgh has two professional clubs of Football: Hibernians FC and Heart off Midlothian FC, commonly called Hibs and Hearts. These two clubs play in the Scottish First League: Hibernian with Easter Road Stadium, close to Leith and Hearts with Tynecastle Stadium in the district of Gorgie. One finds in Edinburgh of other clubs, not-professionals such as Spartans or Edinburgh City. Although Edinburgh is the capital, the team of Scotland of football plays Hampden Park with Glasgow.
The national team of Rugby is based with Murrayfield. The international matches are played in this stage, property of the Scottish Rugby Union. (Murraylfield is also used for various events like concerts). The professional team of Rugby of the Edinburgh Gunners plays in Celtic League at the stage of Murrayfield.
The Edinburgh Capitals are one of the largest teams of Hockey of the the United Kingdom. The club plays its home matches with the skating rink of Murrayfield. They are currently the only representatives Scot among the elite.
Edinburgh accommodated various international sports events, of which the Jeux of the British Commonwealth in 1970 and the Jeux of the Commonwealth in 1986. For the plays of 1970, the city made build installations with the Olympic standards of which the swimming pool (the Royal Commonwealth pool) and the stage of Meadowbank.
Annual eventsThe festival of Edinburgh is a whole of festivals taking place in each year in August in the city. Its various components are:
- International Edinburgh Festival - it is the original festival and `' official''. One finds there representations of traditional and contemporary theater, opera, music and dance.
- Edinburgh Festival Fringe. This festival in margin of the international festival is from now on more important and is the greatest festival of art of street of the world.
- Edinburgh Military Tattoo, a spectacle of military parades on the esplanade of the castle, with Kilt S, Bagpipe S and drums.
- Edinburgh International Film Festival (festival of film)
- Edinburgh International Book Festival (festival of the book)
- Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival
- Edinburgh International Television Festival
- Edinburgh Interactive Entertainment Festival
- Edinburgh People' S Festival
- Edinburgh Mixed
Hogmanay , is the festival of the New year in Edinburgh. The celebrations related to the passage to the New Year's Day take place of December 31st until January 2nd.
The festival of Beltane , every year at May 1st on the hill of Calton Hill.
- Alexander Graham Beautiful, regarded a long time as the inventor of the telephone, was born in Edinburgh
- Tony Blair, politician born in the city
- Arthur Conan Doyle, writer born in the city
- Sean Connery, actor, was born in the city
- James Connolly, born in the city
- David Hume, philosopher and historian
- John Knox, protesting, reformer of the Scottish Church
- Shirley Manson, singer of Garbage
- John Napier, mathematician, inventor of the logarithms.
- Ian Rankin, writer
- Joanne Kathleen Rowling, writer
- Walter Scott, writer, born in Edinburgh
- James Young Simpson, obstetrician, discovered the properties of the Chloroforme to fine anesthetic
- Adam Smith, philosopher who taught at the University
- Graeme Souness, footballer
- Robert Louis Stevenson, writer
- Marie Stuart, queen of Scotland resided at the Palais of Holyrood
- Irvine Welsh, author of Trainspotting
TwinningsEdinburgh is twinned with:
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